Document (#36497)

Author
Stollberg, M.
Title
Ontologiebasierte Wissensmodellierung : Verwendung als semantischer Grundbaustein des Semantic Web
Imprint
Berlin : Institut für Publizistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft
Year
2002
Pages
V, 99 S
Abstract
In Kapitel A werden die Grundlagen von Ontologien als Verfahren der Wissensmodellierung erarbeitet. Dazu wird zunächst die definitorische Erfassung von Ontologien erläutert. Zur Erlangung eines fundierten Verständnisses von Wissensmodellierung und der Besonderheiten ontologiebasierter Verfahren ist die Eingliederung dieser in den relevanten wissenschaftlichen Kontext erforderlich. Die in diesem Zusammenhang betrachtete Art der Wissensmodellierung dient vornehmlich als konzeptionelle Grundlage für die Erstellung wissensverarbeitender Computersysteme. Die Entwicklung derartiger Systeme ist das Hauptanliegen der Künstlichen Intelligenz, weshalb eine Positionierung ontologiebasierter Verfahren in derselben vorgenommen wird. Dabei sind vor allem jene Ansätze interessant, auf denen ontologiebasierte Verfahren aufbauen. Zunächst werden daher die grundlegenden theoretischen Aspekte der Wissensrepräsentation erläutert und anschließend daran die Bedeutung von Ontologien im Knowledge Engineering aufgezeigt, um den Verwendungskontext derartiger Verfahren der Wissensmodellierung zu verdeutlichen. Aufbauend darauf werden die spezifischen Eigenschaften ontologiebasierter Verfahren der Wissensmodellierung erörtert, wodurch ein grundlegendes Verständnis dieser Methodik erreicht werden soll.
Der in Kapitel B behandelte Schwerpunkt ist die Ontologie-Entwicklung. Nach der Erfassung der grundlegenden Charakteristika ontologiebasierter Wissensmodellierung stehen hier die Anforderungen bei der Erstellung einer Ontologie im Vordergrund. Dazu werden die wesentlichen diesbezüglichen Errungenschaften des sogenannten Ontology Engineering erörtert. Es werden zunächst methodologische Ansätze für den Entwicklungsprozess von Ontologien sowie für die einzelnen Aufgabengebiete entwickelter Techniken und Verfahren vorgestellt. Anschließend daran werden Design-Kriterien und ein Ansatz zur Meta-Modellierung besprochen, welche der Qualitätssicherung einer Ontologie dienen sollen. Diese Betrachtungen sollen eine Übersicht über den Erkenntnisstand des Ontology Engineering geben, womit ein wesentlicher Aspekt zur Nutzung ontologiebasierter Verfahren der Wissensmodellierung im Semantic Web abgedeckt wird. Als letzter Aspekt zur Erfassung der Charakteristika ontologiebasierter Wissensmodellierung wird in Kapitel C die Fragestellung bearbeitet, wie Ontologien in Informationssystemen eingesetzt werden können. Dazu werden zunächst die Verwendungsmöglichkeiten von Ontologien identifiziert. Dann werden Anwendungsgebiete von Ontologien vorgestellt, welche zum einen Beispiele für die aufgefundenen Einsatzmöglichkeiten darstellen und zum anderen im Hinblick auf die Untersuchung der Verwendung von Ontologien im Semantic Web grundlegende Aspekte desselben erörtern sollen. Im Anschluss daran werden die wesentlichen softwaretechnischen Herausforderungen besprochen, die sich durch die Verwendung von Ontologien in Informationssystemen ergeben. Damit wird die Erarbeitung der wesentlichen Charakteristika ontologiebasierter Verfahren der Wissensmodellierung als erstem Teil dieser Arbeit abgeschlossen.
Basierend auf diesen Abhandlungen wird in Kapitel D die Verwendung von Ontologien im Semantic Web behandelt. Dabei ist das Semantic Web nicht als computergestützte Lösung für ein konkretes Anwendungsgebiet zu verstehen, sondern - ähnlich wie existente Web-Technologien - als eine informationstechnische Infrastruktur zur Bereitstellung und Verknüpfung von Applikationen für verschiedene Anwendungsgebiete. Die technologischen Lösungen zur Umsetzung des Semantic Web befinden sich noch in der Entwicklungsphase. Daher werden zunächst die grundlegenden Ideen der Vision des Semantic Web genauer erläutert und das antizipierte Architekturmodell zur Realisierung derselben vorgestellt, wobei insbesondere die darin angestrebte Rolle von Ontologien herausgearbeitet wird. Anschließend daran wird die formale Darstellung von Ontologien durch web-kompatible Sprachen erörtert, wodurch die Verwendung von Ontologien im Semantic Web ermöglicht werden soll. In diesem Zusammenhang sollen ferner die Beweggründe für die Verwendung von Ontologien als bedeutungsdefinierende Konstrukte im Semantic Web verdeutlicht sowie die auftretenden Herausforderungen hinsichtlich der Handhabung von Ontologien aufgezeigt werden. Dazu werden als dritter Aspekt des Kapitels entsprechende Lösungsansätze des Ontologie-Managements diskutiert. Abschließend wird auf die Implikationen für konkrete Anwendungen der Semantic Web - Technologien eingegangen, die aus der Verwendung von Ontologien im Semantic Web resultieren. Zum Abschluss der Ausführungen werden die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zusammengefasst. Dabei soll auch eine kritische Betrachtung bezüglich der Notwendigkeit semantischer Web-Technologien sowie der Realisierbarkeit der Vision des Semantic Web vorgenommen werden.
Content
Magisterarbeit am Institut für Publizistik und Kommunikationswissenschaft, Arbeitsbereich Informationswissenschaft, Fachbereich Philosophie und Sozialwissenschaften, Freie Universität Berlin
Theme
Wissensrepräsentation

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  5. Botana Varela, J.: Unscharfe Wissensrepräsentationen bei der Implementation des Semantic Web (2004) 0.21
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