Document (#36607)

Author
Schmude, A.N.
Title
Ontologiebasierte Suche und Navigation in webbasierten Informationssystemen : am Beispiel Bürgerinformationsdienste
Imprint
Hamburg : Universität; Fachbereich Informatik
Year
2004
Pages
130 S
Abstract
Webbasierte Informationssysteme werden heute von einer Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Organisationen angeboten, mit ganz verschiedenen Zielsetzungen. Die technischen Herausforderungen bzgl. Datenhaltung, Pflege der Informationen und Anbindung an das Internet scheinen gelöst. Das Auffinden bestimmter Informationen stellt für viele Nutzer aber dennoch eine große Herausforderung dar. Das gilt für das WWW (WorldWide Web ) als Ganzes, wie auch für viele einzelne webbasierte Informationssysteme. Grund dafür sind im Wesentlichen die nach wie vor ungenügenden Benutzungs-schnittstellen. Heutig gängige webbasierte Informationssysteme bieten Nutzern meist neben einer Navigation die Möglichkeit, Informationen durch das Absenden einer Suchanfrage zu suchen. Beide Strategien, also die Suche und die Navigation, weisen jeweils eigene Probleme in der Umsetzung auf, die es verhindern, dass Nutzer die gewünschte Information einfach auffinden können. Oftmals werden Suchanfragen unspezifisch und allgemein gehalten vorgetragen. Wird eine solche Anfrage mit einer großen Zusammenstellung von Daten beantwortet, man denke nur an Suchergebnisse von Suchmaschinen mit tausenden Treffern, und damit tausenden von Nieten, kann sich schnell Frust einstellen. Aber auch heutige Navigationen sind nicht geeignet, es dem Nutzer so einfach wie möglich zu machen. Sie beschränken sich meist auf Begriffshierarchien. Der Informationsraum wird also in Ober- und Unterklassen gegliedert und die Informationsobjekte den Ebenen zugeordnet. Eine solche Aufteilung kann für den einen sinnvoll und verständlich sein, andere aber in die Irre führen. Zudem lassen sich Begriffe nur anhand zweier Beziehungen, nämlich Ober- und Unterbegriff, strukturieren. Begriffe und Konzepte vieler Themengebiete weisen aber weitere Beziehungen auf, wie "gehört zu", "arbeitet zusammen mit", "entwickelte" um nur ein paar Beispiele zu nennen. Semantische Netze bzw. Ontologien können eine solche Verknüpfung durch die Beschreibung ebendieser Beziehungen leisten. Die Ausgangsüberlegung dieser Arbeit ist es, die Strukturierung des Informationsraums mit Hilfe einer Ontologie vorzunehmen. Diese erweiterte Strukturierung soll sowohl für die Suche als auch für die Navigation genutzt werden, um die Auffindbarkeit von Information zu verbessern. Eine Suchfunktionalität müsste sich nicht mehr nur auf eine wortbasierte Suche verlassen, sondern könnte das Beziehungsgeflecht nutzen. Die Navigation wiederum könnte die Beziehungen explizit machen und dadurch Nutzern helfen, den Informationsraum zu verstehen und dadurch einfacher zielgerichtet zu der gewünschten Information zu navigieren. Als Untersuchungsgegenstand werden in dieser Arbeit Bürgerinformationssysteme betrachtet. Die Anwendungsdomäne webbasierte Bürgerinformation ist ausreichend komplex, um daran die oben angeführten Probleme untersuchen zu können. Heutige Bürgerinformationssysteme weisen, neben anderen Problemen, genau die oben beschriebenen Schwächen auf, wie sich zeigen wird.
Content
Vgl.: http://swt-www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/publications/papers/Dipl/Schmude_OntologiebasierteNavigation.pdf.
Theme
Wissensrepräsentation

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  5. Sarre, F.; Güntzer, U.; Myka, A.; Jüttner, G.: Maschinelles Lernen von Relationen für Thesauri und Hypertext (1992) 0.18
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