Document (#37019)

Author
Darnton, R.
Title
¬Die Bibliothek im Informationszeitalter : 6000 Jahre Schrift
Source
Deep Search: Politik des Suchens jenseits von Google; Deep Search-Konferenz, Wien, 2008.11.08; eine Veröffentlichung des World-Information Institute. Hrsg.: K. Becker u. F. Stalder
Imprint
Innsbruck : Studien-Verl.
Year
2009
Pages
S.37-52
Abstract
Information wächst explosionsartig, und die Informationstechnologie ändert sich so rasch, dass wir vor einem grundsätzlichen Problem stehen: Wie ist in dieser neuen Landschaft Orientierung möglich? Was wird etwa aus wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken angesichts technischer Wunderwerke wie Google? Wie verhält man sich sinnvoll? Ich habe auf diese Frage keine Antwort, aber ich schlage als Zugang zu dieser Frage einen Blick in die Geschichte der Informationsübermittlung vor. Stark vereinfacht könnte man sagen, dass es vier grundlegende informationstechnologische Veränderungen gegeben hat, seit die Menschen zu sprechen lernten. Irgendwann um 4000 v. Chr. haben die Menschen zu schreiben gelernt. Die ägyptischen Hieroglyphen gehen auf ca. 3200 v. Chr. zurück, die alphabetische Schrift auf ca. 1000 v. Chr. Wissenschaftlern wie Jack Goody zufolge war die Erfindung des Schreibens der wichtigste technische Durchbruch in der Geschichte der Menschheit. Sie transformierte die Beziehung der Menschen zur Vergangenheit und ebnete den Weg für das Aufkommen des Buchs als historische Macht. Die Geschichte des Buchs erfuhr einen weiteren technischen Umbruch, als kurz nach Beginn der christlichen Zeitrechnung der Kodex die Schriftrolle ersetzte. Im dritten Jahrhundert n. Chr. spielte der Kodex - also das Buch mit Seiten, die umgeblättert werden, im Gegensatz zur Schriftrolle, die ausgerollt wird - eine Schlüsselrolle in der Verbreitung des Christentums. Es veränderte die Erfahrung des Lesens von Grund auf: die Seite wurde zu einer Wahrnehmungseinheit, und die Leser konnten einen klar artikulierten Text durchblättern, der schließlich auch differenzierte (also durch Leerräume getrennte) Wörter, Absätze, Kapitel, Inhaltsverzeichnisse, Indizes und andere Leseerleichterungen enthielt.
Field
Kommunikationswissenschaften

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