Document (#37024)

Author
Stalder, F.
Mayer, C.
Title
¬Der zweite Index : Suchmaschinen, Personalisierung und Überwachung
Source
Deep Search: Politik des Suchens jenseits von Google; Deep Search-Konferenz, Wien, 2008.11.08; eine Veröffentlichung des World-Information Institute. Hrsg.: K. Becker u. F. Stalder
Imprint
Innsbruck : Studien-Verl.
Year
2009
Pages
S.112-131
Abstract
Googles Anspruch ist bekanntermaßen, "die auf der Welt vorhandene Information zu organisieren". Es ist aber unmöglich, die Information der Welt zu organisieren, ohne über ein operatives Modell der Welt zu verfügen. Am Höhepunkt der westlichen Kolonialmacht konnte Melvil(le) Dewey (1851-1931) einfach die viktorianische Weltsicht als Grundlage eines universalen Klassifikationssystems heranziehen, das zum Beispiel alle nicht-christlichen Religionen in eine einzige Kategorie zusammenfasste (Nr. 290 "Andere Religionen"). Ein derartig einseitiges Klassifizierungssystem kann, bei all seiner Nützlichkeit in Bibliotheken, in der multikulturellen Welt der globalen Kommunikation nicht funktionieren. Tatsächlich kann ein uniformes Klassifizierungssystem grundsätzlich nicht funktionieren, da es unmöglich ist, sich auf einen einzigen kulturellen Begriffsrahmen zu einigen, aufgrund dessen die Kategorien definiert werden könnten. Dies ist neben dem Problem der Skalierung der Grund, weshalb Internet-Verzeichnisse, wie sie von Yahoo! und dem Open Directory Project (demoz) eingeführt wurden, nach einer kurzen Zeit des Erfolgs zusammenbrachen. Suchmaschinen umgehen dieses Problem, indem sie die Ordnung der Ausgabe für jede Anfrage neu organisieren und die selbstreferenzielle Methode der Linkanalyse einsetzen, um die Hierarchie der Ergebnisse zu konstruieren (vgl. Katja Mayers Beitrag in diesem Band). Dieses Ranking hat den Anspruch, objektiv zu sein und die reale Topologie des Netzwerks zu spiegeln, die sich ungeplant aus den Verlinkungen, die durch die einzelnen Informationsproduzenten gesetzt werden, ergibt. Aufgrund ihrer Kenntnis dieser Topologie bevorzugen Suchmaschinen stark verlinkte Knoten gegenüber wenig verlinkten peripheren Seiten. Diese spezifische Art der Objektivität ist eines der Kernelemente von Suchmaschinen, denn sie ist problemlos skalierbar und genießt das Vertrauen der Nutzer.
Theme
Suchmaschinen

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