Document (#37025)

Author
Röhle, T.
Title
¬Die Demontage der Gatekeeper : relationale Perspektiven zur Macht der Suchmaschinen
Source
Deep Search: Politik des Suchens jenseits von Google; Deep Search-Konferenz, Wien, 2008.11.08; eine Veröffentlichung des World-Information Institute. Hrsg.: K. Becker u. F. Stalder
Imprint
Innsbruck : Studien-Verl.
Year
2009
Pages
S.133-149
Abstract
Das Aufkommen neuer Medientechnologien ist fast zwangsläufig mit Diskursen verbunden, die zwischen technischem und sozialem Determinismus oszillieren. Nach der utopischen Version dieser Sichtweisen wirkt sich die Technik positiv auf die soziale Dynamik aus, nach der dystopischen Version ist sie eine kolonisierende Macht, die das Verhalten von Individuen und Gruppen vor-strukturiert. Suchmaschinen bilden keine Ausnahme von dieser Regel: einst als ermächtigende Werkzeuge für die Navigation des Online-Raumes angekündigt, gelten sie mittlerweile als "böse" Manipulatoren und Datensammler. Angesichts der wichtigen Rolle, die Suchmaschinen in der Online-Umgebung spielen, sind die zunehmenden Bedenken über ihre Macht gewiss gerechtfertigt. Fraglich ist indessen, ob ein dystopischer Technik-Determinismus die richtigen Antworten auf diese Bedenken bereithält. Aufgrund ihrer Position zwischen den konfligierenden Interessen von Nutzern, Werbeunternehmen und Content-Produzenten stellen Suchmaschinen ein Gebiet von besonders dynamischen und ambivalenten Machtbeziehungen dar. Das deterministische Bild von Suchmaschinen als extrem mächtige Entitäten stellt eine drastische Reduktion der Komplexität dieser Beziehungen auf eine Reihe unidirektionaler Wirkungen dar. Um solche reduktionistischen Darstellungen zu vermeiden, sind tiefer gehende Überlegungen zur Macht selbst erforderlich. In diesem Beitrag wird eine relationale Perspektive der Macht vorgeschlagen, die von Schriften Michel Foucaults von jüngeren, auf die Akteur-Netzwerk-Theorie aufbauenden Ansätzen in den Wissenschafts- und Technikstudien ausgeht. Anstatt Suchmaschinen als stabile technische Artefakte zu behandeln, wird in dieser Analyse versucht darzustellen, welche Rolle die verschiedenen Akteure in der Verhandlung der Entwicklung von Suchmaschinen spielen.
Theme
Suchmaschinen
Field
Kommunikationswissenschaften

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