Document (#37174)

Author
Euzenat, J.
Bach, T.Le
Barrasa, J.
Bouquet, P.
Bo, J.De
Dieng, R.
Ehrig, M.
Hauswirth, M.
Jarrar, M.
Lara, R.
Maynard, D.
Napoli, A.
Stamou, G.
Stuckenschmidt, H.
Shvaiko, P.
Tessaris, S.
Acker, S. Van
Zaihrayeu, I.
Title
State of the art on ontology alignment
Source
http://disi.unitn.it/~p2p/.../Matching/kweb-223.pdf
Year
2004
Pages
79 S
Series
KWEB/2004/D2.2.3/v1.2
Abstract
In this document we provide an overall view of the state of the art in ontology alignment. It is organised as a description of the need for ontology alignment, a presentation of the techniques currently in use for ontology alignment and a presentation of existing systems. The state of the art is not restricted to any discipline and consider as some form of ontology alignment the work made on schema matching within the database area for instance. Heterogeneity problems on the semantic web can be solved, for some of them, by aligning heterogeneous ontologies. This is illustrated through a number of use cases of ontology alignment. Aligning ontologies consists of providing the corresponding entities in these ontologies. This process is precisely defined in deliverable D2.2.1. The current deliverable presents the many techniques currently used for implementing this process. These techniques are classified along the many features that can be found in ontologies (labels, structures, instances, semantics). They resort to many different disciplines such as statistics, machine learning or data analysis. The alignment itself is obtained by combining these techniques towards a particular goal (obtaining an alignment with particular features, optimising some criterion). Several combination techniques are also presented. Finally, these techniques have been experimented in various systems for ontology alignment or schema matching. Several such systems are presented briefly in the last section and characterized by the above techniques they rely on. The conclusion is that many techniques are available for achieving ontology alignment and many systems have been developed based on these techniques. However, few comparisons and few integration is actually provided by these implementations. This deliverable serves as a basis for considering further action along these two lines. It provide a first inventory of what should be evaluated and suggests what evaluation criterion can be used.
Content
This document is part of a research project funded by the IST Programme of the Commission of the European Communities as project number IST-2004-507482.
Theme
Semantische Interoperabilität

Similar documents (author)

  1. Stuckenschmidt, H.: Ontologien : Konzepte, Technologien und Anwendungen (2009) 2.12
    2.1176634 = sum of:
      2.1176634 = product of:
        4.235327 = sum of:
          4.235327 = weight(author_txt:stuckenschmidt in 1163) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            4.235327 = score(doc=1163,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7071068 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.073784165 = queryNorm
              5.989656 = fieldWeight in 1163, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1163)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  2. Fidler, B.; Acker, A.: Metadata, infrastructure, and computer-mediated communication in historical perspective (2017) 1.69
    1.6941307 = sum of:
      1.6941307 = product of:
        3.3882613 = sum of:
          3.3882613 = weight(author_txt:acker in 5347) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.3882613 = score(doc=5347,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7071068 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.073784165 = queryNorm
              4.7917247 = fieldWeight in 5347, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=5347)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  3. Mayernik, M.S.; Acker, A.: Tracing the traces : the critical role of metadata within networked communications (2018) 1.69
    1.6941307 = sum of:
      1.6941307 = product of:
        3.3882613 = sum of:
          3.3882613 = weight(author_txt:acker in 14) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.3882613 = score(doc=14,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7071068 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.073784165 = queryNorm
              4.7917247 = fieldWeight in 14, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=14)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  4. Van Acker, W.: Rethinking the architecture of the book : unbinding the spine of Paul Otlet's positivist encyclopaedism (2018) 1.69
    1.6941307 = sum of:
      1.6941307 = product of:
        3.3882613 = sum of:
          3.3882613 = weight(author_txt:acker in 378) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.3882613 = score(doc=378,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7071068 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.073784165 = queryNorm
              4.7917247 = fieldWeight in 378, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=378)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    
  5. Acker, W. van: Architectural metaphors of knowledge : the Mundaneum designs of Maurice Heymans, Paul Otlet, and Le Corbusier (2012) 1.69
    1.6941307 = sum of:
      1.6941307 = product of:
        3.3882613 = sum of:
          3.3882613 = weight(author_txt:acker in 1562) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.3882613 = score(doc=1562,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7071068 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.073784165 = queryNorm
              4.7917247 = fieldWeight in 1562, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.583449 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42740)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=1562)
        0.5 = coord(1/2)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Euzenat, J.; Shvaiko, P.: Ontology matching (2010) 0.47
    0.46662784 = sum of:
      0.46662784 = product of:
        0.8973613 = sum of:
          0.012721328 = weight(abstract_txt:particular in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.012721328 = score(doc=2169,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.052771837 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0815653 = boost
                4.4080057 = idf(docFreq=1414, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.24106282 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4080057 = idf(docFreq=1414, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.0220437 = weight(abstract_txt:presented in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0220437 = score(doc=2169,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.060426425 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1573509 = boost
                4.7168765 = idf(docFreq=1038, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.3648023 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.7168765 = idf(docFreq=1038, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.033564907 = weight(abstract_txt:currently in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.033564907 = score(doc=2169,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.07997622 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.331472 = boost
                5.426521 = idf(docFreq=510, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.41968605 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.426521 = idf(docFreq=510, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.11454613 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11454613 = score(doc=2169,freq=12.0), product of:
              0.09976399 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4870943 = boost
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              1.1481711 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                3.4641016 = tf(freq=12.0), with freq of:
                  12.0 = termFreq=12.0
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.0093772365 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0093772365 = score(doc=2169,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.04052317 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4985572 = boost
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.23140432 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.08024526 = weight(abstract_txt:schema in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08024526 = score(doc=2169,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.11349416 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5861285 = boost
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.70704305 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.028969426 = weight(abstract_txt:systems in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028969426 = score(doc=2169,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.06333349 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.67565 = boost
                3.414623 = idf(docFreq=3820, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.45741087 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                3.414623 = idf(docFreq=3820, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.025477491 = weight(abstract_txt:state in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025477491 = score(doc=2169,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.0959803 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7864394 = boost
                4.8538513 = idf(docFreq=905, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.265445 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.8538513 = idf(docFreq=905, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.04436648 = weight(abstract_txt:many in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04436648 = score(doc=2169,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.11420632 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5157454 = boost
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.38847655 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.017338116 = weight(abstract_txt:these in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.017338116 = score(doc=2169,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.098492816 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7643173 = boost
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.17603432 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.14785518 = weight(abstract_txt:ontologies in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14785518 = score(doc=2169,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.18774334 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8850203 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.7875389 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.1073028 = weight(abstract_txt:techniques in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1073028 = score(doc=2169,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.25031394 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.9968967 = boost
                4.525612 = idf(docFreq=1257, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.42867288 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.525612 = idf(docFreq=1257, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
          0.2535532 = weight(abstract_txt:ontology in 2169) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.2535532 = score(doc=2169,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.33889323 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.4816723 = boost
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.7481802 = fieldWeight in 2169, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=2169)
        0.52 = coord(13/25)
    
  2. Kiren, T.; Shoaib, M.: ¬A novel ontology matching approach using key concepts (2016) 0.37
    0.37238342 = sum of:
      0.37238342 = product of:
        1.1636982 = sum of:
          0.016251042 = weight(abstract_txt:process in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.016251042 = score(doc=4590,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.04511249 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.07558 = idf(docFreq=1972, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.36023378 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.07558 = idf(docFreq=1972, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.01274726 = weight(abstract_txt:some in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01274726 = score(doc=4590,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.055338528 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3564726 = boost
                3.6856086 = idf(docFreq=2913, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.23035054 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.6856086 = idf(docFreq=2913, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.10688747 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10688747 = score(doc=4590,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.09976399 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4870943 = boost
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              1.0714033 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.0061873714 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0061873714 = score(doc=4590,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04052317 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4985572 = boost
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.15268725 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.029274283 = weight(abstract_txt:many in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029274283 = score(doc=4590,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11420632 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5157454 = boost
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.25632805 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.16897735 = weight(abstract_txt:ontologies in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16897735 = score(doc=4590,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.18774334 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8850203 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.90004444 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.31299284 = weight(abstract_txt:ontology in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.31299284 = score(doc=4590,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.33889323 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.4816723 = boost
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.9235736 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
          0.51038057 = weight(abstract_txt:alignment in 4590) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.51038057 = score(doc=4590,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.7678836 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.225381 = boost
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.6646588 = fieldWeight in 4590, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4590)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  3. Fridman Noy, N.; Musen, M.A.: PROMPT: algorithm and tool for automated ontology merging and alignment 0.37
    0.3706982 = sum of:
      0.3706982 = product of:
        1.0297172 = sum of:
          0.011491223 = weight(abstract_txt:process in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.011491223 = score(doc=914,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04511249 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.07558 = idf(docFreq=1972, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.25472376 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.07558 = idf(docFreq=1972, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.01274726 = weight(abstract_txt:some in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01274726 = score(doc=914,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.055338528 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3564726 = boost
                3.6856086 = idf(docFreq=2913, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.23035054 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.6856086 = idf(docFreq=2913, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.0061873714 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0061873714 = score(doc=914,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04052317 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4985572 = boost
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.15268725 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.029117132 = weight(abstract_txt:state in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029117132 = score(doc=914,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.0959803 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7864394 = boost
                4.8538513 = idf(docFreq=905, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.3033657 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.8538513 = idf(docFreq=905, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.029274283 = weight(abstract_txt:many in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029274283 = score(doc=914,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11420632 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5157454 = boost
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.25632805 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.028022626 = weight(abstract_txt:these in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028022626 = score(doc=914,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.098492816 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7643173 = boost
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.28451443 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.13796942 = weight(abstract_txt:ontologies in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13796942 = score(doc=914,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.18774334 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8850203 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.7348832 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.26452726 = weight(abstract_txt:ontology in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.26452726 = score(doc=914,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.33889323 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.4816723 = boost
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.7805622 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
          0.51038057 = weight(abstract_txt:alignment in 914) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.51038057 = score(doc=914,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.7678836 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.225381 = boost
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.6646588 = fieldWeight in 914, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=914)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Klein, M.; Ding, Y.; Fensel, D.; Omelayenko, B.: Ontology management : storing, aligning and maintaining ontologies (2004) 0.34
    0.3402805 = sum of:
      0.3402805 = product of:
        0.94522357 = sum of:
          0.010051115 = weight(abstract_txt:several in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.010051115 = score(doc=1403,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.05644283 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1185515 = boost
                4.5587463 = idf(docFreq=1216, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.17807603 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.5587463 = idf(docFreq=1216, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.010072906 = weight(abstract_txt:features in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.010072906 = score(doc=1403,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.056524377 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1193593 = boost
                4.5620384 = idf(docFreq=1212, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.17820463 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.5620384 = idf(docFreq=1212, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.0054689157 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0054689157 = score(doc=1403,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.04052317 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4985572 = boost
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.13495775 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.016895311 = weight(abstract_txt:systems in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.016895311 = score(doc=1403,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.06333349 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.67565 = boost
                3.414623 = idf(docFreq=3820, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.2667674 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                3.414623 = idf(docFreq=3820, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.067913026 = weight(abstract_txt:aligning in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.067913026 = score(doc=1403,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20172884 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.114636 = boost
                8.618368 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.33665502 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.618368 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.017514141 = weight(abstract_txt:these in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.017514141 = score(doc=1403,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.098492816 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7643173 = boost
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.17782152 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.19281812 = weight(abstract_txt:ontologies in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19281812 = score(doc=1403,freq=20.0), product of:
              0.18774334 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.8850203 = boost
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              1.0270305 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                4.472136 = tf(freq=20.0), with freq of:
                  20.0 = termFreq=20.0
                5.8790655 = idf(docFreq=324, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.23381129 = weight(abstract_txt:ontology in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23381129 = score(doc=1403,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.33889323 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.4816723 = boost
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.6899261 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
          0.39067873 = weight(abstract_txt:alignment in 1403) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.39067873 = score(doc=1403,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.7678836 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.225381 = boost
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.5087734 = fieldWeight in 1403, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0390625 = fieldNorm(doc=1403)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  5. Gendt, M. van; Isaac, I.; Meij, L. van der; Schlobach, S.: Semantic Web techniques for multiple views on heterogeneous collections : a case study (2006) 0.30
    0.30068928 = sum of:
      0.30068928 = product of:
        0.939654 = sum of:
          0.04723803 = weight(abstract_txt:matching in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04723803 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09976399 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4870943 = boost
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.4734978 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.060772 = idf(docFreq=270, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.0077342144 = weight(abstract_txt:this in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0077342144 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.04052317 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4985572 = boost
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.19085906 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.442996 = idf(docFreq=10095, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.13582605 = weight(abstract_txt:aligning in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13582605 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20172884 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.114636 = boost
                8.618368 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.67331004 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.618368 = idf(docFreq=20, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.036592856 = weight(abstract_txt:many in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.036592856 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11420632 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.5157454 = boost
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.32041007 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.1012487 = idf(docFreq=1922, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.024768736 = weight(abstract_txt:these in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.024768736 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.098492816 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.7643173 = boost
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.2514776 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2189133 = idf(docFreq=4646, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.088501856 = weight(abstract_txt:techniques in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.088501856 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25031394 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.9968967 = boost
                4.525612 = idf(docFreq=1257, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.35356343 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.525612 = idf(docFreq=1257, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.14787523 = weight(abstract_txt:ontology in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14787523 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.33889323 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.4816723 = boost
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.43634754 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.5852485 = idf(docFreq=435, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
          0.45111695 = weight(abstract_txt:alignment in 4419) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.45111695 = score(doc=4419,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.7678836 = queryWeight, product of:
                9.225381 = boost
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.011068974 = queryNorm
              0.5874809 = fieldWeight in 4419, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.519756 = idf(docFreq=62, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4419)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)