Document (#37320)

Author
Haffner, A.
Title
Internationalisierung der GND durch das Semantic Web
Issue
Stand: 15. Juli 2012.
Source
http://www.kim-forum.org/Subsites/kim/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Berichte/internationalisierungDerGndDurchDasSemanticWeb.html
Imprint
Frankfurt : Kompetenzzentrum für interoperable Metadaten
Year
2012
Pages
21 S
Abstract
Seit Bestehen der Menschheit sammelt der Mensch Informationen, seit Bestehen des Internets stellt der Mensch Informationen ins Web, seit Bestehen des Semantic Webs sollen auch Maschinen in die Lage versetzt werden mit diesen Informationen umzugehen. Das Bibliothekswesen ist einer der Sammler. Seit Jahrhunderten werden Kataloge und Bibliografien sowie Inventarnachweise geführt. Mit der Aufgabe des Zettelkatalogs hin zum Onlinekatalog wurde es Benutzern plötzlich möglich in Beständen komfortabel zu suchen. Durch die Bereitstellung von Daten aus dem Bibliothekswesen im Semantic Web sollen nicht nur die eigenen Katalogsysteme Zugriff auf diese Informationen erhalten, sondern jede beliebige Anwendung, die auf das Web zugreifen kann. Darüber hinaus ist die Vorstellung, dass sich die im Web befindenden Daten - in sofern möglich - miteinander verlinken und zu einem gigantischen semantischen Netz werden, das als ein großer Datenpool verwendet werden kann. Die Voraussetzung hierfür ist wie beim Übergang zum Onlinekatalog die Aufbereitung der Daten in einem passenden Format. Normdaten dienen im Bibliothekswesen bereits dazu eine Vernetzung der unterschiedlichen Bestände zu erlauben. Bei der Erschließung eines Buches wird nicht bloß gesagt, dass jemand, der Thomas Mann heißt, der Autor ist - es wird eine Verknüpfung vom Katalogisat zu dem Thomas Mann erzeugt, der am 6. Juni 1875 in Lübeck geboren und am 12. August 1955 in Zürich verstorben ist. Der Vorteil von Normdateneintragungen ist, dass sie zum eindeutigen Nachweis der Verfasserschaft oder Mitwirkung an einem Werk beitragen. Auch stehen Normdateneintragungen bereits allen Bibliotheken für die Nachnutzung bereit - der Schritt ins Semantic Web wäre somit die Öffnung der Normdaten für alle denkbaren Nutzergruppen.
Die Gemeinsame Normdatei (GND) ist seit April 2012 die Datei, die die im deutschsprachigen Bibliothekswesen verwendeten Normdaten enthält. Folglich muss auf Basis dieser Daten eine Repräsentation für die Darstellung als Linked Data im Semantic Web etabliert werden. Neben der eigentlichen Bereitstellung von GND-Daten im Semantic Web sollen die Daten mit bereits als Linked Data vorhandenen Datenbeständen (DBpedia, VIAF etc.) verknüpft und nach Möglichkeit kompatibel sein, wodurch die GND einem internationalen und spartenübergreifenden Publikum zugänglich gemacht wird. Dieses Dokument dient vor allem zur Beschreibung, wie die GND-Linked-Data-Repräsentation entstand und dem Weg zur Spezifikation einer eignen Ontologie. Hierfür werden nach einer kurzen Einführung in die GND die Grundprinzipien und wichtigsten Standards für die Veröffentlichung von Linked Data im Semantic Web vorgestellt, um darauf aufbauend existierende Vokabulare und Ontologien des Bibliothekswesens betrachten zu können. Anschließend folgt ein Exkurs in das generelle Vorgehen für die Bereitstellung von Linked Data, wobei die so oft zitierte Open World Assumption kritisch hinterfragt und damit verbundene Probleme insbesondere in Hinsicht Interoperabilität und Nachnutzbarkeit aufgedeckt werden. Um Probleme der Interoperabilität zu vermeiden, wird den Empfehlungen der Library Linked Data Incubator Group [LLD11] gefolgt.
Im Kapitel Anwendungsprofile als Basis für die Ontologieentwicklung wird die Spezifikation von Dublin Core Anwendungsprofilen kritisch betrachtet, um auszumachen wann und in welcher Form sich ihre Verwendung bei dem Vorhaben Bereitstellung von Linked Data anbietet. In den nachfolgenden Abschnitten wird die GND-Ontologie, welche als Standard für die Serialisierung von GND-Daten im Semantic Web dient, samt Modellierungsentscheidungen näher vorgestellt. Dabei wird insbesondere der Technik des Vocabulary Alignment eine prominente Position eingeräumt, da darin ein entscheidender Mechanismus zur Steigerung der Interoperabilität und Nachnutzbarkeit gesehen wird. Auch wird sich mit der Verlinkung zu externen Datensets intensiv beschäftigt. Hierfür wurden ausgewählte Datenbestände hinsichtlich ihrer Qualität und Aktualität untersucht und Empfehlungen für die Implementierung innerhalb des GND-Datenbestandes gegeben. Abschließend werden eine Zusammenfassung und ein Ausblick auf weitere Schritte gegeben.
Content
Vgl. auch die GND-Modellierung unter: http://d-nb.info/standards/elementset/gnd#.
Theme
Normdateien
Semantische Interoperabilität
Object
GND

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  4. Hartmann, S.; Haffner, A.: Linked-RDA-Data in der Praxis (2010) 0.27
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  5. Göbel, R.: Semantic Web & Linked Data für professionelle Informationsangebote : Hoffnungsträger oder "alter Hut" - Eine Praxisbetrachtung für die Wirtschaftsinformationen (2010) 0.27
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