Document (#37541)

Author
Pepper, S.
Groenmo, G.O.
Title
Towards a general theory of scope
Source
http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/scope.htm
Year
2002
Abstract
This paper is concerned with the issue of scope in topic maps. Topic maps are a form of knowledge representation suitable for solving a number of complex problems in the area of information management, ranging from findability (navigation and querying) to knowledge management and enterprise application integration (EAI). The topic map paradigm has its roots in efforts to understand the essential semantics of back-of-book indexes in order that they might be captured in a form suitable for computer processing. Once understood, the model of a back-of-book index was generalised in order to cover the needs of digital information, and extended to encompass glossaries and thesauri, as well as indexes. The resulting core model, of typed topics, associations, and occurrences, has many similarities with the semantic networks developed by the artificial intelligence community for representing knowledge structures. One key requirement of topic maps from the earliest days was to be able to merge indexes from disparate origins. This requirement accounts for two further concepts that greatly enhance the power of topic maps: subject identity and scope. This paper concentrates on scope, but also includes a brief discussion of the feature known as the topic naming constraint, with which it is closely related. It is based on the authors' experience in creating topic maps (in particular, the Italian Opera Topic Map, and in implementing processing systems for topic maps (in particular, the Ontopia Topic Map Engine and Navigator.
Theme
Wissensrepräsentation
Object
Ontopia

Similar documents (content)

  1. Pepper, S.: Topic maps (2009) 0.32
    0.3210178 = sum of:
      0.3210178 = product of:
        1.1464921 = sum of:
          0.029587744 = weight(abstract_txt:management in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029587744 = score(doc=4150,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07428732 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0338391 = boost
                4.248405 = idf(docFreq=1642, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.39828795 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.248405 = idf(docFreq=1642, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
          0.12979575 = weight(abstract_txt:glossaries in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12979575 = score(doc=4150,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15800485 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0661439 = boost
                8.762313 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.8214668 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.762313 = idf(docFreq=17, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
          0.13510053 = weight(abstract_txt:findability in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13510053 = score(doc=4150,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16228117 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0804749 = boost
                8.8800955 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.8325089 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.8800955 = idf(docFreq=15, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
          0.04689989 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04689989 = score(doc=4150,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.080157585 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3152659 = boost
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.58509606 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
          0.10759923 = weight(abstract_txt:indexes in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10759923 = score(doc=4150,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20109902 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0832732 = boost
                5.7072635 = idf(docFreq=381, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.53505594 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.7072635 = idf(docFreq=381, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
          0.3346233 = weight(abstract_txt:maps in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3346233 = score(doc=4150,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.42845774 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.3004136 = boost
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.7809949 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
          0.3628857 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 4150) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3628857 = score(doc=4150,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.5362081 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.2107964 = boost
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.6767628 = fieldWeight in 4150, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4150)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  2. XML topic maps : creating and using topic maps for the Web (2003) 0.21
    0.21477556 = sum of:
      0.21477556 = product of:
        1.0738778 = sum of:
          0.01193905 = weight(abstract_txt:from in 1728) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.01193905 = score(doc=1728,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.048294894 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0209204 = boost
                2.796878 = idf(docFreq=7014, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.24721143 = fieldWeight in 1728, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.796878 = idf(docFreq=7014, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1728)
          0.029700126 = weight(abstract_txt:book in 1728) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029700126 = score(doc=1728,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09759026 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1849468 = boost
                4.869359 = idf(docFreq=882, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.30433494 = fieldWeight in 1728, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.869359 = idf(docFreq=882, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1728)
          0.018051775 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 1728) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018051775 = score(doc=1728,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.080157585 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3152659 = boost
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.22520357 = fieldWeight in 1728, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1728)
          0.47322884 = weight(abstract_txt:maps in 1728) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.47322884 = score(doc=1728,freq=9.0), product of:
              0.42845774 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.3004136 = boost
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              1.1044936 = fieldWeight in 1728, product of:
                3.0 = tf(freq=9.0), with freq of:
                  9.0 = termFreq=9.0
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1728)
          0.54095805 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 1728) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.54095805 = score(doc=1728,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.5362081 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.2107964 = boost
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              1.0088584 = fieldWeight in 1728, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1728)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  3. Pepper, S.: ¬The TAO of topic maps : finding the way in the age of infoglut (2002) 0.20
    0.19927649 = sum of:
      0.19927649 = product of:
        0.9963824 = sum of:
          0.010552729 = weight(abstract_txt:from in 1725) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.010552729 = score(doc=1725,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.048294894 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0209204 = boost
                2.796878 = idf(docFreq=7014, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.2185061 = fieldWeight in 1725, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.796878 = idf(docFreq=7014, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1725)
          0.034869492 = weight(abstract_txt:management in 1725) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.034869492 = score(doc=1725,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.07428732 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0338391 = boost
                4.248405 = idf(docFreq=1642, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.46938688 = fieldWeight in 1725, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.248405 = idf(docFreq=1642, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1725)
          0.031911332 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 1725) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.031911332 = score(doc=1725,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.080157585 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3152659 = boost
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.39810744 = fieldWeight in 1725, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1725)
          0.44090495 = weight(abstract_txt:maps in 1725) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.44090495 = score(doc=1725,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.42845774 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.3004136 = boost
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              1.0290512 = fieldWeight in 1725, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1725)
          0.47814393 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 1725) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.47814393 = score(doc=1725,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.5362081 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.2107964 = boost
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.8917134 = fieldWeight in 1725, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1725)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  4. Widhalm, R.; Mueck, T.A.: Merging topics in well-formed XML topic maps (2003) 0.20
    0.19897611 = sum of:
      0.19897611 = product of:
        0.99488056 = sum of:
          0.0903274 = weight(abstract_txt:constraint in 3187) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0903274 = score(doc=3187,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14011908 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0039897 = boost
                8.251487 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.6446474 = fieldWeight in 3187, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.251487 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3187)
          0.010552729 = weight(abstract_txt:from in 3187) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.010552729 = score(doc=3187,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.048294894 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0209204 = boost
                2.796878 = idf(docFreq=7014, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.2185061 = fieldWeight in 3187, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.796878 = idf(docFreq=7014, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3187)
          0.028696543 = weight(abstract_txt:order in 3187) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028696543 = score(doc=3187,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.082195364 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.087475 = boost
                4.4688134 = idf(docFreq=1317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.34912604 = fieldWeight in 3187, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4688134 = idf(docFreq=1317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3187)
          0.3415235 = weight(abstract_txt:maps in 3187) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.3415235 = score(doc=3187,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.42845774 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.3004136 = boost
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.7970996 = fieldWeight in 3187, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3187)
          0.5237804 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 3187) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.5237804 = score(doc=3187,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.5362081 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.2107964 = boost
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.97682303 = fieldWeight in 3187, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=3187)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  5. Wu, Y.; Bai, R.: ¬An event relationship model for knowledge organization and visualization (2017) 0.19
    0.19427289 = sum of:
      0.19427289 = product of:
        0.8094704 = sum of:
          0.09785549 = weight(abstract_txt:typed in 786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09785549 = score(doc=786,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.14779998 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0311404 = boost
                8.47463 = idf(docFreq=23, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.6620805 = fieldWeight in 786, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.47463 = idf(docFreq=23, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=786)
          0.02568496 = weight(abstract_txt:form in 786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02568496 = score(doc=786,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.076339066 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0480187 = boost
                4.306674 = idf(docFreq=1549, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.33645892 = fieldWeight in 786, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.306674 = idf(docFreq=1549, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=786)
          0.15416147 = weight(abstract_txt:ontopia in 786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15416147 = score(doc=786,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2001097 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1998161 = boost
                9.860925 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.7703847 = fieldWeight in 786, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.860925 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=786)
          0.03908324 = weight(abstract_txt:knowledge in 786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03908324 = score(doc=786,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.080157585 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3152659 = boost
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.48758003 = fieldWeight in 786, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                3.6032572 = idf(docFreq=3131, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=786)
          0.27885276 = weight(abstract_txt:maps in 786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.27885276 = score(doc=786,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.42845774 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.3004136 = boost
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.6508291 = fieldWeight in 786, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.8906326 = idf(docFreq=317, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=786)
          0.21383247 = weight(abstract_txt:topic in 786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21383247 = score(doc=786,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.5362081 = queryWeight, product of:
                6.2107964 = boost
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.016913591 = queryNorm
              0.39878634 = fieldWeight in 786, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.104465 = idf(docFreq=697, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=786)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)