Document (#37587)

Author
Moustafid, Y. El
Title
Semantic Web Techniken für E-Learning
Year
2003
Abstract
Die vorliegende Arbeit versucht, das Thema "Topic Maps" von verschiedenen Perspektiven zu betrachten. "Topic Maps" sind geordnete Wissensnetze. Sie stellen ein Hilfsmittel dar, um sich in der immer größer werdenden Informationsvielfalt zurechtzufinden und beim Navigieren trotz einer möglichen Informationsüberflutung die Übersicht zu behalten. Wie ein Stichwortverzeichnis in einem guten Fachbuch, helfen sie, die genau gesuchte Information zu finden. Die Tatsache, dass elektronische Informationen in größerem Umfang als die Seiten eines Buches vorliegen und auf heterogenen Plattformen gespeichert sind, zieht die Konsequenz mit sich, dass Topic Maps nicht nur aus einer Liste alphabetisch sortierter Stichworte bestehen. Vielmehr werden mit Hilfe von Topic Maps logische Konzepte entworfen, die Wissensnetze semantisch modellieren. In Zusammenhang mit Topic Maps spricht Tim Berner-Lee von der dritten Revolution des Internets. Die XTM-Arbeitsgruppe wirbt sogar mit dem Slogan "Das GPS des Web". So wie eine Landkarte eine schematische Sicht auf eine reale Landschaft ermöglicht und bestimmte Merkmale der Landschaft (z.B. Städte, Straßen, Flüsse) markiert, sind Topic Map in der Lage wichtige Merkmale eines Informationsbestandes festzuhalten und in Bezug zueinander zu setzen. So wie ein GPS-Empfänger die eigene Position auf der Karte feststellt, kann eine Topic Map die Orientierung in einer virtuellen Welt vernetzter Dokumente herstellen. Das klingt etwas exotisch, hat jedoch durchaus praktische und sehr weit gefächerte Anwendungen.
In dieser Arbeit wurde zuerst der Übergang von Suchmaschinen zu einem semantischen Web beschrieben. Im zweiten Kapitel wurden die Topic Maps ausführlicher behandelt. Angefangen bei der Geschichte von Topic Maps, über die Entwurfsziele bis hin zu einem XTM-Tutorial . In diesem Tutorial wurden verschiedene Beispiele durchgeführt und die Lineare Topic Map von Ontopia vorgestellt. Abschließend wurde anhand eines Beispiels eine mögliche Realisierung von Topic Maps mit HTML. Das dritte Kapitel wurde den TopicMaps-Tools und Anfragesprachen gewidmet. Es wurden kommerzielle sowie freiverfügbare Tools vorgestellt und miteinander verglichen. Danach wurden die beiden Anfragesprachen Tolog und TMQL eingeführt. Im vierten Kapitel wurden die beiden Einsatzgebiete von Topic Maps behandelt. Das sind zum einen die Webkataloge und die Suchmaschinen. Zum anderen ist es möglich, auch im Rahmen vom E-Learning von dem Konzept der Topic Maps zu profitieren. In diesem Zusammenhang wurde erst der Omnigator von Ontopia vorgestellt. Dann wurde das im Laufe dieser Arbeit entwickelte Topic Maps Tool E-Learning -Tracker ausgeführt und erklärt.
Im fünften Kapitel wurden die neuen Suchmaschinen, die ausschließlich auf dem Konzept der Topic Maps basieren und diese Technik auch tatsächlich verwenden, angesprochen und mit Beispielanfragen erläutert. In dieser Diplomarbeit wurden wegen dem großen Einsatzpotential von Topic Maps, viele Gebiete angesprochen, angefangen bei den Webkatalogen über Suchmaschinen bis hin zum E-Learning. Mit XML Topic Maps gibt man den Beziehungen zwischen den verschiedenen Topics die Chance sich auszuzeichnen. Damit erreicht die Suche eine neue, bis dahin unmögliche Qualität. Mit einer Topic Map lassen sich beispielsweise die klassischen Navigationselemente technischer Dokumentation (Inhalt, Index, Glossar etc.) in einheitlicher Weise beschreiben; eine andere Topic Map könnte die inhaltliche Vernetzung von Artikeln in einem Lexikon ausdrücken (z.B. Person A wurde geboren in Stadt B, B liegt in Land C, Oper D wurde komponiert von A, Person E war Zeitgenosse von A) und für "siehe auch"-Verweise sorgen (andere Werke dieses Komponisten, andere Städte in diesem Land etc.). Es klingt wie die Lösung aller Suchprobleme. Allerdings nur in der Theorie. Denn Tools, die in der Lage sind, das Wissen oder die Riesendaten in Topicmaps automatisch zu generieren, sind noch Mangelware, was die Ausbreitung von Topic Maps hemmt. Der Aufbau solcher Netze erfordert sehr viel Zeit und sehr viel "Handarbeit" - und damit auch viel Geld, was viele Firmen davon abhält Topic Maps zu benutzen.
Trotz alledem bleibt diese Technik keine graue Theorie. Denn obwohl es spürbare Schwierigkeiten auf dem Weg zur Popularität gibt, wird sie eines Tages das Web beherrschen. Microsoft hat sogar versucht, einige Leute und Entwickler von Topic Maps abzuwerben, was ihr missglückt ist. Dies ist als ein Hinweis zu verstehen, dass diese Technik Interesse bei einigen Herrschern in der Informatikindustrie.
Content
Diplomarbeit, Fachbereich Informatik, AG Integrierte Kommunikationssysteme der Universität Kaiserslautern
Theme
Wissensrepräsentation
Object
Topic maps

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