Document (#38009)

Author
Bornmann, L.
Mutz, R.
Daniel, H.-D.
Title
Multilevel-statistical reformulation of citation-based university rankings : the Leiden ranking 2011/2012
Source
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.8, S.1649-1658
Year
2013
Abstract
Since the 1990s, with the heightened competition and the strong growth of the international higher education market, an increasing number of rankings have been created that measure the scientific performance of an institution based on data. The Leiden Ranking 2011/2012 (LR) was published early in 2012. Starting from Goldstein and Spiegelhalter's (1996) recommendations for conducting quantitative comparisons among institutions, in this study we undertook a reformulation of the LR by means of multilevel regression models. First, with our models we replicated the ranking results; second, the reanalysis of the LR data showed that only 5% of the PPtop10% total variation is attributable to differences between universities. Beyond that, about 80% of the variation between universities can be explained by differences among countries. If covariates are included in the model the differences among most of the universities become meaningless. Our findings have implications for conducting university rankings in general and for the LR in particular. For example, with Goldstein-adjusted confidence intervals, it is possible to interpret the significance of differences among universities meaningfully: Rank differences among universities should be interpreted as meaningful only if their confidence intervals do not overlap.

Similar documents (author)

  1. Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.; Daniel, H.-D.: Are there better indices for evaluation purposes than the h index? : a comparison of nine different variants of the h index using data from biomedicine (2008) 5.40
    5.403391 = sum of:
      5.403391 = sum of:
        1.3077836 = weight(author_txt:bornmann in 2788) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.3077836 = score(doc=2788,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.4629908 = queryWeight, product of:
              7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            2.824643 = fieldWeight in 2788, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2788)
        1.6645225 = weight(author_txt:daniel in 2788) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.6645225 = score(doc=2788,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.5437612 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.0837221 = boost
              8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            3.061128 = fieldWeight in 2788, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2788)
        2.4310844 = weight(author_txt:mutz in 2788) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.4310844 = score(doc=2788,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.69997376 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.2295741 = boost
              9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            3.4731078 = fieldWeight in 2788, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=2788)
    
  2. Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.; Daniel, H.D.: Do we need the h index and its variants in addition to standard bibliometric measures? (2009) 5.40
    5.403391 = sum of:
      5.403391 = sum of:
        1.3077836 = weight(author_txt:bornmann in 4041) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.3077836 = score(doc=4041,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.4629908 = queryWeight, product of:
              7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            2.824643 = fieldWeight in 4041, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=4041)
        1.6645225 = weight(author_txt:daniel in 4041) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.6645225 = score(doc=4041,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.5437612 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.0837221 = boost
              8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            3.061128 = fieldWeight in 4041, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=4041)
        2.4310844 = weight(author_txt:mutz in 4041) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.4310844 = score(doc=4041,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.69997376 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.2295741 = boost
              9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            3.4731078 = fieldWeight in 4041, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=4041)
    
  3. Mutz, R.; Bornmann, L.; Daniel, H.-D.: Testing for the fairness and predictive validity of research funding decisions : a multilevel multiple imputation for missing data approach using ex-ante and ex-post peer evaluation data from the Austrian science fund (2015) 5.40
    5.403391 = sum of:
      5.403391 = sum of:
        1.3077836 = weight(author_txt:bornmann in 3271) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.3077836 = score(doc=3271,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.4629908 = queryWeight, product of:
              7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            2.824643 = fieldWeight in 3271, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=3271)
        1.6645225 = weight(author_txt:daniel in 3271) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          1.6645225 = score(doc=3271,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.5437612 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.0837221 = boost
              8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            3.061128 = fieldWeight in 3271, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=3271)
        2.4310844 = weight(author_txt:mutz in 3271) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
          2.4310844 = score(doc=3271,freq=1.0), product of:
            0.69997376 = queryWeight, product of:
              1.2295741 = boost
              9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
              0.061466724 = queryNorm
            3.4731078 = fieldWeight in 3271, product of:
              1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                1.0 = termFreq=1.0
              9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
              0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=3271)
    
  4. Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.: From P100 to P100' : a new citation-rank approach (2014) 3.32
    3.3234382 = sum of:
      3.3234382 = product of:
        4.985157 = sum of:
          1.7437115 = weight(author_txt:bornmann in 2432) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.7437115 = score(doc=2432,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4629908 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
                0.061466724 = queryNorm
              3.7661905 = fieldWeight in 2432, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=2432)
          3.2414458 = weight(author_txt:mutz in 2432) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.2414458 = score(doc=2432,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.69997376 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2295741 = boost
                9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
                0.061466724 = queryNorm
              4.6308103 = fieldWeight in 2432, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=2432)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    
  5. Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.: Growth rates of modern science : a bibliometric analysis based on the number of publications and cited references (2015) 3.32
    3.3234382 = sum of:
      3.3234382 = product of:
        4.985157 = sum of:
          1.7437115 = weight(author_txt:bornmann in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            1.7437115 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4629908 = queryWeight, product of:
                7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
                0.061466724 = queryNorm
              3.7661905 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                7.532381 = idf(docFreq=61, maxDocs=42596)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          3.2414458 = weight(author_txt:mutz in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            3.2414458 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.69997376 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2295741 = boost
                9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
                0.061466724 = queryNorm
              4.6308103 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.2616205 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42596)
                0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
        0.6666667 = coord(2/3)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Waltman, L.; Calero-Medina, C.; Kosten, J.; Noyons, E.C.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Eck, N.J. van; Leeuwen, T.N. van; Raan, A.F.J. van; Visser, M.S.; Wouters, P.: ¬The Leiden ranking 2011/2012 : data collection, indicators, and interpretation (2012) 0.47
    0.47055647 = sum of:
      0.47055647 = product of:
        1.470489 = sum of:
          0.025527205 = weight(abstract_txt:university in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025527205 = score(doc=1515,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.067929246 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1214992 = boost
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.3757911 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.14922257 = weight(abstract_txt:2011 in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14922257 = score(doc=1515,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.17495818 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7998557 = boost
                6.8232336 = idf(docFreq=125, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.8529042 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.8232336 = idf(docFreq=125, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.25551385 = weight(abstract_txt:leiden in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.25551385 = score(doc=1515,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.25041148 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.153266 = boost
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              1.020376 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.21437348 = weight(abstract_txt:ranking in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21437348 = score(doc=1515,freq=12.0), product of:
              0.1767999 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.215936 = boost
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              1.2125205 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                3.4641016 = tf(freq=12.0), with freq of:
                  12.0 = termFreq=12.0
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.14775564 = weight(abstract_txt:intervals in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14775564 = score(doc=1515,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.27590567 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2602208 = boost
                8.568473 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.53552955 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.568473 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.19731738 = weight(abstract_txt:rankings in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19731738 = score(doc=1515,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.2655613 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.715805 = boost
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.74302006 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.24325472 = weight(abstract_txt:2012 in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.24325472 = score(doc=1515,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.277406 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.77571 = boost
                7.015125 = idf(docFreq=103, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.8768906 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                7.015125 = idf(docFreq=103, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
          0.23752426 = weight(abstract_txt:universities in 1515) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23752426 = score(doc=1515,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.3562948 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.0611153 = boost
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.6666509 = fieldWeight in 1515, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1515)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  2. Leydesdorff, L.; Bornmann, L.; Mingers, J.: Statistical significance and effect sizes of differences among research universities at the level of nations and worldwide based on the Leiden rankings (2019) 0.31
    0.31023708 = sum of:
      0.31023708 = product of:
        1.1079895 = sum of:
          0.018050462 = weight(abstract_txt:university in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018050462 = score(doc=823,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.067929246 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1214992 = boost
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.26572445 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
          0.12775692 = weight(abstract_txt:leiden in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12775692 = score(doc=823,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25041148 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.153266 = boost
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.510188 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
          0.25592026 = weight(abstract_txt:intervals in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.25592026 = score(doc=823,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.27590567 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2602208 = boost
                8.568473 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.9275644 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                8.568473 = idf(docFreq=21, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
          0.11392124 = weight(abstract_txt:rankings in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11392124 = score(doc=823,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2655613 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.715805 = boost
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.42898282 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
          0.077992134 = weight(abstract_txt:among in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.077992134 = score(doc=823,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.19411919 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9976077 = boost
                4.5455594 = idf(docFreq=1228, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.40177447 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.5455594 = idf(docFreq=1228, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
          0.10294434 = weight(abstract_txt:differences in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10294434 = score(doc=823,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.23358032 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2882035 = boost
                4.9862175 = idf(docFreq=790, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.4407235 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.9862175 = idf(docFreq=790, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
          0.41140413 = weight(abstract_txt:universities in 823) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.41140413 = score(doc=823,freq=9.0), product of:
              0.3562948 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.0611153 = boost
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              1.1546733 = fieldWeight in 823, product of:
                3.0 = tf(freq=9.0), with freq of:
                  9.0 = termFreq=9.0
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=823)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  3. Perianes-Rodriguez, A.; Ruiz-Castillo, J.: University citation distributions (2016) 0.18
    0.17813201 = sum of:
      0.17813201 = product of:
        0.63618577 = sum of:
          0.04775703 = weight(abstract_txt:university in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04775703 = score(doc=4153,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.067929246 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1214992 = boost
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.7030408 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
          0.018135848 = weight(abstract_txt:only in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018135848 = score(doc=4153,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.0681433 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1232648 = boost
                4.2582846 = idf(docFreq=1637, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.2661428 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2582846 = idf(docFreq=1637, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
          0.12775692 = weight(abstract_txt:leiden in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12775692 = score(doc=4153,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25041148 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.153266 = boost
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.510188 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
          0.0618843 = weight(abstract_txt:ranking in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0618843 = score(doc=4153,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1767999 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.215936 = boost
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.35002452 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
          0.11392124 = weight(abstract_txt:rankings in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11392124 = score(doc=4153,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2655613 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.715805 = boost
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.42898282 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
          0.07279264 = weight(abstract_txt:differences in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07279264 = score(doc=4153,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.23358032 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2882035 = boost
                4.9862175 = idf(docFreq=790, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.3116386 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.9862175 = idf(docFreq=790, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
          0.19393775 = weight(abstract_txt:universities in 4153) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.19393775 = score(doc=4153,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.3562948 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.0611153 = boost
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.5443182 = fieldWeight in 4153, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4153)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  4. Leydesdorff, L.; Shin, J.C.: How to evaluate universities in terms of their relative citation impacts : fractional counting of citations and the normalization of differences among disciplines (2011) 0.18
    0.1779962 = sum of:
      0.1779962 = product of:
        0.88998103 = sum of:
          0.092826456 = weight(abstract_txt:ranking in 467) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.092826456 = score(doc=467,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1767999 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.215936 = boost
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.5250368 = fieldWeight in 467, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=467)
          0.17088185 = weight(abstract_txt:rankings in 467) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17088185 = score(doc=467,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2655613 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.715805 = boost
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.6434742 = fieldWeight in 467, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=467)
          0.116988204 = weight(abstract_txt:among in 467) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.116988204 = score(doc=467,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.19411919 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.9976077 = boost
                4.5455594 = idf(docFreq=1228, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.6026617 = fieldWeight in 467, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.5455594 = idf(docFreq=1228, maxDocs=42596)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=467)
          0.21837793 = weight(abstract_txt:differences in 467) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.21837793 = score(doc=467,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.23358032 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.2882035 = boost
                4.9862175 = idf(docFreq=790, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.9349158 = fieldWeight in 467, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.9862175 = idf(docFreq=790, maxDocs=42596)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=467)
          0.29090664 = weight(abstract_txt:universities in 467) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.29090664 = score(doc=467,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.3562948 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.0611153 = boost
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.8164773 = fieldWeight in 467, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=467)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  5. Mutz, R.; Daniel, H.-D.: What is behind the curtain of the Leiden Ranking? (2015) 0.12
    0.117352895 = sum of:
      0.117352895 = product of:
        0.58676445 = sum of:
          0.031264316 = weight(abstract_txt:university in 3172) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.031264316 = score(doc=3172,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.067929246 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1214992 = boost
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.46024823 = fieldWeight in 3172, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.251591 = idf(docFreq=1648, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3172)
          0.18067558 = weight(abstract_txt:leiden in 3172) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18067558 = score(doc=3172,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.25041148 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.153266 = boost
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.72151476 = fieldWeight in 3172, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.163008 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3172)
          0.1237686 = weight(abstract_txt:ranking in 3172) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1237686 = score(doc=3172,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.1767999 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.215936 = boost
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.70004904 = fieldWeight in 3172, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                5.6003923 = idf(docFreq=427, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3172)
          0.11392124 = weight(abstract_txt:rankings in 3172) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11392124 = score(doc=3172,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2655613 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.715805 = boost
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.42898282 = fieldWeight in 3172, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.863725 = idf(docFreq=120, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3172)
          0.1371347 = weight(abstract_txt:universities in 3172) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1371347 = score(doc=3172,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.3562948 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.0611153 = boost
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.01424644 = queryNorm
              0.3848911 = fieldWeight in 3172, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.1582575 = idf(docFreq=244, maxDocs=42596)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3172)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)