Document (#39941)

Author
Splendiani, B.
Ribera, M.
Title
Accessibility of graphics in STEM research articles : analysis and proposals for improvement
Source
Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.6, S.1507-1520
Year
2016
Abstract
Images convey essential information in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics communication. Current guidelines on publishing recommend making images accessible to all readers. However, academic publishers do not always follow these guidelines and therefore fail to guarantee access by all readers to the visual content of academic articles. People with severe visual impairments cannot access the visual content of images unless a text alternative describing the images is provided. This study investigates the current use of texts commonly related to images in academic articles, such as captions and mentions, in order to assess their suitability as potential text alternatives to the images for readers who are blind or have severe low vision. A sample of 30 academic articles in the fields of biomedicine, computer science, and mathematics was analyzed and quantitative and qualitative data were collected about images and their related texts. We suggest a practical and sustainable solution that can foster the adoption of good accessibility practices by authors and publishers and facilitate their inclusion in regular publishing workflows.
Content
Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23464/abstract.

Similar documents (content)

  1. Byerley, S.L.; Chambers, M.B.: Accessibility and usability of Web-based library databases for non-visual users (2002) 0.21
    0.20947944 = sum of:
      0.20947944 = product of:
        0.65462327 = sum of:
          0.07722206 = weight(abstract_txt:blind in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07722206 = score(doc=799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.1527416 = queryWeight, product of:
                8.089171 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.5055732 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.089171 = idf(docFreq=34, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.02181316 = weight(abstract_txt:content in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02181316 = score(doc=799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08284865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0415474 = boost
                4.212628 = idf(docFreq=1688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.26328924 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.212628 = idf(docFreq=1688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.0144597115 = weight(abstract_txt:their in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0144597115 = score(doc=799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.072101325 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1900182 = boost
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.2005471 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.07856501 = weight(abstract_txt:guidelines in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07856501 = score(doc=799,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.15450735 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4223646 = boost
                5.7528753 = idf(docFreq=361, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.50848716 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.7528753 = idf(docFreq=361, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.1964844 = weight(abstract_txt:accessibility in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1964844 = score(doc=799,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.2097499 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.657247 = boost
                6.7028775 = idf(docFreq=139, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.9367556 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                6.7028775 = idf(docFreq=139, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.078754775 = weight(abstract_txt:visual in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.078754775 = score(doc=799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.22319686 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0937557 = boost
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.35284895 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.0995028 = weight(abstract_txt:readers in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0995028 = score(doc=799,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2608517 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2634912 = boost
                6.103256 = idf(docFreq=254, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.3814535 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.103256 = idf(docFreq=254, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
          0.08782138 = weight(abstract_txt:academic in 799) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08782138 = score(doc=799,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.20967174 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3432643 = boost
                4.7387667 = idf(docFreq=997, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.41885176 = fieldWeight in 799, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.7387667 = idf(docFreq=997, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=799)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  2. Williams, T.R.: What's so different about visuals? (1993) 0.18
    0.17981577 = sum of:
      0.17981577 = product of:
        0.7492324 = sum of:
          0.04129141 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 1047) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04129141 = score(doc=1047,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.07679071 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0027454 = boost
                4.05569 = idf(docFreq=1975, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.5377136 = fieldWeight in 1047, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.05569 = idf(docFreq=1975, maxDocs=41962)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1047)
          0.118379235 = weight(abstract_txt:convey in 1047) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.118379235 = score(doc=1047,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15497176 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.007274 = boost
                8.148012 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.76387614 = fieldWeight in 1047, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.148012 = idf(docFreq=32, maxDocs=41962)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1047)
          0.030673679 = weight(abstract_txt:their in 1047) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.030673679 = score(doc=1047,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.072101325 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1900182 = boost
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.42542464 = fieldWeight in 1047, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1047)
          0.16706412 = weight(abstract_txt:visual in 1047) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16706412 = score(doc=1047,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.22319686 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0937557 = boost
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.74850565 = fieldWeight in 1047, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1047)
          0.1492542 = weight(abstract_txt:readers in 1047) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1492542 = score(doc=1047,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2608517 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2634912 = boost
                6.103256 = idf(docFreq=254, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.5721803 = fieldWeight in 1047, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.103256 = idf(docFreq=254, maxDocs=41962)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1047)
          0.24256974 = weight(abstract_txt:images in 1047) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.24256974 = score(doc=1047,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4782548 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.6816616 = boost
                5.410109 = idf(docFreq=509, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.50719774 = fieldWeight in 1047, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.410109 = idf(docFreq=509, maxDocs=41962)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1047)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  3. Rorissa, A.: User-generated descriptions of individual images versus labels of groups of images : a comparison using basic level theory (2008) 0.13
    0.13306789 = sum of:
      0.13306789 = product of:
        0.66533947 = sum of:
          0.038929913 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.038929913 = score(doc=4123,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.07679071 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0027454 = boost
                4.05569 = idf(docFreq=1975, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.5069612 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.05569 = idf(docFreq=1975, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.02181316 = weight(abstract_txt:content in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02181316 = score(doc=4123,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08284865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0415474 = boost
                4.212628 = idf(docFreq=1688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.26328924 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.212628 = idf(docFreq=1688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.0144597115 = weight(abstract_txt:their in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0144597115 = score(doc=4123,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.072101325 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1900182 = boost
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.2005471 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.078754775 = weight(abstract_txt:visual in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.078754775 = score(doc=4123,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.22319686 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0937557 = boost
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.35284895 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.5113819 = weight(abstract_txt:images in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.5113819 = score(doc=4123,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.4782548 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.6816616 = boost
                5.410109 = idf(docFreq=509, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              1.0692667 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                5.410109 = idf(docFreq=509, maxDocs=41962)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  4. Progress in visual information access and retrieval (1999) 0.13
    0.12528853 = sum of:
      0.12528853 = product of:
        0.44745904 = sum of:
          0.019042173 = weight(abstract_txt:text in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.019042173 = score(doc=1965,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.07679071 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0027454 = boost
                4.05569 = idf(docFreq=1975, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.24797495 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                4.05569 = idf(docFreq=1975, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
          0.019086514 = weight(abstract_txt:content in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.019086514 = score(doc=1965,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.08284865 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0415474 = boost
                4.212628 = idf(docFreq=1688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.23037809 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.212628 = idf(docFreq=1688, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
          0.0146489255 = weight(abstract_txt:current in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.0146489255 = score(doc=1965,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08750138 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0703943 = boost
                4.3293014 = idf(docFreq=1502, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.16741365 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.3293014 = idf(docFreq=1502, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
          0.00894649 = weight(abstract_txt:their in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.00894649 = score(doc=1965,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.072101325 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1900182 = boost
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.124082185 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
          0.15789364 = weight(abstract_txt:visual in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15789364 = score(doc=1965,freq=21.0), product of:
              0.22319686 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.0937557 = boost
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.70741874 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                4.582576 = tf(freq=21.0), with freq of:
                  21.0 = termFreq=21.0
                5.645583 = idf(docFreq=402, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
          0.040655706 = weight(abstract_txt:articles in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040655706 = score(doc=1965,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.21772186 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3878243 = boost
                4.82888 = idf(docFreq=911, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.1867323 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.82888 = idf(docFreq=911, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
          0.1871856 = weight(abstract_txt:images in 1965) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1871856 = score(doc=1965,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.4782548 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.6816616 = boost
                5.410109 = idf(docFreq=509, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.39139304 = fieldWeight in 1965, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                5.410109 = idf(docFreq=509, maxDocs=41962)
                0.02734375 = fieldNorm(doc=1965)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  5. Machovec, G.S.: Electronic journal market overview in 1997 : part 1 - the publishers (1997) 0.11
    0.11185737 = sum of:
      0.11185737 = product of:
        0.55928683 = sum of:
          0.047352478 = weight(abstract_txt:current in 1687) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.047352478 = score(doc=1687,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08750138 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0703943 = boost
                4.3293014 = idf(docFreq=1502, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.54116267 = fieldWeight in 1687, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.3293014 = idf(docFreq=1502, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1687)
          0.028919423 = weight(abstract_txt:their in 1687) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.028919423 = score(doc=1687,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.072101325 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1900182 = boost
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.4010942 = fieldWeight in 1687, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2087536 = idf(docFreq=4608, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1687)
          0.18307577 = weight(abstract_txt:publishers in 1687) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18307577 = score(doc=1687,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.17107911 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.4967003 = boost
                6.0535326 = idf(docFreq=267, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              1.0701234 = fieldWeight in 1687, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.0535326 = idf(docFreq=267, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1687)
          0.17574099 = weight(abstract_txt:accessibility in 1687) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17574099 = score(doc=1687,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.2097499 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.657247 = boost
                6.7028775 = idf(docFreq=139, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.8378597 = fieldWeight in 1687, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.7028775 = idf(docFreq=139, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1687)
          0.124198176 = weight(abstract_txt:academic in 1687) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.124198176 = score(doc=1687,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.20967174 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.3432643 = boost
                4.7387667 = idf(docFreq=997, maxDocs=41962)
                0.01888223 = queryNorm
              0.59234583 = fieldWeight in 1687, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.7387667 = idf(docFreq=997, maxDocs=41962)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=1687)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)