Document (#41172)

Author
Damasio, A.R.
Title
Descartes' Irrtum : Fühlen, Denken und das menschliche Gehirn
Issue
6. Aufl.; aus dem Englischen von Heiner Kober.
Imprint
München : dtv
Year
2001
Pages
384 S
Isbn
3-423-33029-5
Abstract
»Ich denke, also bin ich« - dieser Satz von Descartes ist wohl der berühmteste in der Geschichte der Philosophie. Ihm liegt die Vorstellung einer abgrundtiefen Trennung von Körper und Geist zugrunde, ein Dualismus, der im Denken der Menschen bis heute eine große Rolle spielt, auch wenn längst bekannt ist, daß die Tätigkeit des Geistes in direkter Beziehung zu den Aktivitäten des Gehirns steht. Die neuesten Ergebnisse der Forschung führen allerdings noch weit darüber hinaus. Sie bestätigen, was uns seit jeher der Alltag lehrt: Nicht Geist, Vernunft, Ratio allein machen den ganzen Menschen aus, sondern Geist und Gefühl. Und Geist und Gefühl sind mit den Funktionen des gesamten Organismus, nicht nur des Gehirns, aufs engste verknüpft. Ein Mensch, dessen emotionales und soziales Verhalten durch Hirnverletzungen gestört ist, vermag auch sogenannte rationale Entscheidungen nicht mehr zu treffen.
Angestoßen durch Forschungen an neurologischen Patienten, tritt der Neurobiologe Damasio an, das seit Decartes tradierte naturwissenschaftliche Axiom der Trennung von Körper und Geist, von Vernunft und Gefühl, wissenschaftlich zu widerlegen: Ein Mensch, dessen emotionales Verhalten durch Hirnverletzungen gestört ist, vermag auch sog. rationale Entscheidungen nicht mehr angemessen zu treffen. Diese Beobachtung an Betroffenen fundiert der Autor ausführlich und verdichtet sie in der generellen Erkenntnis, daß Vernunft und Gefühl nicht getrennt voneinander agieren, sondern daß sie untereinander vernetzt sind, ja, daß Gefühle und Empfindungen sogar unentbehrlich seien für rationales Verhalten. Eine Bestätigung dieser Erkenntnisse widerfährt Damasio durch die aktuelle Diskussion um die sogenannte emotionale Intelligenz.
Footnote
Original 1994 ("Descartes' error: Emotion, reason and the human brain"; erste deutsche Ausgabe: 1995 Paul List Verlag. - Rez. der Ausgabe von 1995 in: Spektrum der Wissenschaft 1997, H.5, S.124-125 (M. Lenzen).
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft
Psychologie
RSWK
Neuropsychologie
Gefühl / Vernunft / Neuropsychologie
Gefühl / Denken / Neuropsychologie
Gehirn / Empfindung / Vernunft / Beziehung
Schädel-Hirn-Trauma / Emotionales Verhalten / Störung / Entscheidungsfindung / Störung
Physiologische Psychologie
Empfindung / Gehirn / Vernunft / Beziehung (GBV)
Hirnforschung / Gehirn / Neurowissenschaften / Bewusstsein / Verhalten / Neurologie / Psychologie / Medizin / Emotion / Gefühle / Denken / Philosophie / Entscheidungsprozess (GBV)
Psychopathologie / Psychologische Anthropologie / Rationalismus / Vernunft / Vernunftkritik / Descartes, René (GBV)
Hirnforschung / Gehirn / Neurowissenschaften / Bewusstsein / Verhalten / Neurologie / Psychologie / Medizin / Emotion / Gefühle / Denken / Philosophie / Entscheidungsprozess / Psychopathologie / Psychologische Anthropologie / Rationalismus / Vernunft / Vernunftkritik / Descartes, René (GBV)
BK
77.50 (Psychophysiologie)
DDC
610
SBB
Psy B 1268 / Neuropsychologie
Psy B 168 / Gefühlspsychologie
Psy B 168 / Denkpsychologie
Phi C 91 / Vernunft
Med J 191 / Hirnverletzung
GHBS
HRC (E)
HRN (DU)
VYI (DU)
HRH (W)
LCC
QP401.D2
RVK
CF 3017
CP 3000
CZ 1000

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