Document (#41438)

Author
Koch, M.
Title
Bewusstsein ohne Gehirn : kann man den Geist eines Menschen auf eine Maschine übertragen?
Source
https://www.neues-deutschland.de/artikel/1100467.bewusstsein-ohne-gehirn.html
Year
2018
Abstract
Die Frage, in welchem Verhältnis Leib und Seele beziehungsweise Materie und Geist zueinanderstehen, beschäftigt Wissenschaftler und Philosophen schon seit Langem. Eine viel zitierte Antwort gab Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts der deutsch-schweizerische Naturforscher Carl Vogt. In seinen »Physiologischen Briefen« erklärte er, »dass all jene Fähigkeiten, die wir unter dem Namen Seelentätigkeiten begreifen, nur Funktionen der Gehirnsubstanz sind, oder, um mich einigermaßen grob auszudrücken, dass die Gedanken in demselben Verhältnis zu dem Gehirn stehen, wie die Galle zur Leber oder der Urin zu den Nieren«. Einer, der Vogt hier entschieden widersprach, war Wladimir I. Lenin. In seinem Buch »Materialismus und Empiriokritizismus« belegte er dessen Auffassung mit dem wenig schmeichelhaften Adjektiv »vulgärmaterialistisch«. Denn Empfindungen und davon abgeleitete Gedanken seien nicht materiell, sondern subjektive Abbilder der objektiven Welt, so Lenin. An einer Idee indes hielt er fest. Er beschrieb Geist und Bewusstsein als »höchste Produkte der in besonderer Weise organisierten Materie«, sprich des Gehirns.
Field
Kognitionswissenschaft

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