Document (#42037)

Author
Ruthven, I.
Title
¬The language of information need : differentiating conscious and formalized information needs
Source
Information processing and management. 56(2019) no.1, S.77-90
Year
2019
Abstract
Information need is a fundamental concept within Information Science. Robert Taylor's seminal contribution in 1968 was to propose a division of information needs into four levels: the visceral, conscious, formalized and compromised levels of information need. Taylor's contribution has provided much inspiration to Information Science research but this has largely remained at the discursive and conceptual level. In this paper, we present a novel empirical investigation of Taylor's information need classification. We analyse the linguistic differences between conscious and formalized needs using several hundred postings to four major Internet discussion groups. We show that descriptions of conscious needs are more emotional in tone, involve more sensory perception and contain different temporal dimensions than descriptions of formalized needs. We show that it is possible to differentiate levels of information need based on linguistic patterns and that the language used to express information needs can reflect an individual's understanding of their information problem. This has implications for the theory of information needs and practical implications for supporting moderators of online news groups in responding to information needs and for developing automated support for classifying information needs.
Content
Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2018.09.005.
Theme
Informationsdienstleistungen

Similar documents (author)

  1. Ruthven, R.: Interactive information retrieval (2008) 5.20
    5.2002997 = sum of:
      5.2002997 = weight(author_txt:ruthven in 2839) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2002997 = fieldWeight in 2839, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.320479 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=42306)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=2839)
    
  2. Ruthven, I.: Integrating approaches to relevance (2005) 5.20
    5.2002997 = sum of:
      5.2002997 = weight(author_txt:ruthven in 1764) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2002997 = fieldWeight in 1764, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.320479 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=42306)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=1764)
    
  3. Ruthven, I.: Relevance behaviour in TREC (2014) 5.20
    5.2002997 = sum of:
      5.2002997 = weight(author_txt:ruthven in 3786) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        5.2002997 = fieldWeight in 3786, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.320479 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=42306)
          0.625 = fieldNorm(doc=3786)
    
  4. Lalmas, M.; Ruthven, I.: ¬A model for structured document retrieval : empirical investigations (1997) 4.16
    4.1602397 = sum of:
      4.1602397 = weight(author_txt:ruthven in 1728) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.1602397 = fieldWeight in 1728, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.320479 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=42306)
          0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=1728)
    
  5. Lalmas, M.; Ruthven, I.: Representing and retrieving structured documents using the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence : modelling and evaluation (1998) 4.16
    4.1602397 = sum of:
      4.1602397 = weight(author_txt:ruthven in 2077) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.1602397 = fieldWeight in 2077, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          8.320479 = idf(docFreq=27, maxDocs=42306)
          0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=2077)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Taylor, R.S.: Question negotiation and information seeking in libraries (1968) 0.33
    0.32885695 = sum of:
      0.32885695 = product of:
        1.027678 = sum of:
          0.14460786 = weight(abstract_txt:compromised in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14460786 = score(doc=4695,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.1414231 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1546695 = boost
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              1.0225194 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.037102964 = weight(abstract_txt:four in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.037102964 = score(doc=4695,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.090646595 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3073392 = boost
                5.2392254 = idf(docFreq=609, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.40931448 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.2392254 = idf(docFreq=609, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.055970054 = weight(abstract_txt:levels in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.055970054 = score(doc=4695,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13648345 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9647086 = boost
                5.24911 = idf(docFreq=603, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.41008675 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.24911 = idf(docFreq=603, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.067817144 = weight(abstract_txt:need in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.067817144 = score(doc=4695,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.14597397 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6231327 = boost
                4.2049327 = idf(docFreq=1715, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.4645838 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.2049327 = idf(docFreq=1715, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.28989047 = weight(abstract_txt:formalized in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.28989047 = score(doc=4695,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.4496884 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.117972 = boost
                8.251487 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.6446474 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.251487 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.29347825 = weight(abstract_txt:conscious in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.29347825 = score(doc=4695,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.45339113 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1348906 = boost
                8.285388 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.64729595 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.285388 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.03691305 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03691305 = score(doc=4695,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13715819 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.254734 = boost
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.26912758 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
          0.101898216 = weight(abstract_txt:needs in 4695) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.101898216 = score(doc=4695,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29349068 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.9901767 = boost
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.34719405 = fieldWeight in 4695, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=4695)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  2. Chang, Y.-W.: ¬The influence of Taylor's paper, Question-Negotiation and Information-Seeking in Libraries (2013) 0.24
    0.2440551 = sum of:
      0.2440551 = product of:
        0.87162536 = sum of:
          0.05728965 = weight(abstract_txt:1968 in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05728965 = score(doc=4714,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.111530386 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.025402 = boost
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.51366854 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
          0.018353915 = weight(abstract_txt:show in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.018353915 = score(doc=4714,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.06579177 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1137772 = boost
                4.463516 = idf(docFreq=1324, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.27896976 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.463516 = idf(docFreq=1324, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
          0.04197721 = weight(abstract_txt:four in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04197721 = score(doc=4714,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.090646595 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3073392 = boost
                5.2392254 = idf(docFreq=609, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.46308646 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.2392254 = idf(docFreq=609, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
          0.06332288 = weight(abstract_txt:levels in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06332288 = score(doc=4714,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13648345 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.9647086 = boost
                5.24911 = idf(docFreq=603, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.46396017 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.24911 = idf(docFreq=603, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
          0.49042654 = weight(abstract_txt:taylor's in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.49042654 = score(doc=4714,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.46672213 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6331837 = boost
                9.706774 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              1.0507891 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                9.706774 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
          0.059060883 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.059060883 = score(doc=4714,freq=8.0), product of:
              0.13715819 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.254734 = boost
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.43060413 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                2.828427 = tf(freq=8.0), with freq of:
                  8.0 = termFreq=8.0
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
          0.1411943 = weight(abstract_txt:needs in 4714) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1411943 = score(doc=4714,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.29349068 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.9901767 = boost
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.48108616 = fieldWeight in 4714, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4714)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  3. Wildemuth, B.M.; Cogdill, K.; Friedman, C.P.: ¬The transition from formalized need to compromised need in the context of clinical problem solving : opportunities and possible problems for information use studies of health professionals (1999) 0.21
    0.20953791 = sum of:
      0.20953791 = product of:
        0.87307465 = sum of:
          0.05728965 = weight(abstract_txt:1968 in 1190) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05728965 = score(doc=1190,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.111530386 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.025402 = boost
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.51366854 = fieldWeight in 1190, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1190)
          0.015269103 = weight(abstract_txt:language in 1190) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.015269103 = score(doc=1190,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.05819622 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0475142 = boost
                4.197964 = idf(docFreq=1727, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.26237276 = fieldWeight in 1190, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.197964 = idf(docFreq=1727, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1190)
          0.18291609 = weight(abstract_txt:compromised in 1190) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18291609 = score(doc=1190,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.1414231 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1546695 = boost
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              1.2933961 = fieldWeight in 1190, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1190)
          0.1328939 = weight(abstract_txt:need in 1190) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1328939 = score(doc=1190,freq=12.0), product of:
              0.14597397 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6231327 = boost
                4.2049327 = idf(docFreq=1715, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.9103946 = fieldWeight in 1190, product of:
                3.4641016 = tf(freq=12.0), with freq of:
                  12.0 = termFreq=12.0
                4.2049327 = idf(docFreq=1715, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1190)
          0.46382475 = weight(abstract_txt:formalized in 1190) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.46382475 = score(doc=1190,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.4496884 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.117972 = boost
                8.251487 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              1.0314358 = fieldWeight in 1190, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                8.251487 = idf(docFreq=29, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1190)
          0.020881176 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 1190) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.020881176 = score(doc=1190,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13715819 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.254734 = boost
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.15224156 = fieldWeight in 1190, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1190)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  4. Kennedy, L.; Cole, C.; Carter, S.: Connecting online search strategies and information needs : a user-centered, focus-labeling approach (1997) 0.11
    0.10762815 = sum of:
      0.10762815 = product of:
        0.67267597 = sum of:
          0.081380576 = weight(abstract_txt:need in 1628) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.081380576 = score(doc=1628,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.14597397 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6231327 = boost
                4.2049327 = idf(docFreq=1715, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.5575006 = fieldWeight in 1628, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.2049327 = idf(docFreq=1715, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1628)
          0.42472184 = weight(abstract_txt:taylor's in 1628) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.42472184 = score(doc=1628,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.46672213 = queryWeight, product of:
                3.6331837 = boost
                9.706774 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.91001004 = fieldWeight in 1628, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.706774 = idf(docFreq=6, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1628)
          0.04429566 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 1628) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04429566 = score(doc=1628,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.13715819 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.254734 = boost
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.3229531 = fieldWeight in 1628, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1628)
          0.12227785 = weight(abstract_txt:needs in 1628) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12227785 = score(doc=1628,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29349068 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.9901767 = boost
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.41663283 = fieldWeight in 1628, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=1628)
        0.16 = coord(4/25)
    
  5. Bell, H.: On the indexability of butterflies (1992) 0.10
    0.10426378 = sum of:
      0.10426378 = product of:
        0.8688649 = sum of:
          0.6640654 = weight(abstract_txt:conscious in 3847) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.6640654 = score(doc=3847,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.45339113 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.1348906 = boost
                8.285388 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              1.4646635 = fieldWeight in 3847, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.285388 = idf(docFreq=28, maxDocs=42306)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3847)
          0.041762352 = weight(abstract_txt:information in 3847) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041762352 = score(doc=3847,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13715819 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.254734 = boost
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.30448312 = fieldWeight in 3847, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                2.435865 = idf(docFreq=10064, maxDocs=42306)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3847)
          0.16303714 = weight(abstract_txt:needs in 3847) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16303714 = score(doc=3847,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29349068 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.9901767 = boost
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.013234152 = queryNorm
              0.55551046 = fieldWeight in 3847, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4440837 = idf(docFreq=1350, maxDocs=42306)
                0.125 = fieldNorm(doc=3847)
        0.12 = coord(3/25)