Document (#42099)

Author
Losada, D.E.
Parapar, J.
Barreiro, A.
Title
Multi-armed bandits for adjudicating documents in pooling-based evaluation of information retrieval systems
Source
Information processing and management. 53(2017) no.5, S.1005-1025
Year
2017
Abstract
Evaluating Information Retrieval systems is crucial to making progress in search technologies. Evaluation is often based on assembling reference collections consisting of documents, queries and relevance judgments done by humans. In large-scale environments, exhaustively judging relevance becomes infeasible. Instead, only a pool of documents is judged for relevance. By selectively choosing documents from the pool we can optimize the number of judgments required to identify a given number of relevant documents. We argue that this iterative selection process can be naturally modeled as a reinforcement learning problem and propose innovative and formal adjudication methods based on multi-armed bandits. Casting document judging as a multi-armed bandit problem is not only theoretically appealing, but also leads to highly effective adjudication methods. Under this bandit allocation framework, we consider stationary and non-stationary models and propose seven new document adjudication methods (five stationary methods and two non-stationary variants). Our paper also reports a series of experiments performed to thoroughly compare our new methods against current adjudication methods. This comparative study includes existing methods designed for pooling-based evaluation and existing methods designed for metasearch. Our experiments show that our theoretically grounded adjudication methods can substantially minimize the assessment effort.
Content
Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2017.04.005.
Theme
Retrievalstudien

Similar documents (author)

  1. Losada, D.E.; Barreiro, A.: Emebedding term similarity and inverse document frequency into a logical model of information retrieval (2003) 4.93
    4.9304624 = sum of:
      4.9304624 = weight(author_txt:losada in 2423) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9304624 = fieldWeight in 2423, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          9.860925 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42306)
          0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=2423)
    
  2. Fernández, R.T.; Losada, D.E.: Effective sentence retrieval based on query-independent evidence (2012) 4.93
    4.9304624 = sum of:
      4.9304624 = weight(author_txt:losada in 4729) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        4.9304624 = fieldWeight in 4729, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          9.860925 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42306)
          0.5 = fieldNorm(doc=4729)
    
  3. Sweeney, S.; Crestani, F.; Losada, D.E.: 'Show me more' : incremental length summarisation using novelty detection (2008) 3.70
    3.697847 = sum of:
      3.697847 = weight(author_txt:losada in 4055) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        3.697847 = fieldWeight in 4055, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          9.860925 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42306)
          0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=4055)
    
  4. Losada, D.E.; Parapar, J.; Barreiro, A.: When to stop making relevance judgments? : a study of stopping methods for building information retrieval test collections (2019) 3.70
    3.697847 = sum of:
      3.697847 = weight(author_txt:losada in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
        3.697847 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
          1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
            1.0 = termFreq=1.0
          9.860925 = idf(docFreq=5, maxDocs=42306)
          0.375 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
    

Similar documents (content)

  1. Kutlu, M.; Elsayed, T.; Lease, M.: Intelligent topic selection for low-cost information retrieval evaluation : a new perspective on deep vs. shallow judging (2018) 0.35
    0.35403034 = sum of:
      0.35403034 = product of:
        0.8046144 = sum of:
          0.012646617 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.012646617 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.06304627 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.20059264 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.07079464 = weight(abstract_txt:infeasible in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07079464 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15776114 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1185498 = boost
                9.573242 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.44874573 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.573242 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.02349635 = weight(abstract_txt:propose in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02349635 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.095281824 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2293494 = boost
                5.260767 = idf(docFreq=596, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.24659845 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.260767 = idf(docFreq=596, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.025022527 = weight(abstract_txt:experiments in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025022527 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09936435 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.25541 = boost
                5.372288 = idf(docFreq=533, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.25182602 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.372288 = idf(docFreq=533, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.010727554 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.010727554 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07117928 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5026647 = boost
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.15071175 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.049108036 = weight(abstract_txt:evaluation in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.049108036 = score(doc=2010,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.10426821 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.575041 = boost
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.47097802 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.10720087 = weight(abstract_txt:judgments in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10720087 = score(doc=2010,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.16511582 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6183208 = boost
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.6492465 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.041294217 = weight(abstract_txt:relevance in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.041294217 = score(doc=2010,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.12607329 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7319185 = boost
                4.9409437 = idf(docFreq=821, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.32754138 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.9409437 = idf(docFreq=821, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.28331015 = weight(abstract_txt:judging in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.28331015 = score(doc=2010,freq=10.0), product of:
              0.23255081 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.920566 = boost
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              1.218272 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                3.1622777 = tf(freq=10.0), with freq of:
                  10.0 = termFreq=10.0
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.12792425 = weight(abstract_txt:pooling in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.12792425 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29487982 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.1626828 = boost
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.43381825 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
          0.05308922 = weight(abstract_txt:methods in 2010) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05308922 = score(doc=2010,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.27086416 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.396958 = boost
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.19599943 = fieldWeight in 2010, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=2010)
        0.44 = coord(11/25)
    
  2. Ravana, S.D.; Rajagopal, P.; Balakrishnan, V.: Ranking retrieval systems using pseudo relevance judgments (2015) 0.35
    0.3489619 = sum of:
      0.3489619 = product of:
        0.8724047 = sum of:
          0.033724315 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.033724315 = score(doc=4592,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.06304627 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.5349137 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.09439285 = weight(abstract_txt:infeasible in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09439285 = score(doc=4592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.15776114 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1185498 = boost
                9.573242 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.59832764 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.573242 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.014303404 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014303404 = score(doc=4592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07117928 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5026647 = boost
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.20094898 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.029282374 = weight(abstract_txt:evaluation in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029282374 = score(doc=4592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10426821 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.575041 = boost
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.28083703 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.15980563 = weight(abstract_txt:judgments in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.15980563 = score(doc=4592,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.16511582 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6183208 = boost
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.9678396 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.10300588 = weight(abstract_txt:relevance in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.10300588 = score(doc=4592,freq=7.0), product of:
              0.12607329 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7319185 = boost
                4.9409437 = idf(docFreq=821, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.81703174 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                2.6457512 = tf(freq=7.0), with freq of:
                  7.0 = termFreq=7.0
                4.9409437 = idf(docFreq=821, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.111904174 = weight(abstract_txt:pool in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.111904174 = score(doc=4592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.22264597 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8792204 = boost
                8.041766 = idf(docFreq=36, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.5026104 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.041766 = idf(docFreq=36, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.11945403 = weight(abstract_txt:judging in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.11945403 = score(doc=4592,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.23255081 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.920566 = boost
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.51366854 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.06496079 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06496079 = score(doc=4592,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.14580008 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.404469 = boost
                4.115787 = idf(docFreq=1875, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.445547 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.115787 = idf(docFreq=1875, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
          0.14157125 = weight(abstract_txt:methods in 4592) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14157125 = score(doc=4592,freq=4.0), product of:
              0.27086416 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.396958 = boost
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.52266514 = fieldWeight in 4592, product of:
                2.0 = tf(freq=4.0), with freq of:
                  4.0 = termFreq=4.0
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4592)
        0.4 = coord(10/25)
    
  3. Losada, D.E.; Parapar, J.; Barreiro, A.: When to stop making relevance judgments? : a study of stopping methods for building information retrieval test collections (2019) 0.26
    0.26208013 = sum of:
      0.26208013 = product of:
        0.8190004 = sum of:
          0.031328466 = weight(abstract_txt:propose in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.031328466 = score(doc=1593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.095281824 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2293494 = boost
                5.260767 = idf(docFreq=596, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.32879794 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.260767 = idf(docFreq=596, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.029282374 = weight(abstract_txt:evaluation in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.029282374 = score(doc=1593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10426821 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.575041 = boost
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.28083703 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.1237849 = weight(abstract_txt:judgments in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1237849 = score(doc=1593,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.16511582 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6183208 = boost
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.7496853 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.06743318 = weight(abstract_txt:relevance in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06743318 = score(doc=1593,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.12607329 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.7319185 = boost
                4.9409437 = idf(docFreq=821, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.53487283 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.9409437 = idf(docFreq=821, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.1582564 = weight(abstract_txt:pool in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1582564 = score(doc=1593,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.22264597 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8792204 = boost
                8.041766 = idf(docFreq=36, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.7107984 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.041766 = idf(docFreq=36, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.17056566 = weight(abstract_txt:pooling in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17056566 = score(doc=1593,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.29487982 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.1626828 = boost
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.57842433 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.06496079 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06496079 = score(doc=1593,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.14580008 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.404469 = boost
                4.115787 = idf(docFreq=1875, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.445547 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.115787 = idf(docFreq=1875, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
          0.17338867 = weight(abstract_txt:methods in 1593) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17338867 = score(doc=1593,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.27086416 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.396958 = boost
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.6401315 = fieldWeight in 1593, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=1593)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  4. Pal, S.; Mitra, M.; Kamps, J.: Evaluation effort, reliability and reusability in XML retrieval (2011) 0.26
    0.26023692 = sum of:
      0.26023692 = product of:
        0.8132404 = sum of:
          0.014754388 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014754388 = score(doc=1198,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.06304627 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.23402475 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.017699558 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.017699558 = score(doc=1198,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.07117928 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5026647 = boost
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.24866168 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.025622077 = weight(abstract_txt:evaluation in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025622077 = score(doc=1198,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.10426821 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.575041 = boost
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.2457324 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.4933925 = idf(docFreq=1285, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.06253384 = weight(abstract_txt:judgments in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06253384 = score(doc=1198,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.16511582 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.6183208 = boost
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.37872714 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.9252963 = idf(docFreq=112, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.13847435 = weight(abstract_txt:pool in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13847435 = score(doc=1198,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.22264597 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.8792204 = boost
                8.041766 = idf(docFreq=36, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.6219486 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                8.041766 = idf(docFreq=36, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.23371895 = weight(abstract_txt:judging in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.23371895 = score(doc=1198,freq=5.0), product of:
              0.23255081 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.920566 = boost
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              1.0050231 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                2.236068 = tf(freq=5.0), with freq of:
                  5.0 = termFreq=5.0
                8.218697 = idf(docFreq=30, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.25849983 = weight(abstract_txt:pooling in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.25849983 = score(doc=1198,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.29487982 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.1626828 = boost
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.87662774 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                9.254789 = idf(docFreq=10, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
          0.061937425 = weight(abstract_txt:methods in 1198) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.061937425 = score(doc=1198,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.27086416 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.396958 = boost
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.22866601 = fieldWeight in 1198, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.181321 = idf(docFreq=1756, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0546875 = fieldNorm(doc=1198)
        0.32 = coord(8/25)
    
  5. Hoenkamp, E.; Bruza, P.D.; Song, D.; Huang, Q.: ¬An effective approach to verbose queries using a limited dependencies language model (2009) 0.13
    0.13269126 = sum of:
      0.13269126 = product of:
        0.6634563 = sum of:
          0.016862158 = weight(abstract_txt:document in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.016862158 = score(doc=4123,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.06304627 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.26745686 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.2793097 = idf(docFreq=1592, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.03336337 = weight(abstract_txt:experiments in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.03336337 = score(doc=4123,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09936435 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.25541 = boost
                5.372288 = idf(docFreq=533, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.335768 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.372288 = idf(docFreq=533, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.014303404 = weight(abstract_txt:based in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.014303404 = score(doc=4123,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07117928 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.5026647 = boost
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.20094898 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                3.2151837 = idf(docFreq=4616, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.06496079 = weight(abstract_txt:documents in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06496079 = score(doc=4123,freq=3.0), product of:
              0.14580008 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.404469 = boost
                4.115787 = idf(docFreq=1875, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.445547 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.7320508 = tf(freq=3.0), with freq of:
                  3.0 = termFreq=3.0
                4.115787 = idf(docFreq=1875, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
          0.5339666 = weight(abstract_txt:stationary in 4123) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.5339666 = score(doc=4123,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.63104457 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.4741993 = boost
                9.573242 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42306)
                0.014732813 = queryNorm
              0.84616303 = fieldWeight in 4123, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                9.573242 = idf(docFreq=7, maxDocs=42306)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=4123)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)