Document (#8214)

Author
Lee, A.
Title
Controlled English with and without machine translation
Source
Aslib proceedings. 46(1994) no.5, S.131-133
Year
1994
Abstract
Explains how the use of Controlled English in documents aimed at the international marketplace can make the task of machine translation much easier. Controlled English is a set of grammar and style rules that impose simple structures on written English plus a restricted vocabulary. Describes the use of Controlled English at Bull SA, France, where some work has also been done using Controlled French

Similar documents (content)

  1. Oard, D.W.: Serving users in many languages : cross-language information retrieval for digital libraries (1997) 0.18
    0.18181267 = sum of:
      0.18181267 = product of:
        0.649331 = sum of:
          0.025569683 = weight(abstract_txt:much in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025569683 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08205591 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0574456 = boost
                4.985807 = idf(docFreq=793, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.31161293 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.985807 = idf(docFreq=793, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          0.031774547 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.031774547 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09484459 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1368662 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.33501697 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          0.040840913 = weight(abstract_txt:done in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.040840913 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.11212177 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.2360842 = boost
                5.8280797 = idf(docFreq=341, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.36425498 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.8280797 = idf(docFreq=341, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          0.06277901 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06277901 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18815364 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2645109 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.33365822 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          0.13705136 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.13705136 = score(doc=3262,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.25131315 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6171324 = boost
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.54534096 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          0.16887943 = weight(abstract_txt:controlled in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.16887943 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.49393237 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.8012533 = boost
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.341908 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
          0.18243603 = weight(abstract_txt:english in 3262) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.18243603 = score(doc=3262,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.520024 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.9525056 = boost
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.35082233 = fieldWeight in 3262, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=3262)
        0.28 = coord(7/25)
    
  2. Rigby, C.: Nunavut libraries online establish Inuit language bibliographic cataloging standards : promoting indigenous language using a commercial ILS (2015) 0.15
    0.15047635 = sum of:
      0.15047635 = product of:
        0.62698483 = sum of:
          0.032437135 = weight(abstract_txt:where in 4183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.032437135 = score(doc=4183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07338272 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7149534 = idf(docFreq=1040, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.44202688 = fieldWeight in 4183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.7149534 = idf(docFreq=1040, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4183)
          0.044269335 = weight(abstract_txt:rules in 4183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.044269335 = score(doc=4183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.090288855 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1092263 = boost
                5.2299504 = idf(docFreq=621, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.49030787 = fieldWeight in 4183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.2299504 = idf(docFreq=621, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4183)
          0.04766182 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 4183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04766182 = score(doc=4183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09484459 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1368662 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.50252545 = fieldWeight in 4183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4183)
          0.08359756 = weight(abstract_txt:french in 4183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.08359756 = score(doc=4183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13794138 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3710408 = boost
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.6060369 = fieldWeight in 4183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4183)
          0.14536493 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 4183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.14536493 = score(doc=4183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25131315 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6171324 = boost
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.5784215 = fieldWeight in 4183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4183)
          0.27365404 = weight(abstract_txt:english in 4183) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.27365404 = score(doc=4183,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.520024 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.9525056 = boost
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.5262335 = fieldWeight in 4183, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.09375 = fieldNorm(doc=4183)
        0.24 = coord(6/25)
    
  3. Dunsire, G.; Willer, M.: Initiatives to make standard library metadata models and structures available to the Semantic Web (2010) 0.14
    0.14437431 = sum of:
      0.14437431 = product of:
        0.40103975 = sum of:
          0.016218567 = weight(abstract_txt:where in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.016218567 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.07338272 = queryWeight, product of:
                4.7149534 = idf(docFreq=1040, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.22101344 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.7149534 = idf(docFreq=1040, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.026326563 = weight(abstract_txt:task in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.026326563 = score(doc=966,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.08044609 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0470214 = boost
                4.936657 = idf(docFreq=833, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.32725722 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                4.936657 = idf(docFreq=833, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.02100387 = weight(abstract_txt:structures in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02100387 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08718699 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0900061 = boost
                5.139328 = idf(docFreq=680, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.240906 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.139328 = idf(docFreq=680, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.022134667 = weight(abstract_txt:rules in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.022134667 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.090288855 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1092263 = boost
                5.2299504 = idf(docFreq=621, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.24515393 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.2299504 = idf(docFreq=621, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.023518447 = weight(abstract_txt:simple in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.023518447 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09401371 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1318756 = boost
                5.336741 = idf(docFreq=558, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.25015974 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.336741 = idf(docFreq=558, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.02383091 = weight(abstract_txt:vocabulary in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.02383091 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.09484459 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.1368662 = boost
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.25126272 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3602715 = idf(docFreq=545, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.04179878 = weight(abstract_txt:french in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.04179878 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13794138 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3710408 = boost
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.30301845 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.047084257 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.047084257 = score(doc=966,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18815364 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2645109 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.25024366 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
          0.17912368 = weight(abstract_txt:controlled in 966) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.17912368 = score(doc=966,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.49393237 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.8012533 = boost
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.3626482 = fieldWeight in 966, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.470528 = idf(docFreq=488, maxDocs=42740)
                0.046875 = fieldNorm(doc=966)
        0.36 = coord(9/25)
    
  4. Dolamic, L.; Savoy, J.: Retrieval effectiveness of machine translated queries (2010) 0.14
    0.14249365 = sum of:
      0.14249365 = product of:
        0.71246827 = sum of:
          0.070511326 = weight(abstract_txt:written in 1103) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.070511326 = score(doc=1103,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.11036945 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.226387 = boost
                5.7823577 = idf(docFreq=357, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.6388663 = fieldWeight in 1103, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.7823577 = idf(docFreq=357, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1103)
          0.069664635 = weight(abstract_txt:french in 1103) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.069664635 = score(doc=1103,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13794138 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3710408 = boost
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.50503075 = fieldWeight in 1103, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1103)
          0.07847376 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 1103) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.07847376 = score(doc=1103,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18815364 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2645109 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.41707277 = fieldWeight in 1103, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1103)
          0.1713142 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 1103) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.1713142 = score(doc=1103,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.25131315 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6171324 = boost
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.6816762 = fieldWeight in 1103, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1103)
          0.32250437 = weight(abstract_txt:english in 1103) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.32250437 = score(doc=1103,freq=2.0), product of:
              0.520024 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.9525056 = boost
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.6201721 = fieldWeight in 1103, product of:
                1.4142135 = tf(freq=2.0), with freq of:
                  2.0 = termFreq=2.0
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.078125 = fieldNorm(doc=1103)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)
    
  5. Li, K.W.; Yang, C.C.: Conceptual analysis of parallel corpus collected from the Web (2006) 0.14
    0.13757311 = sum of:
      0.13757311 = product of:
        0.68786556 = sum of:
          0.025569683 = weight(abstract_txt:much in 52) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.025569683 = score(doc=52,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.08205591 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.0574456 = boost
                4.985807 = idf(docFreq=793, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.31161293 = fieldWeight in 52, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                4.985807 = idf(docFreq=793, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=52)
          0.05573171 = weight(abstract_txt:french in 52) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.05573171 = score(doc=52,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.13794138 = queryWeight, product of:
                1.3710408 = boost
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.4040246 = fieldWeight in 52, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.4643936 = idf(docFreq=180, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=52)
          0.06277901 = weight(abstract_txt:machine in 52) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.06277901 = score(doc=52,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.18815364 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.2645109 = boost
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.33365822 = fieldWeight in 52, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                5.3385315 = idf(docFreq=557, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=52)
          0.09690995 = weight(abstract_txt:translation in 52) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.09690995 = score(doc=52,freq=1.0), product of:
              0.25131315 = queryWeight, product of:
                2.6171324 = boost
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.3856143 = fieldWeight in 52, product of:
                1.0 = tf(freq=1.0), with freq of:
                  1.0 = termFreq=1.0
                6.169829 = idf(docFreq=242, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=52)
          0.4468752 = weight(abstract_txt:english in 52) [ClassicSimilarity], result of:
            0.4468752 = score(doc=52,freq=6.0), product of:
              0.520024 = queryWeight, product of:
                5.9525056 = boost
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.015563827 = queryNorm
              0.8593357 = fieldWeight in 52, product of:
                2.4494898 = tf(freq=6.0), with freq of:
                  6.0 = termFreq=6.0
                5.6131573 = idf(docFreq=423, maxDocs=42740)
                0.0625 = fieldNorm(doc=52)
        0.2 = coord(5/25)