Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Rötzer, F.: ¬Das aufmerksame Gehirn hüpft alle 250 Millisekunden und konzentriert sich nicht kontinuierlich.[23. August 2018].
Abstract: Neurowissenschaftler haben bei Menschen und Makaken herausgefunden, dass Aufmerksamkeit ein schneller rhythmischer Prozess zwischen Konzentration und Ablenkung ist. Das Bewusstsein simuliert die Welt und täuscht die Menschen über Brüche und Irritationen hinweg. Wie die Maschinerie der Illusion arbeitet, lässt sich an manchen Wahrnehmungstäuschungen erkennen, die den Bruch zwischen den sensorischen Daten und der Konstruktion der bewussten Wahrnehmung offenbaren. Beim Sehen gleitet das Auge beispielsweise nicht kontinuierlich über die Szene, sondern springt ruckartig und fixiert gelegentlich Ausschnitte, während immer wieder ein Lidschlag erfolgt. Das Gehirn blendet die Sprünge und Fixierungen ebenso wie die kurzen Dunkelheiten aus und erstellt eine kontinuierliche Szene. Wenn wir uns auf etwas in dieser Szene konzentrieren, findet ein ähnlicher Prozess statt. Auch die Aufmerksamkeit hüpft oder pulsiert, während wir der Überzeugung sind, eine Szene festzuhalten und fortwährend anzuschauen. Nach Untersuchungen an Menschen und Affen von Wissenschaftlern der Princeton University und der University of California-Berkeley springt die Aufmerksamkeit viermal in der Sekunde hin und her. "Wahrnehmung ist diskontinuierlich", so die Neuropsychologin und Hauptautorin Sabine Kastner, "sie geht rhythmisch durch kurze Zeitfenster." Auch die Aufmerksamkeit funktioniert nicht so, dass Neuronen über eine gewisse Zeit kontinuierlich "feuern".
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://heise.de/-4143856.
2Laland, K.: ¬Ein einzigartiges Wesen.
In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2019, H.1, S.12-19.
Abstract: Wodurch unterscheidet sich der Mensch am stärksten von allen anderen Tieren? Vermutlich durch seine besonders ausgeprägte kulturelle Begabung - also in der Fähigkeit, Wissen an andere weiterzugeben.
3Ronzheimer, M.: ¬Die Datenspur in der Natur : über die Wirkung der Digitalisierung auf die Umwelt und den Energieverbrauch.
In: Neues Deutschland. 2019, 12.01.2109, S.23 [https://www.neues-deutschland.de/artikel/1109789.digitalisierung-die-datenspur-in-der-natur.html].
Abstract: Die Industrialisierung ist die zweite »große Transformation« in der Menschheitsgeschichte, angetrieben durch die immense Nutzung fossiler Rohstoffe wie Kohle und Erdöl. In den letzten Jahrzehnten hat dieser Prozess der Ausbeutung der natürlichen Ressourcen eine solche Dynamik erlangt, dass Forscher von einem neuen Erdzeitalter, dem »Anthropozän«, sprechen. Wissenschaftler der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) haben die Mechanismen dieser Beschleunigung genauer untersucht und als zentralen neuen Treiber den Umgang mit der Ressource »Daten« - die Digitalisierung mithilfe der Computertechnik - ausgemacht. Erst durch die massenhafte Verbreitung der Informationstechnik sei die Überschreitung der »planetaren Grenzen« ökologischer Nachhaltigkeit möglich geworden. Ihr neues Paradigma, den Wandel der Welt zu verstehen, nennen die Forscher »Geo-Anthropologie« und schlagen die Gründung eines eigenen Forschungsinstituts vor, das sich den »Perspektiven für die Erhaltung des Lebensraums Erde« widmen soll.
4Zigron, S. ; Bronstein, J.: "Help is where you find it" : the role of weak ties networks as sources of information and support in virtual health communities.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.2, S.130-139.
Abstract: Virtual health communities allow people with health-related concerns to engage in supportive communication with individuals coping with similar problems that would be difficult or impossible to form in the face-to-face world. This study examined the information interactions in an Israeli virtual health community on Facebook dealing with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease drawing from the "weak ties" network theory as a theoretical framework. Weak ties are social ties or acquaintances that can function as an important source for diversified experiential information and emotional support, reducing stigma and providing a sense of belonging. The study consisted of 23 semistructured interviews with registered members of the group. Findings of this study parallel the four functions of weak ties by allowing chronically ill patients: access to diverse sources of information including experiential information from others suffering from the same illness; the possibility to disclose personal information reducing fear from stigma or rejection; and a sense of belonging.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24106.
5Hertzum, M. ; Hansen, P.: Empirical studies of collaborative information seeking : a review of methodological issues.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.140-163.
Abstract: Purpose Information seeking is often performed in collaborative contexts. The research into such collaborative information seeking (CIS) has been proceeding since the 1990s but lacks methodological discussions. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss methodological issues in existing CIS studies. Design/methodology/approach The authors systematically review 69 empirical CIS studies. Findings The review shows that the most common methods of data collection are lab experiments (43 percent), observation (19 percent) and surveys (16 percent), that the most common methods of data analysis are description (33 percent), statistical testing (29 percent) and content analysis (19 percent) and that CIS studies involve a fairly even mix of novice, intermediate and specialist participants. However, the authors also find that CIS research is dominated by exploratory studies, leaves it largely unexplored in what ways the findings of a study may be specific to the particular study setting, appears to assign primacy to precision at the expense of generalizability, struggles with investigating how CIS activities extend over time and provides data about behavior to a larger extent than about reasons, experiences and especially outcomes. Research limitations/implications The major implication of this review is its identification of the need for a shared model to which individual CIS studies can contribute in a cumulative manner. To support the development of such a model, the authors discuss a model of the core CIS process and a model of the factors that trigger CIS. Originality/value This study assesses the current state of CIS research, provides guidance for future CIS studies and aims to inspire further methodological discussion.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2018-0072.
6Springer, M.: ¬Der variable Wert des Lebens.
In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2019, H.1, S.37.
Abstract: In extremen Fällen muss man den Tod von Menschen in Kauf nehmen, um das Leben anderer zu schützen. Aus der moralischen Zwickmühle führt kein universelles Patentrezept.
8Gorichanaz, T.: ¬A first-person theory of documentation.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.190-212.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to first articulate and then illustrate a descriptive theoretical model of documentation (i.e. document creation) suitable for analysis of the experiential, first-person perspective. Design/methodology/approach Three models of documentation in the literature are presented and synthesized into a new model. This model is then used to understand the findings from a phenomenology-of-practice study of the work of seven visual artists as they each created a self-portrait, understood here as a form of documentation. Findings A number of themes are found to express the first-person experience of art-making in these examples, including communicating, memories, reference materials, taking breaks and stepping back. The themes are discussed with an eye toward articulating what is shared and unique in these experiences. Finally, the themes are mapped successfully to the theoretical model. Research limitations/implications The study involved artists creating self-portraits, and further research will be required to determine if the thematic findings are unique to self-portraiture or apply as well to art-making, to documentation generally, etc. Still, the theoretical model developed here seems useful for analyzing documentation experiences. Practical implications As many activities and tasks in contemporary life can be conceptualized as documentation, this model provides a valuable analytical tool for better understanding those experiences. This can ground education and management decisions for those involved. Originality/value This paper makes conceptual and empirical contributions to document theory and the study of the information behavior of artists, particularly furthering discussions of information and document experience.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-07-2018-0110.
9Hjoerland, B.: ¬The foundation of information science : one world or three? A discussion of Gnoli (2018).
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.164-171.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to make a critical analysis of the views put forward by Claudio Gnoli (2018) in this paper concerning philosophical problems in library and information science (LIS). Design/methodology/approach The paper presents the basic ideas in Gnoli (2018) and discusses the set of basic assumptions, concepts and conclusions put forward. Findings It is argued that the idea of the theory of levels is basically sound, but we do not need to consider the material world, the mental world (minds) and the world of mentefacts as three different worlds. They represent different levels with different kinds of emergent properties in the world. Further, although the concepts of artifacts and mentefacts are useful, there are other terms within LIS, such as document, work and object that have been influential and should be discussed in this context. It is also argued that subjective vs objective knowledge is often confused with private vs public knowledge, which is problematic. Finally, it is claimed that the cognitive view and the "sociological view" are not about two different levels of reality but are competing views about the same reality. Originality/value The paper clarifies some aspects of the analytical framework of domain analysis and adds to the developments of the philosophical dimensions of information within LIS.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-06-2018-0100.
Wissenschaftsfach: Informationswissenschaft ; Philosophie
10Wakeling, S. ; Spezi, V. ; Fry, J. ; Creaser, C. ; Pinfield, S. ; Willett, P.: Academic communities : the role of journals and open-access mega-journals in scholarly communication.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.120-139.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into publication practices from the perspective of academics working within four disciplinary communities: biosciences, astronomy/physics, education and history. The paper explores the ways in which these multiple overlapping communities intersect with the journal landscape and the implications for the adoption and use of new players in the scholarly communication system, particularly open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs (e.g. PLOS ONE and Scientific Reports) are large, broad scope, open-access journals that base editorial decisions solely on the technical/scientific soundness of the article. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups with active researchers in these fields were held in five UK Higher Education Institutions across Great Britain, and were complemented by interviews with pro-vice-chancellors for research at each institution. Findings A strong finding to emerge from the data is the notion of researchers belonging to multiple overlapping communities, with some inherent tensions in meeting the requirements for these different audiences. Researcher perceptions of evaluation mechanisms were found to play a major role in attitudes towards OAMJs, and interviews with the pro-vice-chancellors for research indicate that there is a difference between researchers' perceptions and the values embedded in institutional frameworks. Originality/value This is the first purely qualitative study relating to researcher perspectives on OAMJs. The findings of the paper will be of interest to publishers, policy-makers, research managers and academics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2018-0067.
Themenfeld: Elektronisches Publizieren
11Klitzing, N. ; Hoekstra, R. ; Strijbos, J.-W,: Literature practices : processes leading up to a citation.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.62-77.
Abstract: Purpose Literature practices represent the process leading up to the citation of a source, and consist of the selection, reading and citing of sources. The purpose of this paper is to explore possible factors that might influence researchers during this process and discover possible consequences of researchers' citation behaviours. Design/methodology/approach In this exploratory study, various factors which could influence literature practices were explored via a questionnaire amongst 112 researchers. Participants were first authors of articles published in 2016 in one of five different journals within the disciplines of experimental psychology, educational sciences and social psychology. Academic positions of the participants ranged from PhD student to full professor. Findings Frequencies and percentages showed that researchers seemed to be influenced in their literature practices by various factors, such as editors suggesting articles and motivation to cite. Additionally, a high percentage of researchers reported taking shortcuts when citing articles (e.g. using secondary citations and reading selectively). Logistic regression did not reveal a clear relationship between academic work experience and research practices. Practical implications Seeing that researchers seem to be influenced by a variety of factors in their literature practices, the scientific community might benefit from better citation practices and guidelines in order to provide more structure to the process of literature practices. Originality/value This paper provides first insights into researchers' literature practices. Possible reasons for problems with citation accuracy and replicating research findings are highlighted. Opportunities for further research on the topic of citation behaviours are presented.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-03-2018-0047.
Themenfeld: Citation indexing
12Rajagopal, P. ; Ravana, S.D. ; Koh, Y.S. ; Balakrishnan, V.: Evaluating the effectiveness of information retrieval systems using effort-based relevance judgment.
In: Aslib journal of information management. 71(2019) no.1, S.2-17.
Abstract: Purpose The effort in addition to relevance is a major factor for satisfaction and utility of the document to the actual user. The purpose of this paper is to propose a method in generating relevance judgments that incorporate effort without human judges' involvement. Then the study determines the variation in system rankings due to low effort relevance judgment in evaluating retrieval systems at different depth of evaluation. Design/methodology/approach Effort-based relevance judgments are generated using a proposed boxplot approach for simple document features, HTML features and readability features. The boxplot approach is a simple yet repeatable approach in classifying documents' effort while ensuring outlier scores do not skew the grading of the entire set of documents. Findings The retrieval systems evaluation using low effort relevance judgments has a stronger influence on shallow depth of evaluation compared to deeper depth. It is proved that difference in the system rankings is due to low effort documents and not the number of relevant documents. Originality/value Hence, it is crucial to evaluate retrieval systems at shallow depth using low effort relevance judgments.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-04-2018-0086.
13Graff, B.: "Spinne ich, wenn ich denke, dass sie ausschließlich meine Arbeit genutzt haben?".
Abstract: Ein 19-Jähriger programmiert einen Algorithmus, der Gemälde malt. Ein Künstlergruppe nutzt ihn und verkauft das Ergebnis - für mehr als 400 000 Dollar. Gretchenfrage: Wer ist der Urheber? Am 25. Oktober war der 19-jährige Robbie Barrat aktiver auf seinem Twitteraccount als sonst. Barrat, er nennt sich in der Netzwelt "@DrBeef_", knallte die Timeline mit seinen Posts zu, jedenfalls für seine Verhältnisse. Denn an diesem Tag wurde beim Auktionshaus Christie's in New York ein Porträt versteigert, das glasklar der Pariser Künstlergruppe "Obvious" zugerechnet wird - wobei es irritierenderweise in einem Stil verfertigt ist, den unzählige Porträts aufweisen, die wiederum allesamt glasklar Robbie Barrat zugeordnet werden. Das in New York gehandelte Bild zeigt auf den ersten Blick einen Herrn des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts, einen "Edmond de Belamy". Das so betitelte Bild, das etwas vom dynamischen Furor und der Aufbruchstimmung der damals noch jungen Avantgarde vermittelt, hat etwas Skizzenhaftes. Etwas Verwaschenes und Probehaftes, auch wenn man einen Naturalismus spüren kann. Sagen wir so: Als Kunstwerk ist es keine Offenbarung, es wirkt eher derangiert in seiner unklaren Dimensionierung. Aber ganz misslungen ist es auch nicht.
Wissenschaftsfach: Informatik ; Kunst
14Zhu, X. ; Freeman, M.A.: ¬An evaluation of U.S. municipal open data portals : a user interaction framework.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.1, S.27-37.
Abstract: As an increasing number of open government data (OGD) portals are created, an evaluation method is needed to assess these portals. In this study, we drew from the existing principles and evaluation methods to develop a User Interaction Framework, with concrete criteria in five dimensions: Access, Trust, Understand, Engage-integrate, and Participate. The framework was then used to evaluate the current OGD sites created and maintained by 34 U.S. municipal government agencies. The results show that, overall, portals perform well in terms of providing access, but not so well in helping users understand and engage with data. These findings indicate room for improvement in multiple areas and suggest potential roles for information professionals as data mediators. The study also reveals that portals using the Socrata platform performed better, regarding user access, trust, engagement, and participation. However, the variability among portals indicates that some portals should improve their platforms to achieve greater user engagement and participation. In addition, city governments need to develop clear plans about what data should be available and how to make them available to their public.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24081.
Themenfeld: Information Gateway
15Arazy, O. ; Lifshitz-Assaf, H. ; Balila, A.: Neither a Bazaar nor a cathedral : the interplay between structure and agency in Wikipedia's role system.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.1, S.3-15.
Abstract: Roles provide a key coordination mechanism in peer-production. Whereas one stream in the literature has focused on the structural responsibilities associated with roles, another has stressed the emergent nature of work. To date, these streams have proceeded largely in parallel. In seeking to enhance our understanding of the tension between structure and agency in peer-production, we investigated the interplay between structural and emergent roles. Our study explored the breadth of structural roles in Wikipedia (English version) and their linkage to various forms of activities. Our analyses show that despite the latitude in selecting their mode of participation, participants' structural and emergent roles are tightly coupled. Our discussion highlights that: (a) participants often stay close to the "production ground floor" despite the assignment into structural roles; and (b) there are typical modifications in activity patterns associated with role-assignment, namely: functional specialization, multispecialization, defunctionalization, changes in communication patterns, management of identity, and role definition. We contribute to theory of coordination and roles, as well as provide some practical implications.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24076.
16Haddow, G. ; Hammarfelt, B.: Quality, impact, and quantification : indicators and metrics use by social scientists.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.1, S.16-26.
Abstract: The use of indicators and metrics for research evaluation purposes is well-documented; however, less is known about their use by individual scholars. With a focus on the social sciences, this article contributes to the existing literature on indicators and metrics use in fields with diverse publication practices. Scholars in Australia and Sweden were asked about their use and reasons for using metrics. A total of 581 completed surveys were analyzed to generate descriptive statistics, with textual analysis performed on comments provided to open questions. While just under half of the participant group had used metrics, the Australians reported use in twice the proportion of their Swedish peers. Institutional policies and processes were frequently associated with use, and the scholars' comments suggest a high level of awareness of some metrics as well as strategic behavior in demonstrating research performance. There is also evidence of tensions between scholars' research evaluation environment and their disciplinary values and publication practices.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24097.
17Zheng, X. ; Sun, A.: Collecting event-related tweets from twitter stream.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.2, S.176-186.
Abstract: Twitter provides a channel of collecting and publishing instant information on major events like natural disasters. However, information flow on Twitter is of great volume. For a specific event, messages collected from the Twitter Stream based on either location constraint or predefined keywords would contain a lot of noise. In this article, we propose a method to achieve both high-precision and high-recall in collecting event-related tweets. Our method involves an automatic keyword generation component, and an event-related tweet identification component. For keyword generation, we consider three properties of candidate keywords, namely relevance, coverage, and evolvement. The keyword updating mechanism enables our method to track the main topics of tweets along event development. To minimize annotation effort in identifying event-related tweets, we adopt active learning and incorporate multiple-instance learning which assigns labels to bags instead of instances (that is, individual tweets). Through experiments on two real-world events, we demonstrate the superiority of our method against state-of-the-art alternatives.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24096.
18Suh, M.M. ; Hsieh, G.: ¬The "Had Mores" : Exploring korean immigrants' information behavior and ICT usage when settling in the United States.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.1, S.38-48.
Abstract: The process of settling in a new country can be extremely challenging, entailing various information needs to cope with rapid changes and adjustments to a new environment. Through interviews with 16 Korean immigrants in the United States, we explored their information behaviors in the settlement process. In line with prior work (Shoham & Strauss, 2008), we found that Korean immigrants needed various types of information: housing, work, banking, transportation, law, school, health, and language. Out of these information types, the Korean immigrants prioritized information for education and struggled to seek health and legal information. We further uncovered that various information needs are closely intertwined and found an additional type of information need: to build a new social network after migration. They often used Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as information sources while adapting the ICT infrastructures of the U.S. into their information practices. ICTs enabled them to build and maintain "local" and "global" identity; however, they may struggle to assess user-generated content in the new context. We noted that their strong use of ICTs for intraethnic interaction might slow down their integration into the host society. We discuss implications for future work to support immigrants' settlement in the host country.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24078.
19Losada, D.E. ; Parapar, J. ; Barreiro, A.: When to stop making relevance judgments? : a study of stopping methods for building information retrieval test collections.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.1, S.49-60.
Abstract: In information retrieval evaluation, pooling is a well-known technique to extract a sample of documents to be assessed for relevance. Given the pooled documents, a number of studies have proposed different prioritization methods to adjudicate documents for judgment. These methods follow different strategies to reduce the assessment effort. However, there is no clear guidance on how many relevance judgments are required for creating a reliable test collection. In this article we investigate and further develop methods to determine when to stop making relevance judgments. We propose a highly diversified set of stopping methods and provide a comprehensive analysis of the usefulness of the resulting test collections. Some of the stopping methods introduced here combine innovative estimates of recall with time series models used in Financial Trading. Experimental results on several representative collections show that some stopping methods can reduce up to 95% of the assessment effort and still produce a robust test collection. We demonstrate that the reduced set of judgments can be reliably employed to compare search systems using disparate effectiveness metrics such as Average Precision, NDCG, P@100, and Rank Biased Precision. With all these measures, the correlations found between full pool rankings and reduced pool rankings is very high.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24077.
20Doval, Y. ; Gómez-Rodríguez, C.: Comparing neural- and N-gram-based language models for word segmentation.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 70(2019) no.2, S.187-197.
Abstract: Word segmentation is the task of inserting or deleting word boundary characters in order to separate character sequences that correspond to words in some language. In this article we propose an approach based on a beam search algorithm and a language model working at the byte/character level, the latter component implemented either as an n-gram model or a recurrent neural network. The resulting system analyzes the text input with no word boundaries one token at a time, which can be a character or a byte, and uses the information gathered by the language model to determine if a boundary must be placed in the current position or not. Our aim is to use this system in a preprocessing step for a microtext normalization system. This means that it needs to effectively cope with the data sparsity present on this kind of texts. We also strove to surpass the performance of two readily available word segmentation systems: The well-known and accessible Word Breaker by Microsoft, and the Python module WordSegment by Grant Jenks. The results show that we have met our objectives, and we hope to continue to improve both the precision and the efficiency of our system in the future.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24082.