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1Antoniou, G. ; Harmelen, F. van: ¬A semantic Web primer.
Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 2004. 236 S.
(Cooperative information systems)
Abstract: The development of the Semantic Web, with machine-readable content, has the potential to revolutionise the World Wide Web and its use. A Semantic Web Primer provides an introduction and guide to this emerging field, describing its key ideas, languages and technologies. Suitable for use as a textbook or for self-study by professionals, it concentrates on undergraduate-level fundamental concepts and techniques that will enable readers to proceed with building applications on their own. It includes exercises, project descriptions and annotated references to relevant online materials. A Semantic Web Primer is the only available book on the Semantic Web to include a systematic treatment of the different languages (XML, RDF, OWL and rules) and technologies (explicit metadata, ontologies and logic and interference) that are central to Semantic Web development. The book also examines such crucial related topics as ontology engineering and application scenarios. After an introductory chapter, topics covered in succeeding chapters include XML and related technologies that support semantic interoperability; RDF and RDF Schema, the standard data model for machine-processable semantics; and OWL, the W3C-approved standard for a Web ontology language more extensive than RDF Schema; rules, both monotonic and nonmonotonic, in the framework of the Semantic Web; selected application domains and how the Semantic Web would benefit them; the development of ontology-based systems; and current debates on key issues and predictions for the future.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 57(2006) no.8, S.1132-1133 (H. Che): "The World Wide Web has been the main source of an important shift in the way people communicate with each other, get information, and conduct business. However, most of the current Web content is only suitable for human consumption. The main obstacle to providing better quality of service is that the meaning of Web content is not machine-accessible. The "Semantic Web" is envisioned by Tim Berners-Lee as a logical extension to the current Web that enables explicit representations of term meaning. It aims to bring the Web to its full potential via the exploration of these machine-processable metadata. To fulfill this, it pros ides some meta languages like RDF, OWL, DAML+OIL, and SHOE for expressing knowledge that has clear, unambiguous meanings. The first steps in searing the Semantic Web into the current Web are successfully underway. In the forthcoming years, these efforts still remain highly focused in the research and development community. In the next phase, the Semantic Web will respond more intelligently to user queries. The first chapter gets started with an excellent introduction to the Semantic Web vision. At first, today's Web is introduced, and problems with some current applications like search engines are also covered. Subsequently, knowledge management. business-to-consumer electronic commerce, business-to-business electronic commerce, and personal agents are used as examples to show the potential requirements for the Semantic Web. Next comes the brief description of the underpinning technologies, including metadata, ontology, logic, and agent. The differences between the Semantic Web and Artificial Intelligence are also discussed in a later subsection. In section 1.4, the famous "laser-cake" diagram is given to show a layered view of the Semantic Web. From chapter 2, the book starts addressing some of the most important technologies for constructing the Semantic Web. In chapter 2, the authors discuss XML and its related technologies such as namespaces, XPath, and XSLT. XML is a simple, very flexible text format which is often used for the exchange of a wide variety of data on the Web and elsewhere. The W3C has defined various languages on top of XML, such as RDF. Although this chapter is very well planned and written, many details are not included because of the extensiveness of the XML technologies. Many other books on XML provide more comprehensive coverage. ; The next chapter introduces resource description framework (RDF) and RDF schema (RDFS). Unlike XML, RDF provides a foundation for expressing the semantics of dada: it is a standard dada model for machine-processable semantics. Resource description framework schema offers a number of modeling primitives for organizing RDF vocabularies in typed hierarchies. In addition to RDF and RDFS, a query language for RDF, i.e. RQL. is introduced. This chapter and the next chapter are two of the most important chapters in the book. Chapter 4 presents another language called Web Ontology Language (OWL). Because RDFS is quite primitive as a modeling language for the Web, more powerful languages are needed. A richer language. DAML+OIL, is thus proposed as a joint endeavor of the United States and Europe. OWL takes DAML+OIL as the starting point, and aims to be the standardized and broadly accepted ontology language. At the beginning of the chapter, the nontrivial relation with RDF/RDFS is discussed. Then the authors describe the various language elements of OWL in some detail. Moreover, Appendix A contains an abstract OWL syntax. which compresses OWL and makes OWL much easier to read. Chapter 5 covers both monotonic and nonmonotonic rules. Whereas the previous chapter's mainly concentrate on specializations of knowledge representation, this chapter depicts the foundation of knowledge representation and inference. Two examples are also givwn to explain monotonic and non-monotonic rules, respectively. "To get the most out of the chapter. readers had better gain a thorough understanding of predicate logic first. Chapter 6 presents several realistic application scenarios to which the Semantic Web technology can be applied. including horizontal information products at Elsevier, data integration at Audi, skill finding at Swiss Life, a think tank portal at EnerSearch, e-learning. Web services, multimedia collection indexing, online procurement, raid device interoperability. These case studies give us some real feelings about the Semantic Web. ; The chapter on ontology engineering describes the development of ontology-based systems for the Web using manual and semiautomatic methods. Ontology is a concept similar to taxonomy. As stated in the introduction, ontology engineering deals with some of the methodological issues that arise when building ontologies, in particular, con-structing ontologies manually, reusing existing ontologies. and using semiautomatic methods. A medium-scale project is included at the end of the chapter. Overall the book is a nice introduction to the key components of the Semantic Web. The reading is quite pleasant, in part due to the concise layout that allows just enough content per page to facilitate readers' comprehension. Furthermore, the book provides a large number of examples, code snippets, exercises, and annotated online materials. Thus, it is very suitable for use as a textbook for undergraduates and low-grade graduates, as the authors say in the preface. However, I believe that not only students but also professionals in both academia and iudustry will benefit from the book. The authors also built an accompanying Web site for the book at http://www.semanticwebprimer.org. On the main page, there are eight tabs for each of the eight chapters. For each tabm the following sections are included: overview, example, presentations, problems and quizzes, errata, and links. These contents will greatly facilitate readers: for example, readers can open the listed links to further their readings. The vacancy of the errata sections also proves the quality of the book."
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Grundlagen u. Einführungen: Allgemeine Literatur
Objekt: WWW ; RDF ; RDFS ; DAML+OIL ; OWL
LCSH: Semantic Web
DDC: 025.04 / dc22
2Antoniou, G.: Integrity and rule checking in nonmonotonic knowledge bases.
In: Knowledge-based systems. 9(1996) no.5, S.301-306.
Abstract: Anomalies such as redundant, contradictory or deficient knowledge in a knowledge base indicate possible errors. Introduces various methods for detecting such anomalies. Discusses how classical verification methods may be applied to detect some anomalies in nonmonotonic knowledge bases. Describes these anomalies in a formal way, and presents the generic verfication methods to detect them