Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 16. Dezember 2019)
1Bates, M.J.: ¬The nature of browsing.
Abstract: The recent article by McKay et al. on browsing (2019) provides a valuable addition to the empirical literature of information science on this topic, and I read the descriptions of the various browsing cases with interest. However, the authors refer to my article on browsing (Bates, 2007) in ways that do not make sense to me and which do not at all conform to what I actually said.
Inhalt: Bezug (Letter to the editor) zu: McKay, D., Chang, S.,, Smith, W., Buchanan, G.: The things we talk about when we talk about browsing: an empirical typology of library browsing behavior. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (2019).
2Bates, M.J.: Concepts for the study of information embodiment.
In: Library trends. 66(2018) no.3, S.239-266.
Abstract: The growing study in information science of the role of the body in human information practice may benefit from the concepts developed around a set of fundamental forms of information previously published by the author. In applying these concepts to the study of human information practice, we see a framework that nicely names and locates the major components of an understanding of information seeking of all types, including that related to the body. We see information in nature, what happens to information when it encounters a nervous system, and how that information is used within nervous systems to both encode and embody the experiences of life. We see information not only in direct encounters with the body but also as it is experienced through extensions of the body, used for both input and output purposes. We also see information in the body in relation to a larger framework of forms of information encompassing both internal and external (exosomatic) information. Finally, a selective review is provided of related research and theory from biology, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy, which supports and deepens our understanding of the approach taken here to information embodiment.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: 'Information and the Body: Part 1'.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: DOI: 10.1353/lib.2018.0002. Vgl. auch den Kommentar in: Lueg, C.: To be or not to be (embodied): that is not the question. In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 71(2020) no.1, S.114-117. (Opinion paper) Two articles in a recent special issue on Information and the Body published in the journal Library Trends stand out because of the way they are identifying, albeit indirectly, a formidable challenge to library information science (LIS). In her contribution, Bates warns that understanding information behavior demands recognizing and studying "any one important element of the ecology [in which humans are embedded]." Hartel, on the other hand, suggests that LIS would not lose much but would have lots to gain by focusing on core LIS themes instead of embodied information, since the latter may be unproductive, as LIS scholars are "latecomer[s] to a mature research domain." I would argue that LIS as a discipline cannot avoid dealing with those pesky mammals aka patrons or users; like the cognate discipline and "community of communities" human computer interaction (HCI), LIS needs the interdisciplinarity to succeed. LIS researchers are uniquely positioned to help bring together LIS's deep understanding of "information" and embodiment perspectives that may or may not have been developed in other disciplines. LIS researchers need to be more explicit about what their original contribution is, though, and what may have been appropriated from other disciplines.
3Bates, M.J.: ¬The selected works of Marcia J. Bates : Volume I: Information and the information professions. Volume II: Information searching theory and practice. Volume III: Information users and information system design.
Berkeley, CA : Ketchikan Press, 2016. 372 + 392 + 384 S.
ISBN 978-0-9817584-1-1 * 978-0-9817584-2-8 * 978-0-9817584-3-5
Abstract: Throughout most of human history, people got the information they needed for their lives more or less automatically and unthinkingly--through people they talked with, and from their own life experiences. Today, we are inundated with information but often know little about how to find our way through the vast sea of recorded knowledge to get to what we really want and need. In the information sciences researchers have thought a great deal about information seeking, and have studied people in the grip of trying to satisfy an information need. Much has been learned about how to enable comfortable and fun information searching in human, paper, and digital environments. Professor Marcia Bates of UCLA's Department of Information Studies has collected fifteen of her major papers on information searching in theory and practice in this volume. The articles address many aspects of searching for information, including searching tactics and techniques, the "vocabulary problem" in online searching, the kinds of indexing terms to use in various contexts, the Bradford Distribution and its effects on searching in large databases, the true nature of browsing, and how to design computer interfaces for successful searching. For all the variety in types of information systems, the human being interacting with an information source is remarkably stable in psychology and behavior. These human traits and system features are explored in depth in this book. Bates' popular articles, "What is Browsing--Really?" and "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online Search Interface," are included. This is Volume II of three containing selected works by Bates. The others are titled: Information and the Information Professions (Vol. I) and Information Users and Information System Design (Vol. III)
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 69(2018) no.2, S.343-344 (Dagobert Soergel).
BK: 06.35 (Informationsmanagement) ; 06.74 (Informationssysteme)
4Mizrachi, D. ; Bates, M.J.: Undergraduates' personal academic information management and the consideration of time and task-urgency.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.8, S.1590-1607.
Abstract: Young undergraduate college students are often described as "digital natives," presumed to prefer living and working in completely digital information environments. In reality, their world is part-paper/part-digital, in constant transition among successive forms of digital storage and communication devices. Studying for a degree is the daily work of these young people, and effective management of paper and digital academic materials and resources contributes crucially to their success in life. Students must also constantly manage their work against deadlines to meet their course and university requirements. This study, following the "Personal Information Management" (PIM) paradigm, examines student academic information management under these various constraints and pressures. A total of 41 18- to 22-year-old students were interviewed and observed regarding the content, structure, and uses of their immediate working environment within their dormitory rooms. Students exhibited remarkable creativity and variety in the mixture of automated and manual resources and devices used to support their academic work. The demands of a yearlong procession of assignments, papers, projects, and examinations increase the importance of time management activities and influence much of their behavior. Results provide insights on student use of various kinds of information technology and their overall planning and management of information associated with their studies.
5Bates, M.J.: Birger Hjørland's Manichean misconstruction of Marcia Bates' work.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.10, S.2038-2044.
Abstract: It is argued and demonstrated that Birger Hjoerland's critiques of Marcia Bates' articles on the nature of information and the nature of browsing misrepresent the content of these articles, and further, frame the argument as a Manichean conflict between Hjørland's enlightened "discursive" and social approach versus Bates' benighted behavioral approach. It is argued that Bates' work not only contains much of value that has been ignored by Hjørland but also contains ideas that mostly complement, rather than conflict with, those of Hjørland.
6Bates, M.J.: Information.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.2347-2360.
Abstract: A selection of representative definitions of information is drawn from information science and related disciplines, and discussed and compared. Defining information remains such a contested project that any claim to present a unified, singular vision of the topic would be disingenuous. Seven categories of definitions are described: Communicatory or semiotic; activity-based (i.e., information as event); propositional; structural; social; multitype; and deconstructionist. The impact of Norbert Wiener and Claude Shannon is discussed, as well as the widespread influence of Karl Popper's ideas. The data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) continuum is also addressed. Work of these authors is reviewed: Marcia J. Bates, Gregory Bateson, B.C. Brookes, Michael Buckland, Ian Cornelius, Ronald Day, Richard Derr, Brenda Dervin, Fred Dretske, Jason Farradane, Christopher Fox, Bernd Frohmann, Jonathan Furner, J.A. Goguen, Robert Losee, A.D. Madden, D.M. McKay, Doede Nauta, A.D. Pratt, Frederick Thompson.
Inhalt: Digital unter: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/E-ELIS3-120045519. Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
7Bates, M.J.: Information behavior.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.xx-xx.
Abstract: "Information behavior" is the currently preferred term used to describe the many ways in which human beings interact with information, in particular, the ways in which people seek and utilize information. The broad history of research on information-seeking behavior over the last 50-60 years is reviewed, major landmarks are identified, and current directions in research are discussed.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
Themenfeld: Information ; Suchtaktik ; Informationsdienstleistungen
8Bates, M.J.: Hjoerland's critique of Bates' work on defining information.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.5, S.842-844.
Abstract: In a recent article, Birger Hjørland (2007) critiqued the author's efforts in defining and conceptualizing information as a core concept in information science (Bates, 2005, 2006). It is argued that Hjørland has seriously misrepresented and confused the actual line of argument in those articles. Specifics of that case are presented, and the reader is urged to return to the original Bates articles to understand her claims. In those articles, Bates attempted to develop a broad conception of information, as well as a number of subtypes of information, for use in the field of information science. The development of information was related to evolutionary processes, with emergence as a significant theme.
Inhalt: Bezugnahme auf: Hjoerland, B.: Information: Objective or subjective/situational? In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(2007) no.10, S.1448-1456. - Vgl. Erwiderung: Hjoerland, B.: The controversy over the concept of information: a rejoinder to Professor Bates. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.3, S.643. Vgl. auch: Bates, M.J.: Birger Hjørland's Manichean misconstruction of Marcia Bates' work. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.10, S.2038-2044.
9Bates, M.J.: Defining the information disciplines in encyclopedia development.
In: Information Research. 12(2007) no.4, paper colis29.
Abstract: Introduction. Dramatic changes in society and in the information disciplines and professions constituted the basis for a re-conceptualization of the content of the Encyclopedia of Library and Information Sciences. Method. Marcia J. Bates and Mary Niles Maack, Editors of the forthcoming Third Edition, working with a fifty-person Editorial Advisory Board, developed the new, projected contents list for the encyclopedia, based upon principles developed in the re-conceptualization. Analysis. Drawing on Bates' "Invisible Substrate of Information Science" article, and other sources, the information disciplines are seen as consisting of the "disciplines of the cultural record" and the "information sciences." These disciplines are all concerned with the collection, organization and access to information, across the entire traditional spectrum of disciplines, such as the humanities and natural and social sciences. Results. The disciplines covered in the encyclopedia are library and information science, archival science, records management, information systems, informatics, knowledge management, museum studies, bibliography, document and genre studies, and social studies of information. A variety of cognate disciplines are briefly covered as well. Conclusions. The information disciplines are coming into their own in the 21st century. They are increasingly prominent in universities and in society generally, and, possibly with the help of the encyclopedia, may come increasingly to be seen as a set of related disciplines traversing a spectrum of their own.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://informationr.net/ir/12-4/colis/colis29.html.
10Bates, M.J.: Fundamental forms of information.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.8, S.1033-1045.
Abstract: Fundamental forms of information, as well as the term information itself, are defined and developed for the purposes of information science/studies. Concepts of natural and represented information (taking an unconventional sense of representation), encoded and embodied information, as well as experienced, enacted, expressed, embedded, recorded, and trace information are elaborated. The utility of these terms for the discipline is illustrated with examples from the study of information-seeking behavior and of information genres. Distinctions between the information and curatorial sciences with respect to their social (and informational) objects of study are briefly outlined.
Inhalt: Vgl. Erwiderung: Hjoerland, B.: The controversy over the concept of information: a rejoinder to Professor Bates. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.3, S.643.
11Bates, M.J.: Information and knowledge : an evolutionary framework for information science.
In: Information research. 10(2005) no.4, paper 239.
Abstract: Many definitions of information have been suggested throughout the history of information science. In this essay, the objective has been to provide a definition that is usable for the physical, biological and social meanings of the term, covering the various senses important to our field. Information has been defined as the pattern of organization of matter and energy. Information is everywhere except where there is total entropy. Living beings process, organize and ascribe meaning to information. Some pattern of organization that has been given meaning by a living being has been defined as information 2, while the above definition is information 1, when it is desirable to make the distinction. Knowledge has been defined as information given meaning and integrated with other contents of understanding. Meaning itself is rooted ultimately in biological survival. In the human being, extensive processing space in the brain has made possible the generation of extremely rich cultural and interpersonal meaning, which imbues human interactions. (In the short term, not all meaning that humans ascribe to information is the result of evolutionary processes. Our extensive brain processing space also enables us to hold beliefs for the short term that, over the long term, may actually be harmful to survival.) Data 1 has been defined as that portion of the entire information environment (including internal inputs) that is taken in, or processed, by an organism. Data 2 is that information that is selected or generated and used by human beings for research or other social purposes. This definition of information is not reductive--that is, it does not imply that information is all and only the most microscopic physical manifestation of matter and energy. Information principally exists for organisms at many emergent levels. A human being, for example, can see this account as tiny marks on a piece of paper, as letters of the alphabet, as words of the English language, as a sequence of ideas, as a genre of publication, as a philosophical position and so on. Thus, patterns of organization are not all equal in the life experience of animals. Some types of patterns are more important, some less so. Some parts of patterns are repetitive and can be compressed in mental storage. As mental storage space is generally limited and its maintenance costly to an animal, adaptive advantage accrues to the species that develops efficient storage. As a result, many species process elements of their environment in ways efficient and effective for their particular purposes; that is, as patterns of organization that are experienced as emergent wholes. We see a chair as a chair, not only as a pattern of light and dark. We see a string of actions by a salesperson as bait and switch, not just as a sequence of actions. We understand a series of statements as parts of a whole philosophical argument, not just as a series of sentences. The understanding of information embraced here recognizes and builds on the idea that these emergent wholes are efficient for storage and effective for the life purposes of human beings as successful animals (to date) on our planet. Thus, people experience their lives in terms of these emergent objects and relations, for the most part. Likewise, information is stored in retrieval systems in such a way that it can be represented to human beings in their preferred emergent forms, rather than in the pixels or bits in which the information is actually encoded within the information system.
Inhalt: Auch unter: http://InformationR.net/ir/10-4/paper239.html. - Vgl. Erwiderung: Hjoerland, B.: The controversy over the concept of information: a rejoinder to Professor Bates. In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.3, S.643.
12Bates, M.J.: Information science at the University of California at Berkeley in the 1960s : a memoir of student days.
In: Library trends. 52(2004) no.4, S.683-701.
Abstract: The author's experiences as a master's and doctoral student at the University of California at Berkeley School of Library and Information Studies during a formative period in the history of information science, 1966-71, are described. The relationship between documentation and information science as experienced in that program is discussed, as well as the various influences, both social and intellectual, that shaped the author's understanding of information science at that time.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: Pioneers in library and information science
Wissenschaftsfach: Bibliothekswesen ; Informationswissenschaft
Land/Ort: USA ; Berkeley
13Bates, M.J.: Improving user access to library catalog and portal information.
Abstract: In this lecture, Dr. Bates summarizes the research she recently conducted in her role as a Principal Investigator for the Library of Congress Action Plan on Bibliographic Control of Web Resources. Her investigations focused on three particular topics: User access vocabulary, Links among bibliographic families, and Staging of access to resources in the interface. From each of these perspectives, she shares her recommendations on how to achieve enhanced access to and display of records for selected Web resources across multiple systems.
Anmerkung: Vortrag, anläßlich: Bicentennial Conference on Bibliographic Control for the New Millennium: confronting the challenges of networked resources and the Web
14Bates, M.J.: Speculations on browsing, directed searching, and linking in relation to the Bradford distribution.
In: Emerging frameworks and methods: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Conceptions of Library and Information Science (CoLIS4), Seattle, WA, July 21 - 25, 2002. Eds.: Fidel, R., H. Bruce, P. Ingwersen u. P. Vakkari. Greenwood Village, Co. : Libraries Unlimited, 2002. S.137-150.
Abstract: Extensive literatures exist on information searching theory and techniques, as well as on the Bradford Distribution. This distribution, also known as "Bradford's Law of Scattering," tells us that information on a subject is dispersed in a characteristic and robust pattern that appears consistently across many different environments. This pattern may be expected to have important implications for information searching theory and techniques. Yet these two research literatures are rarely considered in relation to each other. It is the purpose of this article to distinguish three Bradford regions and speculate on the optimum searching techniques for each region. In the process, browsing, directed searching in databases, and the pursuit of various forms of links will all be considered. Implications of growth in size of a literature for optimal information organization and searching will also be addressed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/bates/articles/Searching_Bradford-m020430.html.
Themenfeld: Katalogfragen allgemein
15Bates, M.J.: ¬A tour of information science through the pages of JASIS.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.11, S.975-993.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes: The 50th Anniversary of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Pt.1: The Journal, its society, and the future of print
16Bates, M.J.: ¬The invisible substrate of information science.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.12, S.1043-1050.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes: The 50th Anniversary of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Pt.2: Paradigms, models, and models of information science
17Bates, M.J.: Indexing and access for digital libraries and the Internet : Human, database, and domain factors.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 49(1998) no.13, S.1185-1205.
Abstract: Discussion in the research community and among the general public regarding content indexing (especially subject indexing) and access to digital resources, especially on the Internet, has underutilized research on a variety of factors that are important in the design of such access mechanisms. Some of these factors and issues are reviewed and implications drawn for information system design in the era of electronic access. Specifically the following are discussed: Human factors: Subject searching vs. indexing, multiple terms of access, flok classification, basic level terms, and folk access; Database factors: Bradford's law, vocabulary scalability, the Resnikoff-Dolby 30:1 Rule; Domain factors: Role of domain in indexing
18Bates, M.J.: Document familiarity, relevance, and Bradford's law : the Getty Online Searching Project report; no.5.
In: Information processing and management. 32(1996) no.6, S.697-707.
Abstract: The Getty Online Searching Project studied the end user searching behaviour of 27 humanities scholars over a 2 year period. A number of scholars anticipated that they were already familiar with a percentage of records their searches retrieved. High document familiarity can be a significant factor in searching: Draws implications regarding the impact of high document familiarity on relevance and information retrieval theory. Makes speculations regarding high document familiarity and Bradford's law
19Bates, M.J.: Learning about the information seeking of interdisciplinary scholars and students.
In: Library trends. 45(1996) no.2, S.155-164.
Abstract: Notes that the information needs and information seeking behaviour of scholars and students in interdisciplinary fields has been studied very little. The few scattered studies available suggest that such fields may require striking and distinctive information seeking adaptations by researchers that mark this area as different and very much deserving of research. Discusses the kinds of research needed at both basic and applied levels
20Bates, M.J.: ¬The Getty End-User Online Searching Project in the humanities, report no.6 : overview and conclusions.
In: College and research libraries. 57(1996) no.6, S.514-524.
Abstract: Over a 2 year period, the Getty Information Institute (formerly the Getty Art History Information Program) sponsored and carried out a major study of end user online searching by humanities scholars. Complete logs of the searches and output were captured, and the 27 scholars involved were interviewed in depth. Reviews the study and its results, with particular emphasis on matters of interest to academic librarians. Implications are drawn for academic library reference service and collection development, as well as for cataloguing in the online and digital environment