Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Borgman, C.L.: Big data, little data, no data : scholarship in the networked world.
Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 2015. XXV, 383 S.
Abstract: "Big Data" is on the covers of Science, Nature, the Economist, and Wired magazines, on the front pages of the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times. But despite the media hyperbole, as Christine Borgman points out in this examination of data and scholarly research, having the right data is usually better than having more data; little data can be just as valuable as big data. In many cases, there are no data -- because relevant data don't exist, cannot be found, or are not available. Moreover, data sharing is difficult, incentives to do so are minimal, and data practices vary widely across disciplines. Borgman, an often-cited authority on scholarly communication, argues that data have no value or meaning in isolation; they exist within a knowledge infrastructure -- an ecology of people, practices, technologies, institutions, material objects, and relationships. After laying out the premises of her investigation -- six "provocations" meant to inspire discussion about the uses of data in scholarship -- Borgman offers case studies of data practices in the sciences, the social sciences, and the humanities, and then considers the implications of her findings for scholarly practice and research policy. To manage and exploit data over the long term, Borgman argues, requires massive investment in knowledge infrastructures; at stake is the future of scholarship.
Inhalt: Provocations -- What are data? -- Data scholarship -- Data diversity -- Data scholarship in the sciences -- Data scholarship in the social sciences -- Data scholarship in the humanities -- Sharing, releasing, and reusing data -- Credit, attribution, and discovery of data -- What to keep and why to keep them.
Anmerkung: Weitere Rez. in: JASIST 67(2016) no.3, S.751-753 (C. Tenopir).
LCSH: Communication in learning and scholarship / Technological innovations ; Research / Methodology ; Research / Data processing ; Information technology ; Information storage and retrieval systems ; Cyberinfrastructure
RSWK: Wissenschaft / Digitalisierung ; Forschung / Datenauswertung / Massendaten / Integrität
; Forschung / Datenverarbeitung / Informationssystem / Wissenschaft / E-Science
BK: 54.04 Ausbildung, Beruf, Organisationen Informatik ; 06.35 Informationsmanagement ; 02.13 Wissenschaftspraxis
DDC: 004 ; 020
GHBS: TZB (PB)
RVK: AK 28000 ; AK 28400 ; AK 39950
2Borgman, C.L.: ¬The conundrum of sharing research data.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63(2012) no.6, S.1059-1078.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: Researchers are producing an unprecedented deluge of data by using new methods and instrumentation. Others may wish to mine these data for new discoveries and innovations. However, research data are not readily available as sharing is common in only a few fields such as astronomy and genomics. Data sharing practices in other fields vary widely. Moreover, research data take many forms, are handled in many ways, using many approaches, and often are difficult to interpret once removed from their initial context. Data sharing is thus a conundrum. Four rationales for sharing data are examined, drawing examples from the sciences, social sciences, and humanities: (1) to reproduce or to verify research, (2) to make results of publicly funded research available to the public, (3) to enable others to ask new questions of extant data, and (4) to advance the state of research and innovation. These rationales differ by the arguments for sharing, by beneficiaries, and by the motivations and incentives of the many stakeholders involved. The challenges are to understand which data might be shared, by whom, with whom, under what conditions, why, and to what effects. Answers will inform data policy and practice.
3Pepe, A. ; Mayernik, M. ; Borgman, C.L. ; Van de Sompel, H.: From artifacts to aggregations : modeling scientific life cycles on the semantic Web.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.3, S.567-582.
Abstract: In the process of scientific research, many information objects are generated, all of which may remain valuable indefinitely. However, artifacts such as instrument data and associated calibration information may have little value in isolation; their meaning is derived from their relationships to each other. Individual artifacts are best represented as components of a life cycle that is specific to a scientific research domain or project. Current cataloging practices do not describe objects at a sufficient level of granularity nor do they offer the globally persistent identifiers necessary to discover and manage scholarly products with World Wide Web standards. The Open Archives Initiative's Object Reuse and Exchange data model (OAI-ORE) meets these requirements. We demonstrate a conceptual implementation of OAI-ORE to represent the scientific life cycles of embedded networked sensor applications in seismology and environmental sciences. By establishing relationships between publications, data, and contextual research information, we illustrate how to obtain a richer and more realistic view of scientific practices. That view can facilitate new forms of scientific research and learning. Our analysis is framed by studies of scientific practices in a large, multidisciplinary, multi-university science and engineering research center, the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing.
4Borgman, C.L. ; Smart, L.J. ; Millwood, K.A. ; Finley, J.R. ; Champeny, L. ; Gilliland, A.J. ; Leazer, G.H.: Comparing faculty information seeking in teaching and research : implications for the design of digital libraries.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.6, S.636-657.
Abstract: ADEPT is a 5-year project whose goals are to develop, deploy, and evaluate inquiry learning capabilities for the Alexandria Digital Library, an extant digital library of primary sources in geography. We interviewed nine geography faculty members who teach undergraduate courses about their information seeking for research and teaching and their use of information resources in teaching. These data were supplemented by interviews with four faculty members from another ADEPT study about the nature of knowledge in geography. Among our key findings are that geography faculty are more likely to encounter useful teaching resources while seeking research resources than vice versa, although the influence goes in both directions. Their greatest information needs are for research data, maps, and images. They desire better searching by concept or theme, in addition to searching by location and place name. They make extensive use of their own research resources in their teaching. Among the implications for functionality and architecture of geographic digital libraries for educational use are that personal digital libraries are essential, because individual faculty members have personalized approaches to selecting, collecting, and organizing teaching resources. Digital library services for research and teaching should include the ability to import content from common office software and to store content in standard formats that can be exported to other applications. Digital library services can facilitate sharing among faculty but cannot overcome barriers such as intellectual property rights, access to proprietary research data, or the desire of individuals to maintain control over their own resources. Faculty use of primary and secondary resources needs to be better understood if we are to design successful digital libraries for research and teaching.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Information Gateway
5Borgman, C.L.: ¬The invisible library : paradox of the global information infrastructure.
In: Library trends. 51(2003) no.4, S.652-674.
Abstract: Libraries are an essential component of a nation's information infrastructure, yet often they are invisible to their users and other stakeholders. In the context of this special issue, the paper presents four challenges faced by libraries and proposes research designs to address each of them. The four challenges involve: 1. invisible infrastructure, 2. content and collections, 3. preservation and access, and 4. institutional boundaries. I propose a mixture of research methods that includes surveys, case studies, documentary analyses, and policy analyses. Only with a better understanding of these challenges can libraries find their best fit in the information infrastructure of our networked world.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: Research questions for the twenty-first century
6Borgman, C.L. ; Furner, J.: Scholarly communication and bibliometrics.
In: Annual review of information science and technology. 36(2002), S.3-72.
Abstract: Why devote an ARIST chapter to scholarly communication and bibliometrics, and why now? Bibliometrics already is a frequently covered ARIST topic, with chapters such as that by White and McCain (1989) on bibliometrics generally, White and McCain (1997) on visualization of literatures, Wilson and Hood (2001) on informetric laws, and Tabah (2001) on literature dynamics. Similarly, scholarly communication has been addressed in other ARIST chapters such as Bishop and Star (1996) on social informatics and digital libraries, Schamber (1994) on relevance and information behavior, and many earlier chapters on information needs and uses. More than a decade ago, the first author addressed the intersection of scholarly communication and bibliometrics with a journal special issue and an edited book (Borgman, 1990; Borgman & Paisley, 1989), and she recently examined interim developments (Borgman, 2000a, 2000c). This review covers the decade (1990-2000) since the comprehensive 1990 volume, citing earlier works only when necessary to explain the foundation for recent developments.
Themenfeld: Literaturübersicht ; Informetrie
7Borgman, C.L.: What are Digital Libraries? : competing visions.
In: Information processing and management. 35(1999) no.3, S.227-243.
9Borgman, C.L.: Multi-media, multi-cultural, and multi-lingual digital libraries : or how do we exchange data In 400 languages?.
In: D-Lib magazine. 3(1997) no.6, xx S.
Abstract: The Internet would not be very useful if communication were limited to textual exchanges between speakers of English located in the United States. Rather, its value lies in its ability to enable people from multiple nations, speaking multiple languages, to employ multiple media in interacting with each other. While computer networks broke through national boundaries long ago, they remain much more effective for textual communication than for exchanges of sound, images, or mixed media -- and more effective for communication in English than for exchanges in most other languages, much less interactions involving multiple languages. Supporting searching and display in multiple languages is an increasingly important issue for all digital libraries accessible on the Internet. Even if a digital library contains materials in only one language, the content needs to be searchable and displayable on computers in countries speaking other languages. We need to exchange data between digital libraries, whether in a single language or in multiple languages. Data exchanges may be large batch updates or interactive hyperlinks. In any of these cases, character sets must be represented in a consistent manner if exchanges are to succeed. Issues of interoperability, portability, and data exchange related to multi-lingual character sets have received surprisingly little attention in the digital library community or in discussions of standards for information infrastructure, except in Europe. The landmark collection of papers on Standards Policy for Information Infrastructure, for example, contains no discussion of multi-lingual issues except for a passing reference to the Unicode standard. The goal of this short essay is to draw attention to the multi-lingual issues involved in designing digital libraries accessible on the Internet. Many of the multi-lingual design issues parallel those of multi-media digital libraries, a topic more familiar to most readers of D-Lib Magazine. This essay draws examples from multi-media DLs to illustrate some of the urgent design challenges in creating a globally distributed network serving people who speak many languages other than English. First we introduce some general issues of medium, culture, and language, then discuss the design challenges in the transition from local to global systems, lastly addressing technical matters. The technical issues involve the choice of character sets to represent languages, similar to the choices made in representing images or sound. However, the scale of the language problem is far greater. Standards for multi-media representation are being adopted fairly rapidly, in parallel with the availability of multi-media content in electronic form. By contrast, we have hundreds (and sometimes thousands) of years worth of textual materials in hundreds of languages, created long before data encoding standards existed. Textual content from past and present is being encoded in language and application-specific representations that are difficult to exchange without losing data -- if they exchange at all. We illustrate the multi-language DL challenge with examples drawn from the research library community, which typically handles collections of materials in 400 or so languages. These are problems faced not only by developers of digital libraries, but by those who develop and manage any communication technology that crosses national or linguistic boundaries.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://dlib.ukoln.ac.uk/dlib/june97/06borgman.html.
Themenfeld: Information Gateway ; Multilinguale Probleme
10Beaulieu, M. ; Borgman, C.L.: ¬A new era for OPAC research : introduction to special topic issue on current research in Online Public Access Systems.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 47(1996) no.7, S.491-492.
Abstract: Einleitender Aufsatz in die Beiträge des Themenheftes
11Borgman, C.L.: Why are online catalogs still hard to use?.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 47(1996) no.7, S.493-503.
Abstract: We return to arguments made 10 years ago that online catalogs are difficult to use because their design does not incorporate sufficient understanding of searching behavior. The earlier article examined studies of information retrieval system searching for their implications for online catalog design; this article examines the implications of card catalog design for online catalogs. With this analysis, we hope to contribute to a better understanding of user behavior and to lay to rest the card catalog design model for online catalogs. We discuss the problems with query matching systems, which were designed for skilled search intermediaries rather than end-users, and the knowledge and skills they require in the information-seeking process, illustrated with examples of searching card and online catalogs. Searching requires conceptual knowledge of the information retrieval process - translating an information need into a searchable query; semantic knowledge of how to implement a query in a given system - the how and when to use system features; and technical skills in executing the query - basic computing skills and the syntax of entering queries as specific search statements. In the short term, we can help make online catalogs easier to use through improved training and documentation that is based on information-seeking bahavior, with the caveat that good training is not a substitute for good system design. Our long term goal should be to design intuitive systems that require a minimum of instruction. Given the complexity of the information retrieval problem and the limited capabilities of today's systems, we are far from achieving that goal. If libraries are to provide primary information services for the networked world, they need to put research results on the information-seeking process into practice in designing the next generation of online public access information retrieval systems
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Retrievalstudien
12Borgman, C.L. ; Hirsh, S.G. ; Hiller, J.: Rethinking online monitoring methods for information retrieval systems : from search product to search process.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 47(1996) no.7, S.568-583.
Abstract: Searching information retrieval systems is a highly interactive, iterative process that cannot be understood simply by comparing the output of a search session (the 'search product') to a query stated in advance. In this article, we examine evaluation goals and methods for studying information retrieval behavior, drawing examples from our own research and that of others. We limit our review to research that employs online monitoring, also known as transaction log analysis. Online monitoring is one of few methods that can capture detailed data on the search process at a reasonable cost; these data can be used to build quantitative models or to support qualitative interpretations of quatitative results. Monitoring is a data collection technique rather than a research design, and can be employed in experimental of field studies, whether alone or combined with other data collection methods. Based on the the research questions of interest, the researcher must determine what variables to collect from each data source, which to treat as independent varaibles to manipulate, and which to treat as dependent variables to observe effects. Studies of searching behavior often treat search task and searcher characteristics as independent variables and may manipulate other independent variables specific to the research questions addressed. Search outcomes, time, and search paths frequently are treated as dependent variables. We discuss each of these sets of variables, illustrating them with sample results from the literature and from our own research. Our examples are drawn from the Science Library Catalog project, a 7-year study of children's searching behavior on an experimental retrieval system. We close with a brief discussion of the implications of these results for the design of information retrieval systems
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Benutzerstudien
13Borgman, C.L.: Will the global information infrastructure be the library of the future? : Central and Eastern Europe as a case example.
In: IFLA journal. 22(1996) no.2, S.121-127.
Abstract: Addresses the technical and policy issues in the development of an international infrastructure for the flow of information by studying the emerging national information infrastructures in 6 post communist countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The study consisted of interviews with over 300 library managers, computing network administrators, government policy makers and other information professionals conducted in 1993 and 1994 in Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia, plus a 1994 mail survey of research libraries in these countries. After presenting the principles under which the G-7 leading industrialized countries have agreed to collaborate on constructing a Global Information Infrastructure (GII), presents examples from the survey on how the GII pronciples might be addressed. Results of the longitudinal study were reported at greater length in the Proceedings of the 58th Meeting of the ASIS, 1995, S.27-34
14Borgman, C.L.: Automation is the answer, but what is the question? : Progress and prospects for Central and Eastern European libraries.
In: Journal of documentation. 52(1996) no.3, S.252-295.
Abstract: In the former Yugoslavia and Soviet Bloc countries of Central and Eastern Europe most information technology was unavailable, unaffordable or discouraged for forty years. These countries realise that they must improve their internal infrastructures if they are to become integral parts of the global information infrastructure. We report the results of a mail survey conducted in late 1994 and early 1995 of 70 research libraries in Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia, building on the findings from interviews conducted with 300 persons in the region in 1993-1994. Results show that these libraries are acquiring automated processing systems, CD-ROM databases, and connections to computer networks at a rapid rate and that automation activity has increased substantially since 1989
15Borgman, C.L. ; Hirsh, S.G. ; Walter, V.A. ; Gallagher, A.L.: Childrens searching behavior on browsing and keyword online catalogs : the Science Library Catalog project.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 46(1995) no.9, S.663-684.
Abstract: As we seek both to improve public school education in high technology areas and to link libraries and classrooms on the 'information superhighway', we need to understand more about children's information searching abilities. We present results of 4 experiments conducted on 4 versions of the Science Library Catalog (SLC), a Dewey Decimal based hierarchical browsing systems implemeted in HyperCard without a keyboard. The experiments were conducted over a 3-year period at 3 sites, with 4 databases, and with comparisons to 2 different keyword online catalogs. Subjects were ethnically and culturally diverse children aged 9 through 12; with 32 to 34 children participating in each experiment. Children were provided explicit instruction and reference materials for the keyword systems but not for the SLC. The number of search topics matched was comparable across all systems and all experiments; search times were comparable, thought hey varied among the 4 SLC versions and between the 2 keyword OPACs. The SLC overall was robust to differences in age, sex and computer experience. One of the keyword OPACs was subject to minor effects of age and computer experience; the other was not. We found relationships between search topic and system structure, such that the most difficult topics on the SLC were those hard to locate in the hierarchy, and those most difficult on the keyword OPACs were hard to spell or required children to generate their own search terms. The SLC approach overcomes problems with several searching features that are difficult for children in typical keyword OPAC systems; typing skills, spelling, vocabulary, and Boolean logic. Results have general implications for the desing of information retrieval systems for children
16Hirsh, S.G. ; Borgman, C.L.: Comparing children's use of browsing and keyword searching on the Science Library catalog.
In: Forging new partnerships in information: converging technologies. Proceedings of the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, ASIS'95, Chicago, IL, 9-12 October 1995. Ed.: T. Kinney. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1995. S.19-26.
Abstract: Reports on a continuing project to study children's search behaviour on an automated library catalogue designed for children, called the Science Library Catalog. This experiment exployed an advanced version of the system which combines the browsing features of earlier versions with keyword capabilities that do not require correct spelling, searching alphabetical lists, or using Boolean logic. 5th grade children are able to use browsing and keyword searchs trategies successfully, relying on browsing to familiarize themselves with the system and graduating to keyword methods after they are comfortable with the system. Children's level of science domian knowledge was found to influence both their success in finding books and their search behaviour, with children with high domain knowledge finding books more successfully and utilizing more keyword and mixed search methgods. Results contribute to understanding of the factors affecting children's search behaviour
17Rosenberg, J.B. ; Borgman, C.L.: Extending the Dewey Decimal Classification via keyword clustering : the Science Library Catalog project.
In: Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Pittsburgh, 26.-29.10.92. Ed.: D. Shaw. Medford, NJ : Learned Information Inc., 1992. S.171-184.
Abstract: The Science Library Catalog is a direct manipulation browsing oriented online catalogue intended for use by children. The catalogue provides an innovative interface tailored to the cognitive development of children, yet can be implemented by loading MARC records from extant library collections. Reprots on the implementation of keyword clustering algorithms used to extend the DDC class number assignments on a database of over 8.200 bibliographic records
19Borgman, C.L. ; Walter, V.A. ; Rosenberg, J.: ¬The Science Library Catalog project : comparison of children's searching behaviour in hypertext and a keyword search system.
In: ASIS '91: systems understanding people. Proc. of the 54th Annual Meeting of the ASIS, vol.28, Washington, DC, 27.-31.10.1991. Ed.: J.-M. Griffiths. Medford : Learned Information Inc., 1991. S.162-169.
Abstract: Reports on a continuing project to study children's use of a graphically-based direct manipulation interface for science materials. The Science Library Catalogue (SLC), a component of project SEED, has been implemented in the libraries of 21 elementary schools in Los Angeles and will soon be implemented in a public library. The interface employs a hierarchical structure drawn from the DDC and implemented in HyperCard on the Macintosh. The study on the 2nd version of the interface indicates that children are able to use the Science Library Catalogue unaided, with reasonable success in finding items. Search success on the same topics on a Boolean command driven system was equivalent, but Boolean searches were faster. However, the Boolean system was more sensitive to differences in age, with 12-year-olds having significantly better success rates than 10-year-olds; and to search topic, with one set of questions being much easier to search than the other. On average, children liked the 2 systems about the same; the Boolean system was more attractive to certain age and gender combinations, while the Science Library Catalogue was more consistently liked across groups. results are compared to prior studies on the Science Library Catalogue and other online catalogues
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Hypertext ; Suchoberflächen
20Sullivan, M.V. ; Borgman, C.L. ; Wippern, D.: End-users, mediated searches, and front-end assistance programs on dialig : a comparison of learning, performance, and satisfaction.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 41(1990) no.1, S.27-42.
Abstract: We trained 40 doctoral students to search INSPEC or ERIC on DIALOG using either the SCI-MATE menu or native commands. Each student then performed a free search on his or her chosen research topic. In comparison with 20 control subjects - doctoral students for whom a free search was performed by a skilled librarian - the experimental subjects were no less satisfied with their retrievals, which were smaller but higher in precision than the retrievals produced by the intermediaries. End-users retrieved as many relevant references as the intermediaries. Use of the menu interface did not affect quality of retrieval or user satisfaction, although subjects instructed to use native commands required less training time, and interacted more with the databases than subjects trained on the SCI-MATE menu.