Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Colavizza, G. ; Boyack, K.W. ; Eck, N.J. van ; Waltman, L.: ¬The closer the better : similarity of publication pairs at different cocitation levels.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.4, S.600-609.
Abstract: We investigated the similarities of pairs of articles that are cocited at the different cocitation levels of the journal, article, section, paragraph, sentence, and bracket. Our results indicate that textual similarity, intellectual overlap (shared references), author overlap (shared authors), proximity in publication time all rise monotonically as the cocitation level gets lower (from journal to bracket). While the main gain in similarity happens when moving from journal to article cocitation, all level changes entail an increase in similarity, especially section to paragraph and paragraph to sentence/bracket levels. We compared the results from four journals over the years 2010-2015: Cell, the European Journal of Operational Research, Physics Letters B, and Research Policy, with consistent general outcomes and some interesting differences. Our findings motivate the use of granular cocitation information as defined by meaningful units of text, with implications for, among others, the elaboration of maps of science and the retrieval of scholarly literature.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.23981.
2Klavans, K. ; Boyack, K.W.: Which type of citation analysis generates the most accurate taxonomy of scientific and technical knowledge?.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.4, S.984-998.
Abstract: In 1965, Price foresaw the day when a citation-based taxonomy of science and technology would be delineated and correspondingly used for science policy. A taxonomy needs to be comprehensive and accurate if it is to be useful for policy making, especially now that policy makers are utilizing citation-based indicators to evaluate people, institutions and laboratories. Determining the accuracy of a taxonomy, however, remains a challenge. Previous work on the accuracy of partition solutions is sparse, and the results of those studies, although useful, have not been definitive. In this study we compare the accuracies of topic-level taxonomies based on the clustering of documents using direct citation, bibliographic coupling, and co-citation. Using a set of new gold standards-articles with at least 100 references-we find that direct citation is better at concentrating references than either bibliographic coupling or co-citation. Using the assumption that higher concentrations of references denote more accurate clusters, direct citation thus provides a more accurate representation of the taxonomy of scientific and technical knowledge than either bibliographic coupling or co-citation. We also find that discipline-level taxonomies based on journal schema are highly inaccurate compared to topic-level taxonomies, and recommend against their use.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23734/full.
3Boyack, K.W. ; Klavans, R.: Creation of a highly detailed, dynamic, global model and map of science.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.4, S.670-685.
Abstract: The majority of the effort in metrics research has addressed research evaluation. Far less research has addressed the unique problems of research planning. Models and maps of science that can address the detailed problems associated with research planning are needed. This article reports on the creation of an article-level model and map of science covering 16 years and nearly 20 million articles using cocitation-based techniques. The map is then used to define discipline-like structures consisting of natural groupings of articles and clusters of articles. This combination of detail and high-level structure can be used to address planning-related problems such as identification of emerging topics and the identification of which areas of science and technology are innovative and which are simply persisting. In addition to presenting the model and map, several process improvements that result in greater accuracy structures are detailed, including a bibliographic coupling approach for assigning current papers to cocitation clusters and a sequential hybrid approach to producing visual maps from models.
4Boyack, K.W. ; Small, H. ; Klavans, R.: Improving the accuracy of co-citation clustering using full text.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.9, S.1759-17676.
Abstract: Historically, co-citation models have been based only on bibliographic information. Full-text analysis offers the opportunity to significantly improve the quality of the signals upon which these co-citation models are based. In this work we study the effect of reference proximity on the accuracy of co-citation clusters. Using a corpus of 270,521 full text documents from 2007, we compare the results of traditional co-citation clustering using only the bibliographic information to results from co-citation clustering where proximity between reference pairs is factored into the pairwise relationships. We find that accounting for reference proximity from full text can increase the textual coherence (a measure of accuracy) of a co-citation cluster solution by up to 30% over the traditional approach based on bibliographic information.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Citation indexing
5Klavans, R. ; Boyack, K.W.: Using global mapping to create more accurate document-level maps of research fields.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.1, S.1-18.
Abstract: We describe two general approaches to creating document-level maps of science. To create a local map, one defines and directly maps a sample of data, such as all literature published in a set of information science journals. To create a global map of a research field, one maps "all of science" and then locates a literature sample within that full context. We provide a deductive argument that global mapping should create more accurate partitions of a research field than does local mapping, followed by practical reasons why this may not be so. The field of information science is then mapped at the document level using both local and global methods to provide a case illustration of the differences between the methods. Textual coherence is used to assess the accuracies of both maps. We find that document clusters in the global map have significantly higher coherence than do those in the local map, and that the global map provides unique insights into the field of information science that cannot be discerned from the local map. Specifically, we show that information science and computer science have a large interface and that computer science is the more progressive discipline at that interface. We also show that research communities in temporally linked threads have a much higher coherence than do isolated communities, and that this feature can be used to predict which threads will persist into a subsequent year. Methods that could increase the accuracy of both local and global maps in the future also are discussed.
6Boyack, K.W. ; Klavans, R.: Co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, and direct citation : which citation approach represents the research front most accurately?.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.12, S.2389-2404.
Abstract: In the past several years studies have started to appear comparing the accuracies of various science mapping approaches. These studies primarily compare the cluster solutions resulting from different similarity approaches, and give varying results. In this study we compare the accuracies of cluster solutions of a large corpus of 2,153,769 recent articles from the biomedical literature (2004-2008) using four similarity approaches: co-citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, direct citation, and a bibliographic coupling-based citation-text hybrid approach. Each of the four approaches can be considered a way to represent the research front in biomedicine, and each is able to successfully cluster over 92% of the corpus. Accuracies are compared using two metrics-within-cluster textual coherence as defined by the Jensen-Shannon divergence, and a concentration measure based on the grant-to-article linkages indexed in MEDLINE. Of the three pure citation-based approaches, bibliographic coupling slightly outperforms co-citation analysis using both accuracy measures; direct citation is the least accurate mapping approach by far. The hybrid approach improves upon the bibliographic coupling results in all respects. We consider the results of this study to be robust given the very large size of the corpus, and the specificity of the accuracy measures used.
7Klavans, R. ; Boyack, K.W.: Toward a consensus map of science.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.3, S.455-476.
Abstract: A consensus map of science is generated from an analysis of 20 existing maps of science. These 20 maps occur in three basic forms: hierarchical, centric, and noncentric (or circular). The consensus map, generated from consensus edges that occur in at least half of the input maps, emerges in a circular form. The ordering of areas is as follows: mathematics is (arbitrarily) placed at the top of the circle, and is followed clockwise by physics, physical chemistry, engineering, chemistry, earth sciences, biology, biochemistry, infectious diseases, medicine, health services, brain research, psychology, humanities, social sciences, and computer science. The link between computer science and mathematics completes the circle. If the lowest weighted edges are pruned from this consensus circular map, a hierarchical map stretching from mathematics to social sciences results. The circular map of science is found to have a high level of correspondence with the 20 existing maps, and has a variety of advantages over hierarchical and centric forms. A one-dimensional Riemannian version of the consensus map is also proposed.
8Klavans, R. ; Boyack, K.W.: Identifying a better measure of relatedness for mapping science.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.2, S.251-263.
Abstract: Measuring the relatedness between bibliometric units (journals, documents, authors, or words) is a central task in bibliometric analysis. Relatedness measures are used for many different tasks, among them the generating of maps, or visual pictures, showing the relationship between all items from these data. Despite the importance of these tasks, there has been little written an how to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of relatedness measures or the resulting maps. The authors propose a new framework for assessing the performance of relatedness measures and visualization algorithms that contains four factors: accuracy, coverage, scalability, and robustness. This method was applied to 10 measures of journal-journal relatedness to determine the best measure. The 10 relatedness measures were then used as inputs to a visualization algorithm to create an additional 10 measures of journal-journal relatedness based an the distances between pairs of journals in two-dimensional space. This second step determines robustness (i.e., which measure remains best after dimension reduction). Results show that, for low coverage (under 50%), the Pearson correlation is the most accurate raw relatedness measure. However, the best overall measure, both at high coverage, and after dimension reduction, is the cosine index or a modified cosine index. Results also showed that the visualization algorithm increased local accuracy for most measures. Possible reasons for this counterintuitive finding are discussed.
9Boyack, K.W. ; Wylie,B.N. ; Davidson, G.S.: Information Visualization, Human-Computer Interaction, and Cognitive Psychology : Domain Visualizations.
In: Visual Interfaces to Digital Libraries. Eds.: Börner, K. u. C. Chen. Berlin : Springer, 2002. S.145-159.
(Lecture notes in computer science; 2539)
Themenfeld: Suchoberflächen ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
10Börner, K. ; Chen, C. ; Boyack, K.W.: Visualizing knowledge domains.
In: Annual review of information science and technology. 37(2003), S.179-258.
Abstract: This chapter reviews visualization techniques that can be used to map the ever-growing domain structure of scientific disciplines and to support information retrieval and classification. In contrast to the comprehensive surveys conducted in traditional fashion by Howard White and Katherine McCain (1997, 1998), this survey not only reviews emerging techniques in interactive data analysis and information visualization, but also depicts the bibliographical structure of the field itself. The chapter starts by reviewing the history of knowledge domain visualization. We then present a general process flow for the visualization of knowledge domains and explain commonly used techniques. In order to visualize the domain reviewed by this chapter, we introduce a bibliographic data set of considerable size, which includes articles from the citation analysis, bibliometrics, semantics, and visualization literatures. Using tutorial style, we then apply various algorithms to demonstrate the visualization effectsl produced by different approaches and compare the results. The domain visualizations reveal the relationships within and between the four fields that together constitute the focus of this chapter. We conclude with a general discussion of research possibilities. Painting a "big picture" of scientific knowledge has long been desirable for a variety of reasons. Traditional approaches are brute forcescholars must sort through mountains of literature to perceive the outlines of their field. Obviously, this is time-consuming, difficult to replicate, and entails subjective judgments. The task is enormously complex. Sifting through recently published documents to find those that will later be recognized as important is labor intensive. Traditional approaches struggle to keep up with the pace of information growth. In multidisciplinary fields of study it is especially difficult to maintain an overview of literature dynamics. Painting the big picture of an everevolving scientific discipline is akin to the situation described in the widely known Indian legend about the blind men and the elephant. As the story goes, six blind men were trying to find out what an elephant looked like. They touched different parts of the elephant and quickly jumped to their conclusions. The one touching the body said it must be like a wall; the one touching the tail said it was like a snake; the one touching the legs said it was like a tree trunk, and so forth. But science does not stand still; the steady stream of new scientific literature creates a continuously changing structure. The resulting disappearance, fusion, and emergence of research areas add another twist to the tale-it is as if the elephant is running and dynamically changing its shape. Domain visualization, an emerging field of study, is in a similar situation. Relevant literature is spread across disciplines that have traditionally had few connections. Researchers examining the domain from a particular discipline cannot possibly have an adequate understanding of the whole. As noted by White and McCain (1997), the new generation of information scientists is technically driven in its efforts to visualize scientific disciplines. However, limited progress has been made in terms of connecting pioneers' theories and practices with the potentialities of today's enabling technologies. If the difference between past and present generations lies in the power of available technologies, what they have in common is the ultimate goal-to reveal the development of scientific knowledge.
Themenfeld: Literaturübersicht ; Visualisierung
11Boyack, K.W. ; Wylie, B.N. ; Davidson, G.S.: Domain visualization using VxInsight®) [register mark] for science and technology management.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 53(2002) no.9, S.764-774.
Abstract: Boyack, Wylie, and Davidson developed VxInsight which transforms information from documents into a landscape representation which conveys information on the implicit structure of the data as context for queries and exploration. From a list of pre-computed similarities it creates on a plane an x,y location for each item, or can compute its own similarities based on direct and co-citation linkages. Three-dimensional overlays are then generated on the plane to show the extent of clustering at particular points. Metadata associated with clustered objects provides a label for each peak from common words. Clicking on an object will provide citation information and answer sets for queries run will be displayed as markers on the landscape. A time slider allows a view of terrain changes over time. In a test on the microsystems engineering literature a review article was used to provide seed terms to search Science Citation Index and retrieve 20,923 articles of which 13,433 were connected by citation to at least one other article in the set. The citation list was used to calculate similarity measures and x.y coordinates for each article. Four main categories made up the landscape with 90% of the articles directly related to one or more of the four. A second test used five databases: SCI, Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, Engineering Index, INSPEC, and Medline to extract 17,927 unique articles by Sandia, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with text of abstracts and RetrievalWare 6.6 utilized to generate the similarity measures. The subsequent map revealed that despite some overlap the laboratories generally publish in different areas. A third test on 3000 physical science journals utilized 4.7 million articles from SCI where similarity was the un-normalized sum of cites between journals in both directions. Physics occupies a central position, with engineering, mathematics, computing, and materials science strongly linked. Chemistry is farther removed but strongly connected.