Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Chaves Guimarães, J.A. ; Pinho, F.A. ; Martínez-Ávila, D. ; Campbell, D.G. ; Nascimento, F.A.: Knowledge organization and the power to name : LGBTQ terminology and the polyhedron of empowerment.
In: http://www.iskocus.org/NASKO2017papers/NASKO2017_paper_2.pdf [NASKO 2017, June 15-16, 2017, Champaign, IL, USA].
Abstract: This paper uses Hope Olson's concept of "the power to name" to explore the terminological practices of the LGBTQ community in the Cariri region of Brazil in the years between 2006 and 2013. LGBTQ communities can seize back the "power to name," traditionally exerted by a heteronormative society upon marginalized groups, by organizing their cultural and practical knowledge from within, and by exercising the power to name themselves and their specific domains and cultural practices. The study showed that knowledge organization - the act of defining entities and categories and assigning specific names to them - is a gesture of self-empowerment on many different levels. The "power of self-naming" in this LGBTQ community is a polyhedron in which some facets are frequent, such as the power to empower or affirm an identity. On the one hand, the names and categories break through gender, geographical and temporal specificity to embrace terms, names, and idioms drawn from a range of different countries, traditions, languages, and time periods. On the other hand, these names and categories work to reinforce and affirm the geographical and cultural specificity of the Cariri region itself, embedding its pride and self-affirmation within the varied languages and heteronormative history of Portuguese colonization in that region. In selecting terms and categories to name, organize and celebrate their identities, the LGBTQ people of Cariri have taken the power to name: not as information intermediaries striving for objectivity and neutrality, but as committed members of a marginalized but vital community.
Inhalt: Beitrag bei: NASKO 2017: Visualizing Knowledge Organization: Bringing Focus to Abstract Realities. The sixth North American Symposium on Knowledge Organization (NASKO 2017), June 15-16, 2017, in Champaign, IL, USA. Auch als: http://www.iskocus.org/NASKO2017papers/NASKO2017_paper_32.pdf.
2Campbell, D.G. ; Mayhew, A.: ¬A phylogenetic approach to bibliographic families and relationships.
In: http://www.iskocus.org/NASKO2017papers/NASKO2017_paper_7.pdf [NASKO 2017, June 15-16, 2017, Champaign, IL, USA].
Abstract: This presentation applies the principles of phylogenetic classification to the phenomenon of bibliographic relationships in library catalogues. We argue that while the FRBR paradigm supports hierarchical bibliographic relationships between works and their various expressions and manifestations, we need a different paradigm to support associative bibliographic relationships of the kind detected in previous research. Numerous studies have shown the existence and importance of bibliographic relationships that lie outside that hierarchical FRBR model: particularly the importance of bibliographic families. We would like to suggest phylogenetics as a potential means of gaining access to those more elusive and ephemeral relationships. Phylogenetic analysis does not follow the Platonic conception of an abstract work that gives rise to specific instantiations; rather, it tracks relationships of kinship as they evolve over time. We use two examples to suggest ways in which phylogenetic trees could be represented in future library catalogues. The novels of Jane Austen are used to indicate how phylogenetic trees can represent, with greater accuracy, the line of Jane Austen adaptations, ranging from contemporary efforts to complete her unfinished work, through to the more recent efforts to graft horror memes onto the original text. Stanley Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey provides an example of charting relationships both backwards and forwards in time, across different media and genres. We suggest three possible means of applying phylogenetic s in the future: enhancement of the relationship designators in RDA, crowdsourcing user tags, and extracting relationship trees through big data analysis.
Inhalt: Beitrag bei: NASKO 2017: Visualizing Knowledge Organization: Bringing Focus to Abstract Realities. The sixth North American Symposium on Knowledge Organization (NASKO 2017), June 15-16, 2017, in Champaign, IL, USA.
Objekt: FRBR ; RDA
3Campbell, D.G. ; Chaves Guimarães, J.A. ; Pinho, F.A. ; Martínez-Ávila, D. ; Nascimento, F.A.: ¬The terminological polyhedron in LGBTQ terminology : self-naming as a power to empower in knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.8, S.586-591.
Abstract: This paper uses Hope Olson's concept of "the power to name" to explore the terminological practices of the LGBTQ community in the Cariri region of Brazil in the years between 2006 and 2013. LGBTQ communities can seize back the "power to name," traditionally exerted by a heteronormative society upon marginalized groups, by organizing their cultural and practical knowledge from within and by exercising the power to name themselves and their specific domains and cultural practices. The study showed that knowledge organization-the act of defining entities and categories and assigning specific names to them-is a gesture of self-empowerment on many different levels. The "power of self-naming" in this LGBTQ community is a polyhedron in which some facets are frequent, such as the power to empower or affirm an identity. On the one hand, the names and categories break through gender, geographical and temporal specificity to embrace terms, names, and idioms drawn from a range of different countries, traditions, languages, and time periods. On the other hand, these names and categories work to reinforce and affirm the geographical and cultural specificity of the Cariri region itself, embedding its pride and self-affirmation within the varied languages and heteronormative history of Portuguese colonization in that region. In selecting terms and categories to name, organize, and celebrate their identities, the LGBTQ people of Cariri have taken the power to name: not as information intermediaries striving for objectivity and neutrality but as committed members of a marginalized but vital community.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Special Issue: Select Papers from ISKO Chapter Conferences 2017 ISKO-Canada/US: Sixth North American Symposium on Knowledge Organization: Visualizing Knowledge Organization: Bringing Focus to Abstract Realities, June 15-17, 2017, Champaign, IL, USA .
4Campbell, D.G.: Classifying in the context of disability : finding potential solutions in existing schemes.
In: Knowledge organization for a sustainable world: challenges and perspectives for cultural, scientific, and technological sharing in a connected society : proceedings of the Fourteenth International ISKO Conference 27-29 September 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil / organized by International Society for Knowledge Organization (ISKO), ISKO-Brazil, São Paulo State University ; edited by José Augusto Chaves Guimarães, Suellen Oliveira Milani, Vera Dodebei. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2016. S.523-529.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.15)
5Campbell, D.G.: ¬The human life as warrant : a facet analysis of protocols for dealing with responsive behaviours in dementia patients.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.121-128.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: This paper uses facet analysis to address the classification of responsive behaviours exhibited by persons in long-term care facilities suffering from advanced dementia. An analysis of the Canadian PIECES Framework shows that facet analysis is implicitly embedded in the reasoning procedure prescribed; furthermore the facet structure is used as a surrogate for the patient's cognition, providing access to the person's medical, social, emotional and personal history. In this way, facet analysis may serve as a means of enabling family members and caregivers outside the gerontology field to deal with responsive behaviours in difficult care situations. However, the paper suggests facet analysis is useful, not because it "improves" the work of gerontologists and behaviour specialists, but rather because it captures and illustrate their knowledge in a way that does justice to the complexity and frequent inconsistency of real-life caregiving situations.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_18.pdf.
6Campbell, D.G.: Farradane's relational indexing and its relationship to hyperlinking in Alzheimer's information.
In: Categories, contexts and relations in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Twelfth International ISKO Conference 6-9 August 2012, Mysore, India. Eds.: Neelameghan, A. u. K.S. Raghavan. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2012. S.195-200.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.13)
Abstract: In an ongoing investigation of the relationship between Jason Farradane's relational indexing principles and concept combination in Web-based information on Alzheimer's Disease, the hyperlinks of three consumer health information websites are examined to see how well the linking relationships map to Farradane's relational operators, as well as to the linking attributes in HTML 5. The links were found to be largely bibliographic in nature, and as such mapped well onto HTML 5. Farradane's operators were less effective at capturing the individual links; nonetheless, the two dimensions of his relational matrix-association and discrimination-reveal a crucial underlying strategy of the emotionally-charged mediation between complex information and users who are consulting it under severe stress.
7Campbell, D.G.: Tensions between language and discourse in North American knowledge organization : an analysis of conference papers.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.1, S.51-57.
Abstract: This paper uses Paul Ricoeur's distinction between language and discourse to help define a North American research agenda in knowledge organization. Ricoeur's concept of discourse as a set of utterances, defined within multiple disciplines and domains, and reducible, not to the word but to the sentence, provides three useful tools for defining our research. First, it enables us to recognize the important contribution of numerous studies that focus on acts of organization, rather than on standards or tools of organization. Second, it provides a paradigm for reconciling the competing demands of interoperability, base on widely-used tools and techniques of library science, and domain integrity, based on user warrant and an understanding of local context. Finally, it resonates with the current economic, political and social climate in which our information systems work, particularly the competing calls for protectionism and globalization.
Inhalt: Beitrag innerhalb einer Special Section: Four Papers from NASKO2. Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko371d.pdf.
8Kipp, M.E.I. ; Campbell, D.G.: Searching with tags : do tags help users find things?.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.4, S.239-255.
Abstract: The question of whether tags can be useful in the process of information retrieval was examined in this pilot study. Many tags are subject related and could work well as index terms or entry vocabulary; however, folksonomies also include relationships that are traditionally not included in controlled vocabularies including affective or time and task related tags and the user name of the tagger. Participants searched a social bookmarking tool, specialising in academic articles (CiteULike), and an online journal database (Pubmed) for articles relevant to a given information request. Screen capture software was used to collect participant actions and a semi-structured interview asked them to describe their search process. Preliminary results showed that participants did use tags in their search process, as a guide to searching and as hyperlinks to potentially useful articles. However, participants also used controlled vocabularies in the journal database to locate useful search terms and links to related articles supplied by Pubmed. Additionally, participants reported using user names of taggers and group names to help select resources by relevance. The inclusion of subjective and social information from the taggers is very different from the traditional objectivity of indexing and was reported as an asset by a number of participants. This study suggests that while users value social and subjective factors when searching, they also find utility in objective factors such as subject headings. Most importantly, users are interested in the ability of systems to connect them with related articles whether via subject access or other means.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko37_2010_4_a.pdf.
Themenfeld: Social tagging
Objekt: CiteULike ; Pubmed
9Campbell, D.G.: Derrida, logocentrism, and the concept of warrant on the Semantic Web.
In: Culture and identity in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Tenth International ISKO Conference 5-8 August 2008, Montreal, Canada. Ed. by Clément Arsenault and Joseph T. Tennis. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.222-228.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.11)
Inhalt: The highly-structured data standards of the Semantic Web contain a promising venue for the migration of library subject access standards onto the World Wide Web. The new functionalities of the Web, however, along with the anticipated capabilities of intelligent Web agents, suggest that information on the Semantic Web will have much more flexibility, diversity and mutability. We need, therefore, a method for recognizing and assessing the principles whereby Semantic Web information can combine together in productive and useful ways. This paper will argue that the concept of warrant in traditional library science, can provide a useful means of translating library knowledge structures into Web-based knowledge structures. Using Derrida's concept of logocentrism, this paper suggests that what while "warrant" in library science traditionally alludes to the principles by which concepts are admitted into the design of a classification or access system, "warrant" on the Semantic Web alludes to the principles by which Web resources can be admitted into a network of information uses. Furthermore, library information practice suggests a far more complex network of warrant concepts that provide a subtlety and richness to knowledge organization that the Semantic Web has not yet attained.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0b5550a/index.php.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web
10Campbell, D.G.: ¬The birth of the new Web : a Foucauldian reading.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 43(2006) nos.3/4, S.9-20.
Abstract: Foucault's The Birth of the Clinic serves as a pattern for understanding the paradigm shifts represented by the Semantic Web. Foucault presents the history ofmedical practice as a 3-stage sequence of transitions: from classificatory techniques to clinical strategies, and then to anatomico-pathological strategies. In this paper, the author removes these three stages both from their medical context and from Foucault's historical sequence, to produce a model for understanding information organization in the context of the Semantic Web. We can extract from Foucault's theory a triadic relationship between three interpretive strategies, all of them defined by their different relationships to a textual body: classification, description and analysis.
Inhalt: Vgl. auch: http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/
Anmerkung: Simultaneously published as Knitting the Semantic Web
Themenfeld: Semantic Web
11Campbell, D.G.: Metadata, metaphor, and metonymy.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 40(2005) nos.3/4, S.57-73.
Abstract: This chapter uses a distinction common in literary studies to distinguish between metadata applications for discovery and metadata applications for use. The author argues that metadata systems for resource discovery, such as the Dublin Core, are continuous with the traditions of bibliographic description, and rely on a principle of metonymy: the use of a surrogate or adjunct object to represent another. Metadata systems for resource use, such as semantic markup languages, are continuous with the traditions of database design, and rely on a principle of metaphor: the use of a paradigmatic image or design which conditions how the user will respond to and interact with the data.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Metadata: a cataloger's primer"
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch: http://catalogingandclassificationquarterly.com/
12Campbell, D.G.: Global abstractions : the Classification of International Economic Data for bibliographic and statistical purposes.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 37(2003) nos.1/2, S.221-.
Abstract: This paper compares the representation of national and international agricultural economic information in the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and the Library of Congress Classification (LCC). While LCC presents geographically-specific information within a larger context of agriculture as a field of study, NAICS presents agriculture as part of the overall depiction of economic activity in and between countries. To facilitate statistical aggregation and cross-comparison, NAICS has normalized economic activity by presenting it as a series of abstract activities that can be uniformly measured across different countries and regions. This rigorous standardization of economic data, while effective for statistical analysis, threatens to diminish the specific national, cultural and social contexts in which such data must beinterpreted.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Knowledge organization and classification in international information retrieval"
Objekt: NAICS ; LCC
13Toms, E.G. ; Campbell, D.G. ; Blades, R.: Does genre define the shape of information? : the role of form and function in user interaction with digital documents.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.693-704.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: Documents belonging to a genre have a definite structure which has evolved within specific discourse communities to the point where its use is fixed and standardized. We speculate that such a structure exhibits a strong visual cue, facilitating document recognition and defining a shape of information. To test the concept of shape, 72 participants from two groups (half currently working in an academic setting and half from the general public) examined 24 documents typically used in the academic environment. The documents were in three versions: one based on form, in which the text was masked, leaving only the layout, a second based on content, in which the document was reduced to its semantic information only, and the full version, the original unaltered document. On examining each of the 24 documents (e.g., journal article, call for papers, annotated bibliography) in one of the three versions, participants identified: the type of document and, its recognizable and/or unfamiliar features. In addition, they assessed 8 print versions of the form document for suggestive features of shape. Two variables were tested: the genre element (form or content) and the participant's membership in the academic community. Not unexpectedly, participants identified more documents in the Full and Content versions than the Form versions. But Form versions were recognized twice as quickly as the other two versions. Thus when document shape was evident, the document was immediately discernible to participants; when participants were required to read the semantic content for a gist of the document and an extrapolation of its contents, it took more time. Surprisingly, discourse community had no effect
14Campbell, D.G. ; Cox, J.P.: Cataloguing Internet resources.
In: Feliciter. 43(1997) no.5, S.60-63.
Abstract: Since late in 1995, the library at the Faculty of Information Studies (FIS) at Toronto University, Canada, has been experimenting with and refining the policies and procedures for the cataloguing of Internet resources. Describes how decisions are taken on what to catalogue and what standards to use. Introduces the FIS/ISM Cataloguing Internet Resources Project (CIRP), ahich at present involves the cooperation of 6 libraries. Discusses problems encountered, in particular the 3 challenges of determining the nature of the site, coping with and anticipating changes in a site, and considering the needs and technological resources of library users
Themenfeld: Internet ; Formalerschließung