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1Chalmers, D.J.: Constructing the world.
Oxford : Oxford Univ. Press, 2012. xxiii, 494 S.
Abstract: David J. Chalmers constructs a highly ambitious and original picture of the world, from a few basic elements. He develops and extends Rudolf Carnap's attempt to do the same in Der Logische Aufbau Der Welt (1928). Carnap gave a blueprint for describing the entire world using a limited vocabulary, so that all truths about the world could be derived from that description--but his Aufbau is often seen as a noble failure. In Constructing the World, Chalmers argues that something like the Aufbau project can succeed. With the right vocabulary and the right derivation relation, we can indeed construct the world. The focal point of Chalmers's project is scrutability: roughly, the thesis that ideal reasoning from a limited class of basic truths yields all truths about the world. Chalmers first argues for the scrutability thesis and then considers how small the base can be. All this can be seen as a project in metaphysical epistemology: epistemology in service of a global picture of the world and of our conception thereof. The scrutability framework has ramifications throughout philosophy. Using it, Chalmers defends a broadly Fregean approach to meaning, argues for an internalist approach to the contents of thought, and rebuts W. V. Quine's arguments against the analytic and the a priori. He also uses scrutability to analyze the unity of science, to defend a conceptual approach to metaphysics, and to mount a structuralist response to skepticism. Based on Chalmers's 2010 John Locke lectures, Constructing the World opens up debate on central areas of philosophy including philosophy of language, consciousness, knowledge, and reality. This major work by a leading philosopher will appeal to philosophers in all areas.
Wissenschaftsfach: Kognitionswissenschaft ; Philosophie
LCSH: Knowledge, Theory of ; Logical positivism
RSWK: Erkenntnistheorie ; Carnap, Rudolf: Der logische Aufbau der Welt ; Neopositivismus
BK: 08.24 (Neue westliche Philosophie) ; 08.32 (Erkenntnistheorie)
DDC: 121 / dc23
RVK: CC 4400
2Chalmers, D.J.: ¬Das Rätsel des bewußten Erlebens.
In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 1996, H.2, S.40-47.
Abstract: Je genauer die Neurowissenschaftler die Funktionsweise unseres Gehirns zu beschreiben vermögen, desto deutlicher wird, daß all ihre Messungen und Modelle just den zentralen Aspekt des Bewußtseins nicht erfassen: das subjektive Innewerden von Qualitäten wie Farbe oder Geruch, einer Überlegung oder einer Emotion
3Chalmers, D.J.: ¬The conscious mind : in search of a fundamental theory.
New York [u.a.] : Oxford Univ. Press, 1996. XVII, 414 S.
(Philosophy of mind series)
Abstract: What is consciousness? How do physical processes in the brain give rise to the self-aware mind and to feelings as profoundly varied as love or hate, aesthetic pleasure or spiritual yearning? These questions today are among the most hotly debated issues among scientists and philosophers, and we have seen in recent years superb volumes by such eminent figures as Francis Crick, Daniel C. Dennett, Gerald Edelman, and Roger Penrose, all firing volleys in what has come to be called the consciousness wars. Now, in The Conscious Mind, philosopher David J. Chalmers offers a cogent analysis of this heated debate as he unveils a major new theory of consciousness, one that rejects the prevailing reductionist trend of science, while offering provocative insights into the relationship between mind and brain. Writing in a rigorous, thought-provoking style, the author takes us on a far-reaching tour through the philosophical ramifications of consciousness. Chalmers convincingly reveals how contemporary cognitive science and neurobiology have failed to explain how and why mental events emerge from physiological occurrences in the brain. He proposes instead that conscious experience must be understood in an entirely new light--as an irreducible entity (similar to such physical properties as time, mass, and space) that exists at a fundamental level and cannot be understood as the sum of its parts. And after suggesting some intriguing possibilities about the structure and laws of conscious experience, he details how his unique reinterpretation of the mind could be the focus of a new science. Throughout the book, Chalmers provides fascinating thought experiments that trenchantly illustrate his ideas. For example, in exploring the notion that consciousness could be experienced by machines as well as humans, Chalmers asks us to imagine a thinking brain in which neurons are slowly replaced by silicon chips that precisely duplicate their functions--as the neurons are replaced, will consciousness gradually fade away? The book also features thoughtful discussions of how the author's theories might be practically applied to subjects as diverse as artificial intelligence and the interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Wissenschaftsfach: Kognitionswissenschaft ; Philosophie
LCSH: Philosophy of mind ; Consciousness ; Mind and body ; Dualism
RSWK: Philosophy of Mind ; Bewusstsein ; Geist / Bewusstsein / Leib-Seele-Problem ; Selbstbewusstsein / Philosophie
BK: 77.11 Bewußtseinspsychologie
DDC: 128/.2 / dc20
Eppelsheimer: 77.50 Psychophysiologie
GHBS: HNI (DU) ; HMZ (E) ; HLR (PB)
LCC: BD418.3.C43 1996
RVK: CC 3600 ; CC 4400 ; CC 5200 ; CC 6600