Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Foster, J. ; Clough, P.: Embedded, added, cocreated : revisiting the value of information in an age of data.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.5, S.744-748.
Abstract: This article proposes that the value of information is a topic worth revisiting in the contemporary era. Although the topic has been of perennial interest to information professionals and others, since at the least the early 1980s, we believe that it is timely to revisit this question in the context of a more connected and networked environment of data, information, and knowledge. The principal argument is that existing models of information exchange and use do not sufficiently take account of the multiplicity of networked users as a source of value, for example, their implicit and explicit interactions with other users, and with the information system. We briefly review existing kinds of value that have been theorized, operationalized, and measured in the information science literature. Principally, these are the notions of information as embedded value; and information and information systems as adding value. To these notions we add the further notion of connected or cocreated value. We conclude our opinion article with a set of questions intended to orient future research into the question of the value of information in the contemporary era.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.23987.
2Wakeling, S. ; Clough, P. ; Connaway, L.S. ; Sen, B. ; Tomás, D.: Users and uses of a global union catalog : a mixed-methods study of WorldCat.org.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.9, S.2166-2181.
Abstract: This paper presents the first large-scale investigation of the users and uses of WorldCat.org, the world's largest bibliographic database and global union catalog. Using a mixed-methods approach involving focus group interviews with 120 participants, an online survey with 2,918 responses, and an analysis of transaction logs of approximately 15 million sessions from WorldCat.org, the study provides a new understanding of the context for global union catalog use. We find that WorldCat.org is accessed by a diverse population, with the three primary user groups being librarians, students, and academics. Use of the system is found to fall within three broad types of work-task (professional, academic, and leisure), and we also present an emergent taxonomy of search tasks that encompass known-item, unknown-item, and institutional information searches. Our results support the notion that union catalogs are primarily used for known-item searches, although the volume of traffic to WorldCat.org means that unknown-item searches nonetheless represent an estimated 250,000 sessions per month. Search engine referrals account for almost half of all traffic, but although WorldCat.org effectively connects users referred from institutional library catalogs to other libraries holding a sought item, users arriving from a search engine are less likely to connect to a library.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23708/full. Der Beitrag ist frei verfügbar.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Katalogfragen allgemein
3Wan-Chik, R. ; Clough, P. ; Sanderson, M.: Investigating religious information searching through analysis of a search engine log.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.12, S.2492-2506.
Abstract: In this paper we present results from an investigation of religious information searching based on analyzing log files from a large general-purpose search engine. From approximately 15 million queries, we identified 124,422 that were part of 60,759 user sessions. We present a method for categorizing queries based on related terms and show differences in search patterns between religious searches and web searching more generally. We also investigate the search patterns found in queries related to 5 religions: Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism. Different search patterns are found to emerge. Results from this study complement existing studies of religious information searching and provide a level of detailed analysis not reported to date. We show, for example, that sessions involving religion-related queries tend to last longer, that the lengths of religion-related queries are greater, and that the number of unique URLs clicked is higher when compared to all queries. The results of the study can serve to provide information on what this large population of users is actually searching for.
4Peters, C. ; Braschler, M. ; Clough, P.: Multilingual information retrieval : from research to practice.
Heidelberg : Springer, 2012. XVII, 217 S.
Abstract: We are living in a multilingual world and the diversity in languages which are used to interact with information access systems has generated a wide variety of challenges to be addressed by computer and information scientists. The growing amount of non-English information accessible globally and the increased worldwide exposure of enterprises also necessitates the adaptation of Information Retrieval (IR) methods to new, multilingual settings.Peters, Braschler and Clough present a comprehensive description of the technologies involved in designing and developing systems for Multilingual Information Retrieval (MLIR). They provide readers with broad coverage of the various issues involved in creating systems to make accessible digitally stored materials regardless of the language(s) they are written in. Details on Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) are also covered that help readers to understand how to develop retrieval systems that cross language boundaries. Their work is divided into six chapters and accompanies the reader step-by-step through the various stages involved in building, using and evaluating MLIR systems. The book concludes with some examples of recent applications that utilise MLIR technologies. Some of the techniques described have recently started to appear in commercial search systems, while others have the potential to be part of future incarnations.The book is intended for graduate students, scholars, and practitioners with a basic understanding of classical text retrieval methods. It offers guidelines and information on all aspects that need to be taken into consideration when building MLIR systems, while avoiding too many 'hands-on details' that could rapidly become obsolete. Thus it bridges the gap between the material covered by most of the classical IR textbooks and the novel requirements related to the acquisition and dissemination of information in whatever language it is stored.
Inhalt: Inhalt: 1 Introduction 2 Within-Language Information Retrieval 3 Cross-Language Information Retrieval 4 Interaction and User Interfaces 5 Evaluation for Multilingual Information Retrieval Systems 6 Applications of Multilingual Information Access
Anmerkung: Elektronische Ausgabe unter: http://springer.r.delivery.net/r/r?2.1.Ee.2Tp.1gd0L5.C3WE8i..N.WdtG.3uq2.bW89MQ%5f%5fCXWIFOJ0.
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme
RSWK: Information-Retrieval-System / Mehrsprachigkeit / Abfrage / Zugriff
BK: 06.74 ; 54.75
DDC: 025.04 / DDC22ger]
RVK: AN 95000
5Cox, A. ; Clough, P. ; Siersdorfer, S.: Developing metrics to characterize Flickr groups.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.3, S.493-506.
Abstract: Flickr, the large-scale online photo sharing website, is often viewed as one of the 'classic' examples of Web2.0 applications through which researchers are able to observe the social behavior of online communities. One of the main features of Flickr is groups. These provide a means to organize, share and discuss photos of potential interest to group members. This paper explores the scale of group creation on Flickr and proposes a new set of metrics for characterizing groups on Flickr looking at aspects of membership, communication activity, and communication structure. Data collected from a sample of 1.000 groups was used to confirm the metrics and provide new insights into group formation in Flickr, such as the nature of larger and smaller groups. The contributions of the article are as follows: a set of metrics for characterizing online groups that extend existing schemes; an approach for sampling Flickr to estimate the number of groups; new insights into Flickr groups based on results from analyzing 1.000 randomly selected groups; and reflections on our experiences with using publicly accessible, automatically collected data to characterize the types of groups on Flickr.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
6Clough, P. ; Tang, J. ; Hall, M.H. ; Warner, A.: Linking archival data to location : a case study at the UK National Archives.
In: Aslib proceedings. 63(2011) nos.2/3, S.127-147.
Abstract: Purpose - The National Archives (TNA) is the UK Government's official archive. It stores and maintains records spanning over a 1,000 years in both physical and digital form. Much of the information held by TNA includes references to place and frequently user queries to TNA's online catalogue involve searches for location. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how TNA have extracted the geographic references in their historic data to improve access to the archives. Design/methodology/approach - To be able to quickly enhance the existing archival data with geographic information, existing technologies from Natural Language Processing (NLP) and Geographical Information Retrieval (GIR) have been utilised and adapted to historical archives. Findings - Enhancing the archival records with geographic information has enabled TNA to quickly develop a number of case studies highlighting how geographic information can improve access to large-scale archival collections. The use of existing methods from the GIR domain and technologies, such as OpenLayers, enabled one to quickly implement this process in a way that is easily transferable to other institutions. Practical implications - The methods and technologies described in this paper can be adapted, by other archives, to similarly enhance access to their historic data. Also the data-sharing methods described can be used to enable the integration of knowledge held at different archival institutions. Originality/value - Place is one of the core dimensions for TNA's archival data. Many of the records which are held make reference to place data (wills, legislation, court cases), and approximately one fifth of users' searches involve place names. However, there are still a number of open questions regarding the adaptation of existing GIR methods to the history domain. This paper presents an overview over available GIR methods and the challenges in applying them to historical data.
Objekt: Web 2.0
7Rorissa, A. ; Clough, P. ; Deselaers, T.: Exploring the relationship between feature and perceptual visual spaces.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.5, S.770-784.
Abstract: The number and size of digital repositories containing visual information (images or videos) is increasing and thereby demanding appropriate ways to represent and search these information spaces. Their visualization often relies on reducing the dimensions of the information space to create a lower-dimensional feature space which, from the point-of-view of the end user, will be viewed and interpreted as a perceptual space. Critically for information visualization, the degree to which the feature and perceptual spaces correspond is still an open research question. In this paper we report the results of three studies which indicate that distance (or dissimilarity) matrices based on low-level visual features, in conjunction with various similarity measures commonly used in current CBIR systems, correlate with human similarity judgments.
8Clough, P. ; Sanderson, M.: User experiments with the Eurovision Cross-Language Image Retrieval System.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.5, S.697-708.
Abstract: In this article the authors present Eurovision, a textbased system for cross-language (CL) image retrieval. The system is evaluated by multilingual users for two search tasks with the system configured in English and five other languages. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published set of user experiments for CL image retrieval. They show that (a) it is possible to create a usable multilingual search engine using little knowledge of any language other than English, (b) categorizing images assists the user's search, and (c) there are differences in the way users search between the proposed search tasks. Based on the two search tasks and user feedback, they describe important aspects of any CL image retrieval system.
Anmerkung: Beitrag einer special topic section on multilingual information systems
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme
Behandelte Form: Bilder