Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 16. Dezember 2019)
1Golbeck, J. ; Auxier, B. ; Bickford, A. ; Cabrera, L. ; McHugh, M.C. ; Moore, S. ; Hart, J. ; Resti, J. ; Rogers, A. ; Zimmerman, J.: Congressional twitter use revisited on the platform's 10-year anniversary : implications for research evaluation practice.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.7, S.1067-1070.
Abstract: The microblogging platform, Twitter, has been an extremely valuable tool for politicians in sharing information, fostering broader communication to constituents, and promoting their political stances. This article follows up on previous research from 2009 on this subject. We reexamined tweets from the US Congress collected in early 2017. We found Congressional tweeting habits and content have changed very little in the last 8 years. Overall, they tended to use Twitter to pass along political information and links in addition to reporting on official and unofficial activities and meetings. We discuss future spaces for research that go beyond content analysis into issues of motivation, communication, and impact.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.24022.
2Pontis, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Greifeneder, E. ; Attalla, H. ; Neal, D.: Keeping up to date : an academic researcher's information journey.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.22-35.
Abstract: Keeping up to date with research developments is a central activity of academic researchers, but researchers face difficulties in managing the rapid growth of available scientific information. This study examined how researchers stay up to date, using the information journey model as a framework for analysis and investigating which dimensions influence information behaviors. We designed a 2-round study involving semistructured interviews and prototype testing with 61 researchers with 3 levels of seniority (PhD student to professor). Data were analyzed following a semistructured qualitative approach. Five key dimensions that influence information behaviors were identified: level of seniority, information sources, state of the project, level of familiarity, and how well defined the relevant community is. These dimensions are interrelated and their values determine the flow of the information journey. Across all levels of professional expertise, researchers used similar hard (formal) sources to access content, while soft (interpersonal) sources were used to filter information. An important "pain point" that future information tools should address is helping researchers filter information at the point of need.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23623/full.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Informationsdienstleistungen
3Pontis, S. ; Blandford, A.: Understanding "influence" : an empirical test of the Data-Frame Theory of Sensemaking.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.4, S.841-858.
Abstract: This paper reports findings from a study designed to gain broader understanding of sensemaking activities using the Data/Frame Theory as the analytical framework. Although this theory is one of the dominant models of sensemaking, it has not been extensively tested with a range of sensemaking tasks. The tasks discussed here focused on making sense of structures rather than processes or narratives. Eleven researchers were asked to construct understanding of how a scientific community in a particular domain is organized (e.g., people, relationships, contributions, factors) by exploring the concept of "influence" in academia. This topic was chosen because, although researchers frequently handle this type of task, it is unlikely that they have explicitly sought this type of information. We conducted a think-aloud study and semistructured interviews with junior and senior researchers from the human-computer interaction (HCI) domain, asking them to identify current leaders and rising stars in both HCI and chemistry. Data were coded and analyzed using the Data/Frame Model to both test and extend the model. Three themes emerged from the analysis: novices and experts' sensemaking activity chains, constructing frames through indicators, and characteristics of structure tasks. We propose extensions to the Data/Frame Model to accommodate structure sensemaking.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23427/abstract.
4Pontis, S. ; Kefalidou, G. ; Blandford, A. ; Forth, J. ; Makri, S. ; Sharples, S. ; Wiggins, G. ; Woods, M.: Academics' responses to encountered information : context matters.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.8, S.1883-1903.
Abstract: An increasing number of tools are being developed to help academics interact with information, but little is known about the benefits of those tools for their users. This study evaluated academics' receptiveness to information proposed by a mobile app, the SerenA Notebook: information that is based in their inferred interests but does not relate directly to a prior recognized need. The evaluated app aimed at creating the experience of serendipitous encounters: generating ideas and inspiring thoughts, and potentially triggering follow-up actions, by providing users with suggestions related to their work and leisure interests. We studied how 20 academics interacted with messages sent by the mobile app (3 per day over 10 consecutive days). Collected data sets were analyzed using thematic analysis. We found that contextual factors (location, activity, and focus) strongly influenced their responses to messages. Academics described some unsolicited information as interesting but irrelevant when they could not make immediate use of it. They highlighted filtering information as their major struggle rather than finding information. Some messages that were positively received acted as reminders of activities participants were meant to be doing but were postponing, or were relevant to ongoing activities at the time the information was received.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23502/abstract.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
5Pontis, S. ; Blandford, A.: Understanding "influence" : an exploratory study of academics' processes of knowledge construction through iterative and interactive information seeking.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.8, S.1576-1593.
Abstract: The motivation for this study was to better understand academics' searching and sensemaking processes when solving exploratory tasks for which they lack pre-existing frames. We focus on "influence" tasks because, although they appear to be unfamiliar, they arise in much academic discourse, at least tacitly. We report the processes of academics at different levels of seniority when completing exploratory search tasks that involved identifying influential members of their academic community and "rising stars," and similarly for an unfamiliar academic community. 11 think-aloud sessions followed by semi-structured interviews were conducted to investigate the roles of specific and general domain expertise in shaping information seeking and knowledge construction. Academics defined and completed the tasks through an iterative and interactive process of seeking and sensemaking, during which they constructed an understanding of their communities and determined qualities of "being influential". The Data/Frame Theory of Sensemaking was used to provide sensitising theoretical constructs. The study shows that both external and internal knowledge resources are essential to define a starting point or frame, make and support decisions, and experience satisfaction. Ill-defined or non-existent initial frames may cause unsubstantial or arbitrary decisions, and feelings of uncertainty and lack of confidence.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23277/abstract.
6Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Woods, M. ; Sharples, S. ; Maxwell, D.: "Making my own luck" : serendipity strategies and how to support them in digital information environments.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.11, S.2179-2194.
Abstract: Serendipity occurs when unexpected circumstances and an "aha" moment of insight result in a valuable, unanticipated outcome. Designing digital information environments to support serendipity can not only provide users with new knowledge, but also propel them in directions they might not otherwise have traveled in-surprising and delighting them along the way. As serendipity involves unexpected circumstances it cannot be directly controlled, but it can be potentially influenced. However, to the best of our knowledge, no previous work has focused on providing a rich empirical understanding of how it might be influenced. We interviewed 14 creative professionals to identify their self-reported strategies aimed at increasing the likelihood of serendipity. These strategies form a framework for examining ways existing digital environments support serendipity and for considering how future environments can create opportunities for it. This is a new way of thinking about how to design for serendipity; by supporting the strategies found to increase its likelihood rather than attempting to support serendipity as a discrete phenomenon, digital environments not only have the potential to help users experience serendipity but also encourage them to adopt the strategies necessary to experience it more often.
7Koford, A. ; Panchyshyn, R.S.: RDA display and the general material designation : an innovative solution.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 52(2014) no.5, S.487-505.
Abstract: This article describes a simple and innovative solution, for libraries using MARC-based Integrated Library Systems (ILS), to compensate for the removal of the General Material Designation (GMD) from individual Resource Description and Access (RDA) bibliographic records in public displays. The solution is both a textual and visual one, based on the development of a text/icon combination, with an icon generated from the MARC leader code for material type, and then associated with the text from MARC tag 338, Carrier Type. The solution will work for all Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules , Second Edition (AACR2) and hybrid records as well.
Anmerkung: Eine Quelle gibt "A. Koford", eine andere "R.S. Panchyshyn" als alleinigen Verfasser an.
8Makri, S. ; Blandford, A.: Coming across information serendipitously : Part 2: A classification framework.
In: Journal of documentation. 68(2012) no.5, S.706-724.
Abstract: Purpose - In "Coming across information serendipitously - Part 1: a process model" the authors identified common elements of researchers' experiences of "coming across information serendipitously". These experiences involve a mix of unexpectedness and insight and lead to a valuable, unanticipated outcome. In this article, the authors aim to show how the elements of unexpectedness, insight and value form a framework for subjectively classifying whether a particular experience might be considered serendipitous and, if so, just how serendipitous. Design/methodology/approach - The classification framework was constructed by analysing 46 experiences of coming across information serendipitously provided by 28 interdisciplinary researchers during critical incident interviews. "Serendipity stories" were written to summarise each experience and to facilitate their comparison. The common elements of unexpectedness, insight and value were identified in almost all the experiences. Findings - The presence of different mixes of unexpectedness, insight and value in the interviewees' experiences define a multi-dimensional conceptual space (which the authors call the "serendipity space"). In this space, different "strengths" of serendipity exist. The classification framework can be used to reason about whether an experience falls within the serendipity space and, if so, how "pure" or "dilute" it is. Originality/value - The framework provides researchers from various disciplines with a structured means of reasoning about and classifying potentially serendipitous experiences.
9Makri, S. ; Blandford, A.: Coming across information serendipitously : Part 1: A process model.
In: Journal of documentation. 68(2012) no.5, S.684-705.
Abstract: Purpose - This research seeks to gain a detailed understanding of how researchers come across information serendipitously, grounded in real-world examples. This research was undertaken to enrich the theoretical understanding of this slippery phenomenon. Design/methodology/approach - Semi-structured critical incident interviews were conducted with 28 interdisciplinary researchers. Interviewees were asked to discuss memorable examples of coming across information serendipitously from their research or everyday life. The data collection and analysis process followed many of the core principles of grounded theory methodology. Findings - The examples provided were varied, but shared common elements (they involved a mix of unexpectedness and insight and led to a valuable, unanticipated outcome). These elements form part of an empirically grounded process model of serendipity. In this model, a new connection is made that involves a mix of unexpectedness and insight and has the potential to lead to a valuable outcome. Projections are made on the potential value of the outcome and actions are taken to exploit the connection, leading to an (unanticipated) valuable outcome. Originality/value - The model provides researchers across disciplines with a structured means of understanding and describing serendipitous experiences.
10Attfield, S. ; Blandford, A.: Conceptual misfits in Email-based current-awareness interaction.
In: Journal of documentation. 67(2011) no.1, S.33-55.
Abstract: Purpose - This research aims to identify some requirements for supporting user interactions with electronic current-awareness alert systems based on data from a professional work environment. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative data were gathered using contextual inquiry observations with 21 workers at the London office of an international law firm. The analysis uses CASSM ("Concept-based Analysis of Surface and Structural Misfits"), a usability evaluation method structured around identifying mismatches, or "misfits", between user-concepts and concepts represented within a system. Findings - Participants were frequently overwhelmed by e-mail alerts, and a key requirement is to support efficient interaction. Several misfits, which act as barriers to efficient reviewing and follow-on activities, are demonstrated. These relate to a lack of representation of key user-concepts at the interface and/or within the system, including alert items and their properties, source documents, "back-story", primary sources, content categorisations and user collections. Research limitations/implications - Given these misfits, a set of requirements is derived to improve the efficiency with which users can achieve key outcomes with current-awareness information as these occur within a professional work environment. Originality/value - The findings will be of interest to current-awareness providers. The approach is relevant to information interaction researchers interested in deriving design requirements from naturalistic studies.
11Nichols, D.M. ; Paynter, G.W. ; Chan, C.-H. ; Bainbridge, D. ; McKay, D. ; Twidale, M.B. ; Blandford, A.: Experiences in deploying metadata analysis tools for institutional repositories.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 47(2009) nos.3/4, S.xx-xx.
Abstract: Current institutional repository software provides few tools to help metadata librarians understand and analyse their collections. In this paper, we compare and contrast metadata analysis tools that were developed simultaneously, but independently, at two New Zealand institutions during a period of national investment in research repositories: the Metadata Analysis Tool (MAT) at The University of Waikato, and the Kiwi Research Information Service (KRIS) at the National Library of New Zealand. The tools have many similarities: they are convenient, online, on-demand services that harvest metadata using OAI-PMH, they were developed in response to feedback from repository administrators, and they both help pinpoint specific metadata errors as well as generating summary statistics. They also have significant differences: one is a dedicated tool while the other is part of a wider access tool; one gives a holistic view of the metadata while the other looks for specific problems; one seeks patterns in the data values while the other checks that those values conform to metadata standards. Both tools work in a complementary manner to existing web-based administration tools. We have observed that discovery and correction of metadata errors can be quickly achieved by switching web browser views from the analysis tool to the repository interface, and back. We summarise the findings from both tools' deployment into a checklist of requirements for metadata analysis tools.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenheftes Metadata and Open Access Repositories
Behandelte Form: Elektronische Dokumente
12Warwick, C. ; Rimmer, J. ; Blandford, A. ; Gow, J. ; Buchanan, G.: Cognitive economy and satisficing in information seeking : a longitudinal study of undergraduate information behavior.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.12, S.2402-2415.
Abstract: This article reports on a longitudinal study of information seeking by undergraduate information management students. It describes how they found and used information, and explores their motivation and decision making. We employed a use-in-context approach where students were observed conducting, and were interviewed about, information-seeking tasks carried out during their academic work. We found that participants were reluctant to engage with a complex range of information sources, preferring to use the Internet. The main driver for progress in information seeking was the immediate demands of their work (e.g., assignments). Students used their growing expertise to justify a conservative information strategy, retaining established strategies as far as possible and completing tasks with minimum information-seeking effort. The time cost of using library material limited the uptake of such resources. New methods for discovering and selecting information were adopted only when immediately relevant to the task at hand, and tasks were generally chosen or interpreted in ways that minimized the need to develop new strategies. Students were driven by the demands of the task to use different types of information resources, but remained reluctant to move beyond keyword searches, even when they proved ineffective. They also lacked confidence in evaluating the relative usefulness of resources. Whereas existing literature on satisficing has focused on stopping conditions, this work has highlighted a richer repertoire of satisficing behaviors.
13Gow, J. ; Blandford, A. ; Cunningham, S.J.: Special issue on digital libraries in the context of users' broader activities.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.2, S.556-557.
Anmerkung: Einführung in einen Themenschwerpunkt "Digital libraries in the context of users' broader activities"
14Blandford, A. ; Adams, A. ; Attfield, S. ; Buchanan, G. ; Gow, J. ; Makri, S. ; Rimmer, J. ; Warwick, C.: ¬The PRET A Rapporter framework : evaluating digital libraries from the perspective of information work.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.1, S.4-21.
Abstract: The strongest tradition of IR systems evaluation has focused on system effectiveness; more recently, there has been a growing interest in evaluation of Interactive IR systems, balancing system and user-oriented evaluation criteria. In this paper we shift the focus to considering how IR systems, and particularly digital libraries, can be evaluated to assess (and improve) their fit with users' broader work activities. Taking this focus, we answer a different set of evaluation questions that reveal more about the design of interfaces, user-system interactions and how systems may be deployed in the information working context. The planning and conduct of such evaluation studies share some features with the established methods for conducting IR evaluation studies, but come with a shift in emphasis; for example, a greater range of ethical considerations may be pertinent. We present the PRET A Rapporter framework for structuring user-centred evaluation studies and illustrate its application to three evaluation studies of digital library systems.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenbereichs: Evaluation of Interactive Information Retrieval Systems
Themenfeld: Retrievalstudien ; Information Gateway
15Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Cox, A.L.: Investigating the information-seeking behaviour of academic lawyers : from Ellis's model to design.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.2, S.613-634.
Abstract: Information-seeking is important for lawyers, who have access to many dedicated electronic resources. However there is considerable scope for improving the design of these resources to better support information-seeking. One way of informing design is to use information-seeking models as theoretical lenses to analyse users' behaviour with existing systems. However many models, including those informed by studying lawyers, analyse information-seeking at a high level of abstraction and are only likely to lead to broad-scoped design insights. We illustrate that one potentially useful (and lower-level) model is Ellis's - by using it as a lens to analyse and make design suggestions based on the information-seeking behaviour of 27 academic lawyers, who were asked to think aloud whilst using electronic legal resources to find information for their work. We identify similar information-seeking behaviours to those originally found by Ellis and his colleagues in scientific domains, along with several that were not identified in previous studies such as 'updating' (which we believe is particularly pertinent to legal information-seeking). We also present a refinement of Ellis's model based on the identification of several levels that the behaviours were found to operate at and the identification of sets of mutually exclusive subtypes of behaviours.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes "Digital libraries in the context of users' broader activities"
16Rimmer, J. ; Warwick, C. ; Blandford, A. ; Gow, J. ; Buchanan, G.: ¬An examination of the physical and the digital qualities of humanities research.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.3, S.1374-1392.
Abstract: Traditionally humanities scholars have worked in physical environments and with physical artefacts. Libraries are familiar places, built on cultural traditions over thousands of years, and books are comfortable research companions. Digital tools are a more recent addition to the resources available to a researcher. This paper explores both the physical and the digital qualities of modern humanities research, drawing on existing literature and presenting a study of humanities scholars' perceptions of the research resources they use. We highlight aspects of the physical and digital that can facilitate or hinder the researcher, focusing on three themes that emerge from the data: the working environment; the experience of finding resources; and the experience of working with documents. Rather than aiming to replace physical texts and libraries by digital surrogates, providers need to recognise the complementary roles they play: digital information environments have the potential to provide improved access and analysis features and the facility to exploit the library from any place, while the physical library and resources provide greater authenticity, trustworthiness and the demand to be in a particular place with important material properties.
17Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Cox, A.L.: Using information behaviors to evaluate the functionality and usability of electronic resources : from Ellis's model to evaluation.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.14, S.2244-2267.
Abstract: Information behavior (IB) research involves examining how people look for and use information, often with the sole purpose of gaining insights into the behavior displayed. However, it is also possible to examine IB with the purpose of using the insights gained to design new tools or improve the design of existing tools to support information seeking and use. This approach is advocated by David Ellis who, over two decades ago, presented a model of information seeking behaviors and made suggestions for how electronic tools might be designed to support these behaviors. Ellis also recognized that IBs might be used as the basis for evaluating as well as designing electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB evaluation methods. These two novel methods, based on an extension of Ellis's model, use the empirically observed IBs of lawyers as a framework for structuring user-centered evaluations of the functionality and usability of electronic resources. In this article, we present the IB methods and illustrate their use through the discussion of two examples. We also discuss benefits and limitations, grounded in specific features of the methods.
18Makri, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Gow, J. ; Rimmer, J. ; Warwick, C. ; Buchanan, G.: ¬A library or just another information resource? : a case study of users' mental models of taditional and digital libraries.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.3, S.433-445.
Abstract: A user's understanding of the libraries they work in, and hence of what they can do in those libraries, is encapsulated in their "mental models" of those libraries. In this article, we present a focused case study of users' mental models of traditional and digital libraries based on observations and interviews with eight participants. It was found that a poor understanding of access restrictions led to risk-averse behavior, whereas a poor understanding of search algorithms and relevance ranking resulted in trial-and-error behavior. This highlights the importance of rich feedback in helping users to construct useful mental models. Although the use of concrete analogies for digital libraries was not widespread, participants used their knowledge of Internet search engines to infer how searching might work in digital libraries. Indeed, most participants did not clearly distinguish between different kinds of digital resource, viewing the electronic library catalogue, abstracting services, digital libraries, and Internet search engines as variants on a theme.
19Attfield, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Dowell, J.: Information seeking in the context of writing : a design psychology interpretation of the "problematic situation".
In: Journal of documentation. 59(2003) no.4, S.430-453.
Abstract: Information seeking does not occur in a vacuum but invariably is motivated by some wider task. It is well accepted that to understand information seeking we must understand the task context within which it takes place. Writing is amongst the most common tasks within which information seeking is embedded. This paper considers how writing can be understood in order to account for embedded information seeking. Following Sharples, the paper treats writing as a design activity and explore parallels between the psychology of design and information seeking. Significant parallels can be found and ideas from the psychology of design offer explanations for a number of information seeking phenomena. Next, a design-oriented representation of writing tasks as a means of providing an account of phenomena such as information seeking uncertainty and focus refinement is developed. The paper illustrates the representation with scenarios describing the work of newspaper journalists.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410310485712.
20Blandford, A.E.: Interactive system design.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information science. Vol.70, [=Suppl.33]. New York : Dekker, 2002. S.247-264.