Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Madden, A.D. ; Webber, S. ; Ford, N. ; Crowder, M.: ¬The relationship between students' subject preferences and their information behaviour.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.4, S.692-721.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between preferred choice of school subject and student information behaviour (IB). Design/methodology/approach Mixed methods were employed. In all, 152 students, teachers and librarians participated in interviews or focus groups. In total, 1,375 students, key stage 3 (11-14 years) to postgraduate, responded to a questionnaire. The research population was drawn from eight schools, two further education colleges and three universities. Insights from the literature review and the qualitative research phase led to a hypothesis which was investigated using the questionnaire: that students studying hard subjects are less likely to engage in deep IB than students studying soft subjects. Findings Results support the hypothesis that preferences for subjects at school affect choice of university degree. The hypothesis that a preference for hard or soft subjects affects IB is supported by results of an analysis in which like or dislike of maths/ICT is correlated with responses to the survey. Interviewees' comments led to the proposal that academic subjects can be classified according to whether a subject helps students to acquire a "tool of the Mind" or to apply such a tool. A model suggesting how IB may differ depending on whether intellectual tools are being acquired or applied is proposed. Practical implications The "inner logic" of certain subjects and their pedagogies appears closely linked to IB. This should be considered when developing teaching programmes. Originality/value The findings offer a new perspective on subject classification and its association with IB, and a new model of the association between IB and tool acquisition or application is proposed, incorporating the perspectives of both teacher and student.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-07-2017-0097.
2Birdi, B. ; Ford, N.: Towards a new sociological model of fiction reading.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.11, S.1291-1303.
Abstract: Although much previous research has considered how we read, less attention has been paid to why we read, and the influence not only of individual or text-related factors on a reader's intention to read, but also of broader societal factors. This article presents a novel, empirically-based model of fiction reading in a public library context, taking into account the characteristics differentiating the readers of individual fiction genres. It begins with a literature review of factors motivating a reading choice or habit, and of the effects of reading different fiction genres, before introducing three previous studies by the first author into readers' attitudes towards, and engagement with, fiction and selected fiction genres. The methodologies are then summarized both for the three previous studies and the present study. The authors present a combined analysis that integrates the findings of the previous studies in order to generate a new, evidence-based model for the reading of fiction genres. Incorporating both demographic and motivational aspects, this model illustrates how the broad themes of the fiction reader profile interrelate, giving them a new causal ordering. Finally, there is a discussion of the implications of this work for library and information science research and practitioner communities.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.24053.
Themenfeld: Schöne Literatur
3Li, X. ; Cox, A. ; Ford, N. ; Creaser, C. ; Fry, J. ; Willett, P.: Knowledge construction by users : a content analysis framework and a knowledge construction process model for virtual product user communities.
In: Journal of documentation. 73(2017) no.2, S.284-304.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a content analysis framework and from that derive a process model of knowledge construction in the context of virtual product user communities, organization sponsored online forums where product users collaboratively construct knowledge to solve their technical problems. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a deductive and qualitative content analysis of discussion threads about solving technical problems selected from a series of virtual product user communities. Data are complemented with thematic analysis of interviews with forum members. Findings The research develops a content analysis framework for knowledge construction. It is based on a combination of existing codes derived from frameworks developed for computer-supported collaborative learning and new categories identified from the data. Analysis using this framework allows the authors to propose a knowledge construction process model showing how these elements are organized around a typical "trial and error" knowledge construction strategy. Practical implications The research makes suggestions about organizations' management of knowledge activities in virtual product user communities, including moderators' roles in facilitation. Originality/value The paper outlines a new framework for analysing knowledge activities where there is a low level of critical thinking and a model of knowledge construction by trial and error. The new framework and model can be applied in other similar contexts.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2016-0060.
4Ford, N.: Introduction to information behaviour.
London : Facet Publishing, 2015. X, 252 S.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 67(2017) no.2, S. 530-532 (Charles Cole).
LCSH: Information behavior
GHBS: OQZ (HA)
RVK: AN 77500 ; ST 278
5Gorrell, G. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Holdridge, P. ; Madden, A.: Towards "metacognitively aware" IR systems : an initial user study.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.3, S.446-469.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe: a new taxonomy of metacognitive skills designed to support the study of metacognition in the context of web searching; a data collection instrument based on the taxonomy; and the results of testing the instrument on a sample of university students and staff. Design/methodology/approach - The taxonomy is based on a review of the literature, and is extended to cover web searching. This forms the basis for the design of the data collection instrument, which is tested with 405 students and staff of Sheffield University. Findings - Subjects regard the range of metacognitive skills focused on as broadly similar. However, a number of significant differences in reported metacognition usage relating to age, gender and discipline. Practical implications - These findings contribute to the long-term aims of the research which are to: develop a model of the actual and potential role of metacognition in web searching, and identify strategic "metacognitive interventions" that can be built into an intelligent information retrieval system, driven by the model, capable of enhancing retrieval effectiveness by compensating for metacognitive weaknesses on the part of the searcher. Originality/value - The value of the paper lies in: the consideration of metacognition in the context of web searching, the presentation of an extensible taxonomy of metacognitive skills, development and testing of a prototype metacognitive inventory, finding of significant differences in reported metacognition usage according to age, gender and discipline, and reflection of the implications of the results for future research into web searching.
6Ford, N. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Madden, A. ; Whittle, M.: Web searching by the "general public" : an individual differences perspective.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.4, S.632-667.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of a number of human individual differences on the web searching of a sample of the general public. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 91 members of the general public performed 195 controlled searches. Search activity and ratings of search difficulty and success were recorded and statistically analysed. The study was exploratory, and sought to establish whether there is a prima facie case for further systematic investigation of the selection and combination of variables studied here. Findings - Results revealed a number of interactions between individual differences, the use of different search strategies, and levels of perceived search difficulty and success. The findings also suggest that the open and closed nature of searches may affect these interactions. A conceptual model of these relationships is presented. Practical implications - Better understanding of factors affecting searching may help one to develop more effective search support, whether in the form of personalised search interfaces and mechanisms, adaptive systems, training or help systems. However, the findings reveal a complexity and variability suggesting that there is little immediate prospect of developing any simple model capable of driving such systems. Originality/value - There are several areas of this research that make it unique: the study's focus on a sample of the general public; its use of search logs linked to personal data; its development of a novel search strategy classifier; its temporal modelling of how searches are transformed over time; and its illumination of four different types of experienced searcher, linked to different search behaviours and outcomes.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Internet
7Ford, N.: Web-based learning through educational informatics : information science meets educational computing.
Hershey, Pa. : Information Science, 2008. XV, 389 S.
Abstract: Explores the role of information seeking and retrieval in the development of information systems to support personalized and autonomous learning.
Inhalt: Inhalt: Learning: Basic Processes - Introduction - Basic Information Processes - Integrating Themes - Where do Integrating Themes come From? - Theory Generation and Testing - Learning: Individual Differences - Styles of Learning - Levels of Learning - References - Education - Educational Philosophies and Learning Design - Autonomy and Mediation - Library and Information Science - Standards for Supporting Resource Discovery - Information Seeking and Autonomous Learning - Information Seeking as Conversations - ICT Developments: Resource Discovery - Tools and Techniques to Support Information Seeking and Resource Discovery - Metadata - Ontologies and the Semantic Web - Educational Metadata and Ontologies - ICT Developments: Learning Design And Teaching - Intelligent and Adaptive Tutoring Systems - Learning Environments and Interoperability - General ICT-Based Developments - Educational Opportunities Afforded by ICT Developments - Educational Informatics Systems: Individual Approaches - Metadata-Enabled Learning Resource Discovery - Adaptive Systems for Personalised Resource Discovery - Open Corpus Resource Discovery - From Supplantation to Metacognition - Educational Informatics Systems: Social Approaches - Alternative Pedagogies - Educational Informatics Systems that Learn - Community-Based Learning - Real World Learning - Theory and Practice - Educational Informatics Support for Critical Thinking and Creativity - Making Sense of Research: Generating Useful Real World Knowledge - Going Forward: Research Issues and the Future - Different Perspectives on Educational Informatics Developments - Types Of Evidence - Contingent Dependencies, and Object and Meta Languages - Reality Checking For Quality Control - Towards the Learning Web
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 61(2019 no.10, S.2164-2165 (S. Chen)
Themenfeld: Computer Based Training
LCSH: Computer / assisted instruction ; Internet in education
RSWK: E-Learning / Computerunterstütztes Lernen
BK: 81.68 / Computereinsatz in Unterricht und Ausbildung
DDC: 371.33/44678 / dc22
RVK: DW 4400 ; DP 1960
8Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Brown, G.J. ; Moore, A.: Information systems and creativity : an empirical study.
In: Journal of documentation. 63(2007) no.4, S.443-464.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report research that sought to understand the requirements of information systems designed to support people engaged in creative intellectual activity. The research aimed to provide empirical evidence based on a case study of a particular arena of creativity, namely electro-acoustic music composition. However, it also sought to identify issues that may apply more widely to other arenas of human creativity. Design/methodology/approach - The research was based on a related series of three in-depth studies of electro-acoustic music composers at work. These studies entailed the collection of qualitative data from interviews, observations and "think aloud" protocols. These data were analysed inductively to reveal concepts and relationships that formed the basis for a model of interactions between the composers and the information systems with which they were working. Findings - The paper presents a model of relationships between information system features and use, and the resulting effects in terms of the extent to which creativity was perceived by the composers to have been facilitated and inhibited. In particular, a number of tensions were identified which suggest that conventional "best practice" in the design of data-intensive information systems may be fundamentally at odds with the requirements of such systems to support important aspects of creativity. Research limitations/implications - The limitations associated with in-depth qualitative research based on small samples is acknowledged, relating in particular to its lack of ability to generalise on the basis of statistical probability. However, such an approach arguably offers the complementary strength of being particularly suited to exploratory research aimed essentially at charting new territory and identifying rich and possibly unanticipated constructs rather than testing hypotheses based on existing theory. The resultant findings, however, must remain tentative and provisional pending further systematic investigation designed to establish the extent to which they are generalisable. Practical implications - As well as identifying limitations in conventional approaches to designing data-intensive information systems, an alternative architecture is proposed which seeks better to map onto the requirements of creativity support. It is hoped that both the criticisms of conventional approaches and the proposed novel architecture may be of practical use to those engaged in the design of data-intensive creativity support systems. Originality/value - The research reported here offers a novel perspective on the design of information systems in that it identifies a tension between conventional "best practice" in system design and the requirements of important aspects of creativity support. It has the advantage of being based on the in-depth observation of real composers in action over protracted periods of time. It also proposes a novel system architecture which seeks to avoid reduce such tensions.
9Mansourian, Y. ; Ford, N.: Web searchers' attributions of success and failure: an empirical study.
In: Journal of documentation. 63(2007) no.5, S.659-679.
Abstract: Purpose - This paper reports the findings of a study designed to explore web searchers' perceptions of the causes of their search failure and success. In particular, it seeks to discover the extent to which the constructs locus of control and attribution theory might provide useful frameworks for understanding searchers' perceptions. Design/methodology/approach - A combination of inductive and deductive approaches were employed. Perceptions of failed and successful searches were derived from the inductive analysis of using open-ended qualitative interviews with a sample of 37 biologists at the University of Sheffield. These perceptions were classified into "internal" and "external" attributions, and the relationships between these categories and "successful" and "failed" searches were analysed deductively to test the extent to which they might be explainable using locus of control and attribution theory interpretive frameworks. Findings - All searchers were readily able to recall "successful" and "unsuccessful" searches. In a large majority of cases (82.4 per cent), they clearly attributed each search to either internal (e.g. ability or effort) or external (e.g. luck or information not being available) factors. The pattern of such relationships was analysed, and mapped onto those that would be predicted by locus of control and attribution theory. The authors conclude that the potential of these theoretical frameworks to illuminate one's understanding of web searching, and associated training, merits further systematic study. Research limitations/implications - The findings are based on a relatively small sample of academic and research staff in a particular subject area. Importantly, also, the study can at best provide a prima facie case for further systematic study since, although the patterns of attribution behaviour accord with those predictable by locus of control and attribution theory, data relating to the predictive elements of these theories (e.g. levels of confidence and achievement) were not available. This issue is discussed, and recommendations made for further work. Originality/value - The findings provide some empirical support for the notion that locus of control and attribution theory might - subject to the limitations noted above - be potentially useful theoretical frameworks for helping us better understand web-based information seeking. If so, they could have implications particularly for better understanding of searchers' motivations, and for the design and development of more effective search training programmes.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Retrievalstudien
10Mansourian, Y. ; Ford, N.: Search persistence and failure on the web : a "bounded rationality" and "satisficing" analysis.
In: Journal of documentation. 63(2007) no.5, S.680-701.
Abstract: Purpose - This paper aims to examine our current knowledge of how searchers perceive and react to the possibility of missing potentially important information whilst searching the web is limited. The study reported here seeks to investigate such perceptions and reactions, and to explore the extent to which Simon's "bounded rationality" theory is useful in illuminating these issues. Design/methodology/approach - Totally 37 academic staff, research staff and research students in three university departments were interviewed about their web searching. The open-ended, semi-structured interviews were inductively analysed. Emergence of the concept of "good enough" searching prompted a further analysis to explore the extent to which the data could be interpreted in terms of Simon's concepts of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing". Findings - The results indicate that the risk of missing potentially important information was a matter of concern to the interviewees. Their estimations of the likely extent and importance of missed information affected decisions by individuals as to when to stop searching - decisions based on very different criteria, which map well onto Simon's concepts. On the basis of the interview data, the authors propose tentative categorizations of perceptions of the risk of missing information including "inconsequential" "tolerable" "damaging" and "disastrous" and search strategies including "perfunctory" "minimalist" "nervous" and "extensive". It is concluded that there is at least a prima facie case for bounded rationality and satisficing being considered as potentially useful concepts in our quest better to understand aspects of human information behaviour. Research limitations/implications - Although the findings are based on a relatively small sample and an exploratory qualitative analysis, it is argued that the study raises a number of interesting questions, and has implications for both the development of theory and practice in the areas of web searching and information literacy. Originality/value - The paper focuses on an aspect of web searching which has not to date been well explored. Whilst research has done much to illuminate searchers' perceptions of what they find on the web, we know relatively little of their perceptions of, and reactions to information that they fail to find. The study reported here provides some tentative models, based on empirical evidence, of these phenomena.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Retrievalstudien
11Whittle, M. ; Eaglestone, B. ; Ford, N. ; Gillet, V.J. ; Madden, A.: Data mining of search engine logs.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.14, S.2382-2400.
Abstract: This article reports on the development of a novel method for the analysis of Web logs. The method uses techniques that look for similarities between queries and identify sequences of query transformation. It allows sequences of query transformations to be represented as graphical networks, thereby giving a richer view of search behavior than is possible with the usual sequential descriptions. We also perform a basic analysis to study the correlations between observed transformation codes, with results that appear to show evidence of behavior habits. The method was developed using transaction logs from the Excite search engine to provide a tool for an ongoing research project that is endeavoring to develop a greater understanding of Web-based searching by the general public.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Data Mining
12Özkar, M. ; Lefford, N.: Modal relationships as stylistic features : examples from Seljuk and Celtic patterns.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.11, S.1551-1560.
Abstract: Styles in creative works cannot adequately be represented by categories based on formal features. Instead, styles could be studied in terms of modal relationships between the features to provide a basis for definitions of structure in generative models. Modal relationships are more flexible and robust under the dynamic conditions of the artist's creative process. This article illustrates through the examples of Seljuk and Celtic patterns how these modal relationships emerge, why they are essential to detailed descriptions of style, and how they might be identified.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenschwerpunkt "Computational analysis of style"
13Ford, N. ; Mansourian, Y.: ¬The invisible web : an empirical study of "cognitive invisibility".
In: Journal of documentation. 62(2006) no.5, S.584-596.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to report an empirical investigation into conceptions of the "invisible web". Design/methodology/approach - This was an exploratory qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 members of academic staff from three biology-related departments at the University of Sheffield. Concepts emerged from an inductive analysis of the interview data to form a tentative model. Findings - A distinction is drawn between technical objective conceptions of the "invisible web" that commonly appear in the literature, and a cognitive subjective conception based on searchers' perceptions of search failure, and a tentative model of "cognitive invisibility" is presented. The relationship between objective and subjective conceptions, and implications for training, are discussed. Research limitations/implications - The research was qualitative and exploratory, designed to elicit sensitising concepts and to "map the territory". It thus aims to provide a tentative model that could form the basis for more systematic study. Such research could investigate the validity of the categories in different and/or larger samples, seek further to illuminate, challenge, extend or refute the model, and address issues of generalisability. Practical implications - The paper presents a conceptual model that is intended to be a useful reference point for researchers wishing to investigate user-based aspects of search failure and the invisible web. It may also be useful to trainers and those interested in developing information literacy, in that it differentiates technical objective and cognitive subjective conceptions of "invisibility, and discusses the implications for helping searchers develop more effective searching capabilities. Originality/value - The paper offers an alternative cognitive subjective view of "web invisibility" to that more commonly presented in the literature. It contributes to a still small body of empirical research into user-based aspects of the invisible web.
14Madden, A.D. ; Ford, N.J. ; Miller, D. ; Levy, P.: Children's use of the internet for information-seeking : what strategies do they use, and what factors affect their performance?.
In: Journal of documentation. 62(2006) no.6, S.744-761.
Abstract: Purpose - A common criticism of research into information seeking on the internet is that information seekers are restricted by the demands of the researcher. Another criticism is that the search topics, are often imposed by the researcher, and; particularly when working with children, domain knowledge could be as important as information-seeking skills. The research reported here attempts to address both these problems. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 15 children, aged 11 to 16, were each set three "think aloud" internet searches. In the first, they were asked to recall the last time they had sought information on the internet, and to repeat the search. For the second, they were given a word, asked to interpret it, then asked to search for their interpretation. For the third, they were asked to recall the last time they had been unsuccessful in a search, and to repeat the search. While performing each task, the children were encouraged to explain their actions. Findings - The paper finds that the factors that determined a child's ability to search successfully appeared to be: the amount of experience the child had of using the internet; the amount of guidance, both from adults and from peers; and the child's ability to explore the virtual environment, and to use the tools available for so doing. Originality/value - Many of the searches performed by participants in this paper were not related to schoolwork, and so some of the search approaches differed from those taught by teachers. Instead, they evolved through exploration and exchange of ideas. Further studies of this sort could provide insights of value to designers of web environments.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Internet ; Benutzerstudien
15Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: Web search strategies and human individual differences : cognitive and demographic factors, Internet attitudes, and approaches.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.7, S.741-756.
Abstract: The research reported here was an exploratory study that sought to discover the effects of human individual differences an Web search strategy. These differences consisted of (a) study approaches, (b) cognitive and demographic features, and (c) perceptions of and preferred approaches to Web-based information seeking. Sixtyeight master's students used AItaVista to search for information an three assigned search topics graded in terms of complexity. Five hundred seven search queries were factor analyzed to identify relationships between the individual difference variables and Boolean and best-match search strategies. A number of consistent patterns of relationship were found. As task complexity increased, a number of strategic shifts were also observed an the part of searchers possessing particular combinations of characteristics. A second article (published in this issue of JASIST; Ford, Miller, & Moss, 2005) presents a combined analyses of the data including a series of regression analyses.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien ; Internet
16Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: Web search strategies and human individual differences : a combined analysis.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.7, S.757-764.
Abstract: This is the second of two articles published in this issue of JASIST reporting the results of a study investigating relationships between Web search strategies and a range of human individual differences. In this article we provide a combined analysis of the factor analyses previously presented separately in relation to each of three groups of human individual difference (study approaches, cognitive and demographic features, and perceptions of and approaches to Internet-based information seeking). It also introduces two series of regression analyses conducted an data spanning all three individual difference groups. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which they satisfy the original aim of this exploratory research, namely to identify any relationships between search strategy and individual difference variables for which there is a prima facie case for more focused systematic study. It is argued that a number of such relationships do exist. The results of the project are summarized and suggestions are made for further research.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien ; Internet
17Ford, N.: "Conversational" information systems : Extending educational informatics support for the web-based learner.
In: Journal of documentation. 61(2005) no.3, S.362-384.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to review recent developments in educational informatics relating to the provision by information systems of pedagogical support to web-based learners, and to propose further investigation of the feasibility and potential value of web-based "conversational" information systems to complement adaptive hypermedia and information retrieval systems. Design/methodology/approach - The potential of Pask's conversation theory is considered as a potentially useful framework for the development of information systems capable of providing pedagogical support for web-based learners, complementary to that provided by existing computer-assisted learning and adaptive hypermedia systems. The potential role and application of entailment meshes are reviewed in relation to other forms of knowledge representation including classifications, semantic networks, ontologies and representations based on knowledge space theory. Findings - Concludes that conversation theory could be a useful framework to support the development of web-based "conversational" information that would complement aspects of computer-assisted learning, adaptive hypermedia and information retrieval systems. The entailment mesh knowledge representation associated with conversation theory provides the potential for providing particularly rich pedagogical support by virtue of its properties of cyclicity, consistency and connectivity, designed to support deep and enduring levels of understanding. Research limitations/implications - Although based on a considerable body of theoretical and empirical work relating to conversation theory, the paper remains speculative in that the gap is still great between, on the one hand, what has so far been achieved and, on the other, the practical realisation of its potential to enhance web-based learning. Much work remains to be done in terms of exploring the extent to which procedures developed and benefits found in relatively small-scale experimental contexts can effectively be scaled to yield enhanced support for "real world" learning-related information behaviour. Originality/value - The ideas of Pask, discussed in this paper, are capable of guiding the structuring of information according to parameters designed to facilitate deep and enduring understanding via interactive "conversational" engagement between the conceptual structures of information source authors and learners. If one can scale Pask's work to "real world" learning-related information behaviour, one can increase the range of web-based information systems and services capable of providing pedagogical support to web-based learners.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410510598535
Themenfeld: Computer Based Training
18Ford, N.: New cognitive directions.
In: New directions in cognitive information retrieval. Eds.: A. Spink, C. Cole. Dordrecht : Springer Netherland, 2005. S.81-96.
(The information retrieval series, vol. 19)
Abstract: This chapter explores cognitive issues relating not only to the use and effectiveness of information retrieval (IR) systems, but also to the generation of new research knowledge relevant to enhancing such use and to the development of improved systems. There is still much that we do not know about how effectively, or not as the case may be, current IR systems support different individuals and groups of people in effectively acquiring the knowledge they need to help them in the tasks in which they are engaged. We need greater levels of knowledge of how we might optimize the symbiotic interactions between IR systems and people working in different contexts, and of the directions we might most profitably take in the development of new systems. The chapter begins by establishing working definitions of "knowledge", "information", "understanding", and related concepts including "information retrieval" and "information behavior". Such definitions are necessary if we are to achieve any clear focus on what are important issues for the evaluation and development of IR systems and practices. Knowledge is defined here as a conceptual system that enables its possessor (whether human or machine) to act in the world (e.g. in the form of autonomous activity or response to stimuli). Information is defined here as potential knowledge, and understanding as the process of transforming information into knowledge. Perceiving an information need represents the realization that one is in a situation for which one's existing knowledge is not adequate. Information is needed to generate, via understanding, appropriate new knowledge. However, the need for knowledge is broader than the information need in that the former entails defining the nature of the sought-for knowledge, as opposed to the type and nature of the information which may be used to generate it. Importantly in this context, functionally the same knowledge may be generated via the processing of alternative items of information. The realization and specification of the knowledge need, along with the evaluation of information behavior in terms of its contribution to satisfying the knowledge need, are termed here knowledge behavior. Information behavior comprises those activities entailed in the acquisition of information that may be transformed into knowledge. It subsumes information encountering and information seeking, the latter subsuming searching and retrieval. Although information retrieval is often used narrowly to denote the latter activity taking place within information seeking, a broader definition is used here to include the development, use and evaluation of systems designed to support the range of activities denoted by the term information behavior.
19Ford, N.: Modeling cognitive processes in information seeking : from Popper to Pask.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 55(2004) no.9, S.769-782.
Abstract: This report explores the intellectual processes entailed during information seeking, as information needs are generated and information is sought and evaluated for relevance. It focuses an the details of cognitive processing, reviewing a number of models. In particular, Popper's model of the communication process between an individual and new information is explored and elaborated from the perspective of Pask's Conversation Theory. The implications of this theory are discussed in relation to the development of what Cole has termed "enabling" information retrieval systems.
Anmerkung: Teil eines Themenheftes zu: Information seeking research
20Ford, N.: Towards a model of learning for educational informatics.
In: Journal of documentation. 60(2004) no.2, S.183-225.
Abstract: Based on a review of constructs that have been the subject of both educational and information science research, a model of learning-related information behaviour is developed. The model details components of such behaviour, including: basic information processes, information processing types and information processing approaches; and factors affecting information behaviour relating to educational environments (in particular, learning objectives) and mental (including cognitive and affective) states. The complexity of information needs and associated relevance judgements implied by the model are discussed, as are implications for the provision of cognitively and affectively ergonomic access to information, and for research into learning-related information behaviour.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410410522052