Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Frické, M.: ¬The knowledge pyramid : the DIKW hierarchy.
In: Knowledge organization. 46(2019) no.1, S.33-46.
(Reviews of concepts in knowledge organization)
Abstract: The data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy or pyramid is a model or construct that has been used widely within information science and knowledge management. The nature of the pyramid is explained, and its historical origin is described. The conceptual components of the pyramid-i.e. data, information, knowledge, and wisdom-are given brief explication. Some modern developments, criticisms, and rebuttals of the DIKW Pyramid are described. Nowadays, the DIKW Pyramid would generally be considered to be unsatisfactory. The arguments and reasoning behind this conclusion are sketched. It is claimed that two more concepts, document and sign, are necessary to provide a fruitful theoretical frame for knowledge organization.
2Frické, M.: ¬The knowledge pyramid : a critique of the DIKW hierarchy.
In: Journal of information science. 35(2009) no.2, S.131-142.
Abstract: The paper evaluates the data-information-knowledge-wisdom (DIKW) hierarchy. This hierarchy, also known as the `knowledge hierarchy', is part of the canon of information science and management. Arguments are offered that the hierarchy is unsound and methodologically undesirable. The paper identifies a central logical error that DIKW makes. The paper also identifies the dated and unsatisfactory philosophical positions of operationalism and inductivism as the philosophical backdrop to the hierarchy. The paper concludes with a sketch of some positive theories, of value to information science, on the nature of the components of the hierarchy: that data is anything recordable in a semantically and pragmatically sound way, that information is what is known in other literature as `weak knowledge', that knowledge also is `weak knowledge' and that wisdom is the possession and use, if required, of wide practical knowledge, by an agent who appreciates the fallible nature of that knowledge.
3Frické, M.: Logic and librarianship.
In: Theorie, Semantik und Organisation von Wissen: Proceedings der 13. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) und dem 13. Internationalen Symposium der Informationswissenschaft der Higher Education Association for Information Science (HI) Potsdam (19.-20.03.2013): 'Theory, Information and Organization of Knowledge' / Proceedings der 14. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) und Natural Language & Information Systems (NLDB) Passau (16.06.2015): 'Lexical Resources for Knowledge Organization' / Proceedings des Workshops der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) auf der SEMANTICS Leipzig (1.09.2014): 'Knowledge Organization and Semantic Web' / Proceedings des Workshops der Polnischen und Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) Cottbus (29.-30.09.2011): 'Economics of Knowledge Production and Organization'. Hrsg. von W. Babik, H.P. Ohly u. K. Weber. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2017. S.279-288.
(Fortschritte in der Wissensorganisation; Bd.13)
4Frické, M.: Faceted classification, analysis and search : some questions on their interrelations.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.6, S.387-396.
Abstract: A description is provided of basic faceted classification, which involves combinations of foci across facets, where the foci within a facet are dependent (i.e., exclusive) and the foci across facets are independent (i.e., orthogonal). This is shown to be suitable for organizing the basic goods that Amazon, the online retailer, sells and for progressive filtering as a mode of search. However, on closer inspection, the Amazon case involves a sorted domain. This is problematic for basic faceted classification. Additionally, books from Amazon would typically carry subject classification, which also is difficult for basic faceted classification. It does not support filtering as a mode of search. Subject classification really requires relatively sophisticated linguistic and logical constructors and modifiers, such as adjectives, adverbs, functions, binary relations, and transitive verbs. These can be part of a synthetic subject classification scheme, but they pose a challenge for faceting.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special Issue: Selected Papers from the International UDC Seminar 2017, Faceted Classification Today: Theory, Technology and End Users, 14-15 September, London UK.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
5Frické, M.: Logical division.
In: ISKO Encyclopedia of Knowledge Organization, ed. by B. Hjoerland. [http://www.isko.org/cyclo/logical_division].
Abstract: Division is obviously important to Knowledge Organization. Typically, an organizational infrastructure might acknowledge three types of connecting relationships: class hierarchies, where some classes are subclasses of others, partitive hierarchies, where some items are parts of others, and instantiation, where some items are members of some classes (see Z39.19 ANSI/NISO 2005 as an example). The first two of these involve division (the third, instantiation, does not involve division). Logical division would usually be a part of hierarchical classification systems, which, in turn, are central to shelving in libraries, to subject classification schemes, to controlled vocabularies, and to thesauri. Partitive hierarchies, and partitive division, are often essential to controlled vocabularies, thesauri, and subject tagging systems. Partitive hierarchies also relate to the bearers of information; for example, a journal would typically have its component articles as parts and, in turn, they might have sections as their parts, and, of course, components might be arrived at by partitive division (see Tillett 2009 as an illustration). Finally, verbal division, disambiguating homographs, is basic to controlled vocabularies. Thus Division is a broad and relevant topic. This article, though, is going to focus on Logical Division.
Inhalt: Contents: 1. Introduction: Kinds of Division; 2. The Basics of Logical Division; 3. History; 4. Formalization; 5. The Rules; 6. The Status of the Rules; 7. The Process of Logical Division; 8. Conclusion
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur ; Universale Facettenklassifikationen
6Frické, M.: Big data and its epistemology.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.4, S.651-661.
Abstract: The article considers whether Big Data, in the form of data-driven science, will enable the discovery, or appraisal, of universal scientific theories, instrumentalist tools, or inductive inferences. It points out, initially, that such aspirations are similar to the now-discredited inductivist approach to science. On the positive side, Big Data may permit larger sample sizes, cheaper and more extensive testing of theories, and the continuous assessment of theories. On the negative side, data-driven science encourages passive data collection, as opposed to experimentation and testing, and hornswoggling ("unsound statistical fiddling"). The roles of theory and data in inductive algorithms, statistical modeling, and scientific discoveries are analyzed, and it is argued that theory is needed at every turn. Data-driven science is a chimera.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23212/abstract.
Themenfeld: Data Mining
7Frické, M.: Reflections on classification : Thomas Reid and bibliographic description.
In: Journal of documentation. 69(2013) no.4, S.507-522.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to clarify the ontological and epistemological basis of classification. Design/methodology/approach - Attention is drawn to a 1785 article on abstraction by Thomas Reid and the contents and theories of the article are explained. The Reid article both provides a sound approach to classification and is interesting historically as it influenced the classification pioneer Charles Ammi Cutter who, in turn, is responsible for much of the modern theory of functional bibliography. Reid's account is supplemented by brief descriptions of fallibilism and fuzziness. An associated view, Aristotelian essentialism is explained and criticized. Some observations are offered on the role of prototypes in classification and on the monothetic-polythetic distinction. Findings - Reid's theories, suitably embedded in fallibilism and augmented with a respect for truth, provide a sound ontological and epistemological basis for classification. Originality/value - Reid's essay, together with an appreciation of fallibility and determinate and indeterminate properties, amount to a good basic theoretical foundation for cataloging.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
8Frické, M.: Logic and the organization of information.
New York : Springer, 2012. 312 S.
Abstract: Logic and the Organization of Information closely examines the historical and contemporary methodologies used to catalogue information objects-books, ebooks, journals, articles, web pages, images, emails, podcasts and more-in the digital era. This book provides an in-depth technical background for digital librarianship, and covers a broad range of theoretical and practical topics including: classification theory, topic annotation, automatic clustering, generalized synonymy and concept indexing, distributed libraries, semantic web ontologies and Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS). It also analyzes the challenges facing today's information architects, and outlines a series of techniques for overcoming them. Logic and the Organization of Information is intended for practitioners and professionals working at a design level as a reference book for digital librarianship. Advanced-level students, researchers and academics studying information science, library science, digital libraries and computer science will also find this book invaluable.
Inhalt: Digital unter: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-3088-9.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: J. Doc. 70(2014) no.4: "Books on the organization of information and knowledge, aimed at a library/information audience, tend to fall into two clear categories. Most are practical and pragmatic, explaining the "how" as much or more than the "why". Some are theoretical, in part or in whole, showing how the practice of classification, indexing, resource description and the like relates to philosophy, logic, and other foundational bases; the books by Langridge (1992) and by Svenonious (2000) are well-known examples this latter kind. To this category certainly belongs a recent book by Martin Frické (2012). The author takes the reader for an extended tour through a variety of aspects of information organization, including classification and taxonomy, alphabetical vocabularies and indexing, cataloguing and FRBR, and aspects of the semantic web. The emphasis throughout is on showing how practice is, or should be, underpinned by formal structures; there is a particular emphasis on first order predicate calculus. The advantages of a greater, and more explicit, use of symbolic logic is a recurring theme of the book. There is a particularly commendable historical dimension, often omitted in texts on this subject. It cannot be said that this book is entirely an easy read, although it is well written with a helpful index, and its arguments are generally well supported by clear and relevant examples. It is thorough and detailed, but thereby seems better geared to the needs of advanced students and researchers than to the practitioners who are suggested as a main market. For graduate students in library/information science and related disciplines, in particular, this will be a valuable resource. I would place it alongside Svenonious' book as the best insight into the theoretical "why" of information organization. It has evoked a good deal of interest, including a set of essay commentaries in Journal of Information Science (Gilchrist et al., 2013). Introducing these, Alan Gilchrist rightly says that Frické deserves a salute for making explicit the fundamental relationship between the ancient discipline of logic and modern information organization. If information science is to continue to develop, and make a contribution to the organization of the information environments of the future, then this book sets the groundwork for the kind of studies which will be needed." (D. Bawden)
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
LCSH: Computer science ; Information Systems ; Information storage and retrieval systems ; Multimedia systems
9Frické, M.: Faceted classification : orthogonal facets and graphs of foci?.
In: Knowledge organization. 38(2011) no.6, S.491-502.
Abstract: Faceted classification is based on the core ideas that there are kinds or categories of concepts, and that compound, or non-elemental, concepts, which are ubiquitous in classification and subject annotation, are to be identified as being constructions of concepts of the different kinds. The categories of concepts are facets, and the individual concepts, which are instances of those facets, are foci. Usually, there are constraints on how the foci can be combined into the compound concepts. What is standard is that any combination of foci is permitted from kind-to-kind across facets, but that the foci within a facet are restricted in their use by virtue of being dependent on each other, either by being exclusive of each other or by bearing some kind of hierarchical relationship to each other. Thus faceted classification is typically considered to be a synthetic classification consisting of orthogonal facets which themselves are composed individually either of exclusive foci or of a hierarchy of foci. This paper addresses in particular this second exclusive-or-hierarchical foci condition. It evaluates the arguments for the condition and finds them not conclusive. It suggests that wider synthetic constructions should be allowed on foci within a facet.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_38_2011_6_c.pdf.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur ; Universale Facettenklassifikationen
10Frické, M. ; Fallis, D.: Indicators of accuracy for answers to ready reference questions an the Internet.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 55(2004) no.3, S.238-245.
Abstract: The Internet is increasingly being used as a source of reference information. Internet users need to be able to distinguish accurate information from inaccurate information. Toward this end, information professionals have published checklists for evaluating information. However, such checklists can be effective only if the proposed indicators of accuracy really do indicate accuracy. This study implements a technique for testing such indicators of accuracy and uses it to test indicators of accuracy for answers to ready reference questions. Many of the commonly proposed indicators of accuracy (e.g., that the Web site does not contain advertising) were not found to be correlated with accuracy. However, the link structure of the Internet can be used to identify Web sites that are more likely to contain accurate reference information.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Internet
11Fricke, M.: Measuring recall.
In: Journal of information science. 24(1998) no.6, S.409-417.
Abstract: Recall, the proortion of the relevant documents retrieved, is a key indicator of the performance of an information retrieval system. With large information systems, like the WWW, recal is almost impossible to measure or estimate by all standard techniques. Proposes an 'needle hiding' technique for measuring recall under these circumstances. Shows that ranking by relative recall does not have to be isomorphic to ranking by recall and hence the use of relative recall for comparative evaluation might not be entirely sound
12Fricke, M.: Information using likeness measures.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 48(1997) no.10, S.882-892.
Abstract: The information in a theory can be evaluated by measuring either its distance from the perfect theory or by measuring its distance from the right answer to the information seeking question that led to it. The measures here are provided by the Tichy-Hilpinen-Oddie-Niiniluoto-likeness measures which were introduced in the context of the philosophical problem of verisimilitude. It does not use or depend on probabilities or uncertainty and it permits false views or theories to possess information
13Fricke, M.: Information across heterogeneous media.
In: International forum on information and documentation. 21(1996) no.3, S.3-9.
Abstract: Proposes a linguistics and semantics based framework for analyzing information portrayed in different media, for example, text, diagrams, and maps. The framework attaches information to propositions, then analyzes text and diagrams as being interpreted languages with the ability to refer to propositions; and if expressions in the different media refer to the same propositions then they are inter translatable. Illustrates the approach using Venn diagrams