Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Wakeling, S. ; Spezi, V. ; Fry, J. ; Creaser, C. ; Pinfield, S. ; Willett, P.: Academic communities : the role of journals and open-access mega-journals in scholarly communication.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.120-139.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into publication practices from the perspective of academics working within four disciplinary communities: biosciences, astronomy/physics, education and history. The paper explores the ways in which these multiple overlapping communities intersect with the journal landscape and the implications for the adoption and use of new players in the scholarly communication system, particularly open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs (e.g. PLOS ONE and Scientific Reports) are large, broad scope, open-access journals that base editorial decisions solely on the technical/scientific soundness of the article. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups with active researchers in these fields were held in five UK Higher Education Institutions across Great Britain, and were complemented by interviews with pro-vice-chancellors for research at each institution. Findings A strong finding to emerge from the data is the notion of researchers belonging to multiple overlapping communities, with some inherent tensions in meeting the requirements for these different audiences. Researcher perceptions of evaluation mechanisms were found to play a major role in attitudes towards OAMJs, and interviews with the pro-vice-chancellors for research indicate that there is a difference between researchers' perceptions and the values embedded in institutional frameworks. Originality/value This is the first purely qualitative study relating to researcher perspectives on OAMJs. The findings of the paper will be of interest to publishers, policy-makers, research managers and academics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2018-0067.
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2Spezi, V. ; Wakeling, S. ; Pinfield, S. ; Creaser, C. ; Fry, J. ; Willett, P.: Open-access mega-journals : the future of scholarly communication or academic dumping ground? a review.
In: Journal of documentation. 73(2017) no.2, S.263-283.
Abstract: Purpose Open-access mega-journals (OAMJs) represent an increasingly important part of the scholarly communication landscape. OAMJs, such as PLOS ONE, are large scale, broad scope journals that operate an open access business model (normally based on article-processing charges), and which employ a novel form of peer review, focussing on scientific "soundness" and eschewing judgement of novelty or importance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses relating to OAMJs, and their place within scholarly publishing, and considers attitudes towards mega-journals within the academic community. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a review of the literature of OAMJs structured around four defining characteristics: scale, disciplinary scope, peer review policy, and economic model. The existing scholarly literature was augmented by searches of more informal outputs, such as blogs and e-mail discussion lists, to capture the debate in its entirety. Findings While the academic literature relating specifically to OAMJs is relatively sparse, discussion in other fora is detailed and animated, with debates ranging from the sustainability and ethics of the mega-journal model, to the impact of soundness-only peer review on article quality and discoverability, and the potential for OAMJs to represent a paradigm-shifting development in scholarly publishing. Originality/value This paper represents the first comprehensive review of the mega-journal phenomenon, drawing not only on the published academic literature, but also grey, professional and informal sources. The paper advances a number of ways in which the role of OAMJs in the scholarly communication environment can be conceptualised.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-06-2016-0082.
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3Li, X. ; Cox, A. ; Ford, N. ; Creaser, C. ; Fry, J. ; Willett, P.: Knowledge construction by users : a content analysis framework and a knowledge construction process model for virtual product user communities.
In: Journal of documentation. 73(2017) no.2, S.284-304.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a content analysis framework and from that derive a process model of knowledge construction in the context of virtual product user communities, organization sponsored online forums where product users collaboratively construct knowledge to solve their technical problems. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a deductive and qualitative content analysis of discussion threads about solving technical problems selected from a series of virtual product user communities. Data are complemented with thematic analysis of interviews with forum members. Findings The research develops a content analysis framework for knowledge construction. It is based on a combination of existing codes derived from frameworks developed for computer-supported collaborative learning and new categories identified from the data. Analysis using this framework allows the authors to propose a knowledge construction process model showing how these elements are organized around a typical "trial and error" knowledge construction strategy. Practical implications The research makes suggestions about organizations' management of knowledge activities in virtual product user communities, including moderators' roles in facilitation. Originality/value The paper outlines a new framework for analysing knowledge activities where there is a low level of critical thinking and a model of knowledge construction by trial and error. The new framework and model can be applied in other similar contexts.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2016-0060.
4Fry, J. ; Spezi, V. ; Probets, S. ; Creaser, C.: Towards an understanding of the relationship between disciplinary research cultures and open access repository behaviors.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.11, S.2710-2724.
Abstract: This article explores the cultural characteristics of three open access (OA)-friendly disciplines (physics, economics, and clinical medicine) and the ways in which those characteristics influence perceptions, motivations, and behaviors toward green OA. The empirical data are taken from two online surveys of European authors. Taking a domain analytic approach, the analysis draws on Becher and Trowler's (2001) and Whitley's (2000) theories to gain a deeper understanding of why OA repositories (OAR) play a particularly important role in the chosen disciplines. The surveys provided a unique opportunity to compare perceptions, motivations, and behaviors of researchers at the discipline level with the parent metadiscipline. It should be noted that participants were not drawn from a stratified sample of all the different subdisciplines that constitute each discipline, and therefore the generalizability of the findings to the discipline may be limited. The differential role of informal and formal communication in each of the three disciplines has shaped green OA practices. For physicists and economists, preprints are an essential feature of their respective OAR landscapes, whereas for clinical medics final published articles have a central role. In comparing the disciplines with their parent metadisciplines there were some notable similarities/differences, which have methodological implications for studying research cultures.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23621/full.
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5Fry, J. ; Schroeder, R. ; Besten, M. den: Open science in e-science : contingency or policy?.
In: Journal of documentation. 65(2009) no.1, S.6-32.
Abstract: Purpose - This paper seeks to discuss the question of "openness" in e-Science. Design/methodology/approach - The study is based on 12 in-depth interviews with principal investigators, project managers and developers involved in UK e-Science projects, together with supporting documentary evidence from project web sites. The approach was to explore the juxtaposition of research governance at the institutional level and local research practices at the project level. Interview questions focused on research inputs, software development processes, access to resources, project documentation, dissemination of outputs and by-products, licensing issues, and institutional contracts. Findings - The findings suggest that, although there is a widely shared ethos of openness in everyday research practice, there are many uncertainties and yet-to-be resolved issues, despite strong policy imperatives towards openly shared resources. Research limitations/implications - The paper concludes by observing a stratification of openness in practice and the need for more nuanced understanding of openness at the level of policy making. This research was based on interviews within a limited number of e-Science/Social Science projects and the intention is to address this in future work by scaling the study up to a survey that will reach the entire UK e-Science/Social Science community. Practical implications - The fundamental challenge in resolving openness in practice and policy, and thereby moving towards a sustainable infrastructure for e-Science, is the coordination and integration of goals across e-Science efforts, rather than one of resolving IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) issues, which has been the central focus of openness debates thus far. Originality/value - The question of openness has previously been posed on the macro-level of research policy, e.g. whether science as a whole can be characterized as open science, or in relation to the dissemination of published outputs, e.g. Open Access. Instead, a fine-grained perspective is taken focusing on individual research projects and the various facets of openness in practice.
6Thelwall, M. ; Wouters, P. ; Fry, J.: Information-centered research for large-scale analyses of new information sources.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.9, S.1523-1527.
Abstract: New mass publishing genres, such as blogs and personal home pages provide a rich source of social data that is yet to be fully exploited by the social sciences and humanities. Information-centered research (ICR) not only provides a genuinely new and useful information science research model for this type of data, but can also contribute to the emerging e-research infrastructure. Nevertheless, ICR should not be conducted on a purely abstract level, but should relate to potentially relevant problems.
7Talja, S. ; Vakkari, P. ; Fry, J. ; Wouters, P.: Impact of research cultures on the use of digital library resources.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.11, S.1674-1685.
Abstract: Currently, there exists little evidence concerning how various characteristics of research cultures are associated with patterns of use of electronic library resources. The present study addresses this gap by exploring how research-group membership, across-fields scattering of literature, and degree of establishment of research area are related to patterns of digital library use. The analytic dimensions are derived from Richard Whitley's () theory of the social and intellectual organization of academic fields. The article represents a first attempt to operationalize Whitley's concepts in a large-scale study of e-resources use. The data used in the study were gathered in 2004 by the Finnish Electronic Library (FinElib) through a nationwide Web-based user questionnaire (N = 900). Membership in a research group significantly increased searching in journal databases, the importance of colleagues as sources of information about electronic articles and journals, and the use of alert services. A significant interaction effect was found between degree of across-fields scattering of relevant resources and degree of establishment of research fields. A high degree of across-fields scattering of relevant literature increased the number of journal databases used mainly in less established research areas whereas it influenced the use of journal databases less in established fields. This research contributes to our picture concerning the complex set of interacting factors influencing patterns of use of e-resources.
8Fry, J.: Scholarly research and information practices : a domain analytic approach.
In: Information processing and management. 42(2006) no.1, S.299-316.
Abstract: This paper deals with information needs, seeking, searching, and uses within scholarly communities by introducing theory from the field of science and technology studies. In particular it contributes to the domain-analytic approach in information science by showing that Whitley's theory of 'mutual dependence' and 'task uncertainty' can be used as an explanatory framework in understanding similarity and difference in information practices across intellectual fields. Based on qualitative case studies of three specialist scholarly communities across the physical sciences, applied sciences, social sciences and arts and humanities, this paper extends Whitley's theory into the realm of information communication technologies. The paper adopts a holistic approach to information practices by recognising the interrelationship between the traditions of informal and formal scientific communication and how it shapes digital outcomes across intellectual fields. The findings show that communities inhabiting fields with a high degree of 'mutual dependence' coupled with a low degree of 'task uncertainty' are adept at coordinating and controlling channels of communication and will readily co-produce field-based digital information resources, whereas communities that inhabit fields characterised by the opposite cultural configuration, a low degree of 'mutual dependence' coupled with a high degree of 'task uncertainty', are less successful in commanding control over channels of communication and are less concerned with co-producing field-based digital resources and integrating them into their epistemic and social structures. These findings have implications for the culturally sensitive development and provision of academic digital resources such as digital libraries and web-based subject portals.
9Fry, J.F.: ¬A CD-ROM LAN with full-text for undergraduate students : one library's challenge.
In: Proceedings of the 15th National Online Meeting 1994, New York, 10-12 May 1994. Ed. by M.E. Williams. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1994. S.163-172.
Abstract: Troy State University is a state-affiliated school in southern Alabama with nearly 5.000 mainly undergraduate students. Before 1992, little automation was possible due to budget constraints. Therefore, when money became available in 1992, the librarians sought to bring the state of the art in reference tools - full-text databases - to the students and faculty. The results was the BRAIN (Basic Research and Information Network), a CD-ROM local area network with 4 full-text databases geared for the undergraduate user. After implementation, the BRAIN received an incredible amount of use, and, from anecdotal accounts, the library gained a new respect in the eyes of its users. The palnning process, implementation, full-text databases chosen, and user education, are discussed, as well as the response from users. Undergraduates should be provided access to electronically delivered full-text information