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© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 13. Juni 2017)
1Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : Part 2: Types and levels.
In: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.37-54.
Abstract: After making the case that phenomena can be the primary unit of classification (Part 1), some basic principles to group and sort phenomena are considered. Entities can be grouped together on the basis of both their similarity (morphology) and their common origin (phylogeny). The resulting groups will form the classical hierarchical chains of types and subtypes. At every hierarchical degree, phenomena can form ordered sets (arrays), where their sorting can reflect levels of increasing organization, corresponding to an evolutionary order of appearance (emergence). The theory of levels of reality has been investigated by many philosophers and applied to knowledge organization systems by various authors, which are briefly reviewed. At the broadest degree, it allows to identify some major strata of phenomena (forms, matter, life, minds, societies and culture) in turn divided into layers. A list of twenty-six layers is proposed to form the main classes of the Integrative Levels Classification system. A combination of morphology and phylogeny can determine whether a given phenomenon should be a type of an existing level, or a level on its own.
Anmerkung: Part 1 in: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.403-415.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
2Gnoli, C. ; Pusterla, L. ; Bendiscioli, A. ; Recinella, C.: Classification for collections mapping and query expansion.
In: Proceedings of the 15th European Networked Knowledge Organization Systems Workshop (NKOS 2016) co-located with the 20th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries 2016 (TPDL 2016), Hannover, Germany, September 9, 2016. Edi. by Philipp Mayr et al. [http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/=urn:nbn:de:0074-1676-5].
(CEUR workshop proceedings; vol. 1676)
Abstract: Dewey Decimal Classification has been used to organize materials owned by the three scientific libraries at the University of Pavia, and to allow integrated browsing in their union catalogue through SciGator, a home built web-based user interface. Classification acts as a bridge between collections located in different places and shelved according to different local schemes. Furthermore, cross-discipline relationships recorded in the system allow for expanded queries that increase recall. Advantages and possible improvements of such a system are discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/paper3.pdf. Other workshop material incl. presentations are available on the website < https://at-web1.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/research/hypermedia/nkos/nkos2016/programme.html>.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval ; OPAC ; Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
Objekt: DDC ; SciGator
Land/Ort: I ; Pavia
3Gnoli, C.: Classifying phenomena : Part 1: dimensions.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.6, S.403-415.
Abstract: This is the first part of a study on the classification of phenomena. It starts by addressing the status of classification schemes among knowledge organization systems (KOSs), as some features of them have been overlooked in recent reviews of KOS types. It then considers the different dimensions implied in a KOS, which include: the observed phenomena, the cultural and disciplinary perspective under which they are treated, the features of documents carrying such treatment, the collections of such documents as managed in libraries, archives or museums, the information needs prompting to search and use these collections and the people experiencing such different information needs. Until now, most library classification schemes have given priority to the perspective dimension as they first list disciplines. However, an increasing number of voices are now considering the possibility of classification schemes giving priority to phenomena as advocated in the León Manifesto. Although these schemes first list phenomena as their main classes, they can as well express perspective or the other relevant dimensions that occur in a classified item. The independence of a phenomenon-based classification from the institutional divisions into disciplines contributes to giving knowledge organization a more proactive and influential role.
Anmerkung: Part 2 in: Knowledge organization. 44(2017) no.1, S.37-54.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
4Gnoli, C. ; Santis, R. de ; Pusterla, L.: Commerce, see also Rhetoric : cross-discipline relationships as authority data for enhanced retrieval.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.151-162.
Abstract: Subjects in a classification scheme are often related to other subjects belonging to different hierarchies. This problem was identified already by Hugh of Saint Victor (1096?-1141). Still with present-time bibliographic classifications, a user browsing the class of architecture under the hierarchy of arts may miss relevant items classified in building or in civil engineering under the hierarchy of applied sciences. To face these limitations we have developed SciGator, a browsable interface to explore the collections of all scientific libraries at the University of Pavia. Besides showing subclasses of a given class, the interface points users to related classes in the Dewey Decimal Classification, or in other local schemes, and allows for expanded queries that include them. This is made possible by using a special field for related classes in the database structure which models classification authority data. Ontologically, many relationships between classes in different hierarchies are cases of existential dependence. Dependence can occur between disciplines in such disciplinary classifications as Dewey (e.g. architecture existentially depends on building), or between phenomena in such phenomenon-based classifications as the Integrative Levels Classification (e.g. fishing as a human activity existentially depends on fish as a class of organisms). We provide an example of its representation in OWL and discuss some details of it.
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Gnoli_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
5Gnoli, C.: Boundaries and overlaps of disciplines in Bloch's methodology of historical knowledge.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.129-135.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Marc Bloch's famous methodological essay, The Historian's Craft, contains many relevant considerations on knowledge organization. These have been selected and grouped into four main themes: terminology problems in history; principles for the organization of historical knowledge, with special reference to the genetic principle; sources of historical information, to be found not only in archives but also in very different media and contexts; and the nature and boundaries of history as a discipline. Analysis of them shows that knowledge organization is an important part of historians' work, and suggests that it can be especially fruitful when a cross-medial, interdisciplinary approach is adopted.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_19.pdf.
6Gnoli, C. ; Ridi, C.R.: Unified Theory of Information, hypertextuality and levels of reality : without, within, and withal knowledge management.
In: Journal of documentation. 70(2014) no.3, S.443-460.
Abstract: Purpose - The different senses of the term information in physical, biological and social interpretations, and the possibility of connections between them, are addressed. Special attention is paid to Hofkirchner's Unified Theory of Information (UTI), proposing an integrated view in which the notion of information gets additional properties as one moves from the physical to the biological and the social realms. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - UTI is compared to other views of information, especially to two theories complementing several ideas of it: the theory of the hypertextual documental universe ("docuverse") and the theory of integrative levels of reality. Two alternative applications of the complex of these three theories are discussed: a pragmatical, hermeneutic one, and a more ambitious realist, ontological one. The latter can be extended until considering information ("bit") together with matter-energy ("it") as a fundamental element in the world. Problems and opportunities with each view are discussed. Findings - It is found that the common ground for all three theories is an evolutionary approach, paying attention to the phylogenetic connections between the different meanings of information. Research limitations/implications - Other theories of information, like Leontiev's, are not discussed as not especially related to the focus of the approach. Originality/value - The paper builds on previously unnoticed affinities between different families of information-related theories, showing how each of them can provide fruitful complements to the other ones in clarifying the nature of information.
7Gnoli, C.: Metadata about what? : distinguishing between ontic, epistemic, and documental dimensions in knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.4, S.268-275.
Abstract: The spread of many new media and formats is changing the scenario faced by knowledge organizers: as printed monographs are not the only standard form of knowledge carrier anymore, the traditional kind of knowledge organization (KO) systems based on academic disciplines is put into question. A sounder foundation can be provided by an analysis of the different dimensions concurring to form the content of any knowledge item-what Brian Vickery described as the steps "from the world to the classifier." The ultimate referents of documents are the phenomena of the real world, that can be ordered by ontology, the study of what exists. Phenomena coexist in subjects with the perspectives by which they are considered, pertaining to epistemology, and with the formal features of knowledge carriers, adding a further, pragmatic layer. All these dimensions can be accounted for in metadata, but are often done so in mixed ways, making indexes less rigorous and interoperable. For example, while facet analysis was originally developed for subject indexing, many "faceted" interfaces today mix subject facets with form facets, and schemes presented as "ontologies" for the "semantic Web" also code for non-semantic information. In bibliographic classifications, phenomena are often confused with the disciplines dealing with them, the latter being assumed to be the most useful starting point, for users will have either one or another perspective. A general citation order of dimensions- phenomena, perspective, carrier-is recommended, helping to concentrate most relevant information at the beginning of headings.
Inhalt: Beitrag aus: Selected Papers from the 8th ISKO-France Conference, 27-28 June 2011, Lille, Université Charles-De-Gaulle Lille 3. Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_4_d.pdf.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
8Gnoli, C. ; Pullman, T. ; Cousson, P. ; Merli, G. ; Szostak, R.: Representing the structural elements of a freely faceted classification.
In: Classification and ontology: formal approaches and access to knowledge: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 19-20 September 2011, The Hague, The Netherlands. Eds.: A. Slavic u. E. Civallero. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2011. S.193-205.
Abstract: Freely faceted classifications allow for free combination of concepts across all knowledge domains, and for sorting of the resulting compound classmarks. Starting from work by the Classification Research Group, the Integrative Levels Classification (ILC) project has produced a first edition of a general freely faceted scheme. The system is managed as a MySQL database, and can be browsed through a Web interface. The ILC database structure provides a case for identifying and representing the structural elements of any freely faceted classification. These belong to both the notational and the verbal planes. Notational elements include: arrays, chains, deictics, facets, foci, place of definition of foci, examples of combinations, subclasses of a faceted class, groupings, related classes; verbal elements include: main caption, synonyms, descriptions, included terms, related terms, notes. Encoding of some of these elements in an international mark-up format like SKOS can be problematic, especially as this does not provide for faceted structures, although approximate SKOS equivalents are identified for most of them.
Themenfeld: Universale Facettenklassifikationen ; Wissensrepräsentation
9Gnoli, C.: Animals belonging to the emperor : enabling viewpoint warrant in classification.
In: Subject access: preparing for the future. Conference on August 20 - 21, 2009 in Florence, the IFLA Classification and Indexing Section sponsored an IFLA satellite conference entitled "Looking at the Past and Preparing for the Future". Eds.: P. Landry et al. Berlin : DeGruyter Saur, 2011. S.91-100.
(IFLA series on bibliographic control; vol. 42)
10Gnoli, C.: Fundamentos ontológicos de la organización del conocimiento : la teoría de los niveles integrativos aplicada al orden de cita.
In: Scire. 17(2011) no.1, S.29-34.
Abstract: The field of knowledge organization (KO) can be described as composed of the four distinct but connected layers of theory, systems, representation, and application. This paper focuses on the relations between KO theory and KO systems. It is acknowledged how the structure of KO systems is the product of a mixture of ontological, epistemological, and pragmatical factors. However, different systems give different priorities to each factor. A more ontologically-oriented approach, though not offering quick solutions for any particular group of users, will produce systems of wide and long-lasting application as they are based on general, shareable principles. I take the case of the ontological theory of integrative levels, which has been considered as a useful source for general classifications for several decades, and is currently implemented in the Integrative Levels Classification system. The theory produces a sequence of main classes modelling a natural order between phenomena. This order has interesting effects also on other features of the system, like the citation order of concepts within compounds. As it has been shown by facet analytical theory, it is useful that citation order follow a principle of inversion, as compared to the order of the same concepts in the schedules. In the light of integrative levels theory, this principle also acquires an ontological meaning: phenomena of lower level should be cited first, as most often they act as specifications of higher-level ones. This ontological principle should be complemented by consideration of the epistemological treatment of phenomena: in case a lower-level phenomenon is the main theme, it can be promoted to the leading position in the compound subject heading. The integration of these principles is believed to produce optimal results in the ordering of knowledge contents.
Anmerkung: Übers. des Titels: Ontological foundations in knowledge organization: the theory of integrative levels applied in citation order.
11Gnoli, C.: Workshop on Levels of reality as a KO paradigm : levels, types, facets: three structural principles for KO.
In: Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Eleventh International ISKO Conference, 23-26 February 2010 Rome, Italy. Edited by Claudio Gnoli and Fulvio Mazzocchi. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2010. S.129-137.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.12)
Abstract: Three major principles in the structure of knowledge organization systems are identified and discussed: hierarchical trees of types, sets of facets conforming to general categories, and series of levels of reality. Each principle can be present at various degrees in different systems. The three principles can interact between them in various ways, depending on priority choices in system construction. Examples are reviewed of different priority options adopted in classifications and thesauri, both special and general, and their effects are critically examined. It is found that levels of reality, although less often explicitly acknowledged than other principles, contribute an important tool for knowledge organization.
12Gnoli, C.: Classification transcends library business : the case of BiblioPhil.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.3, S.223-229.
Abstract: Although bibliographic classifications usually adopt a perspective different from that of object classifications, the two have obvious relationships. These become especially relevant when users are looking for knowledge scattered in a wide variety of forms and media. This is an increasingly common situation, as library catalogues now coexist in the global digital environment with catalogues of archives, of museums, of commercial products, and many other information resources. In order to make the subject content of all these resources searchable, a broader conception of classification is needed, that can be applied to an knowledge item, rather than only bibliographic materials. To illustrate this we take an example of the research on bagpipes in Northern Italian folklore. For this kind of research, the most effective search strategy is a cross-media one, looking for many different knowledge sources such as published documents, police archives, painting details, museum specimens, organizations devoted to related subjects. To provide satisfying results for this kind of search, the traditional disciplinary approach to classification is not sufficient. Tools are needed in which knowledge items dealing with a phenomenon of interest can be retrieved independently from the other topics with which it is combined, the disciplinary context, and the medium where it occurs. This can be made possible if the basic units of classification are taken to be the phenomena treated, as recommended in the León Manifesto, rather than disciplines or other aspect features. The concept of bagpipes should be retrievable and browsable in any combination with other phenomena, disciplines, media etc. Examples are given of information sources that could be managed by this freely-faceted technique of classification.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko3720103h.pdf.
13Gnoli, C. ; Merli, G. ; Pavan, G. ; Bernuzzi, E. ; Priano, M.: Freely faceted classification for a Web-based bibliographic archive : the BioAcoustic Reference Database.
In: Wissensspeicher in digitalen Räumen: Nachhaltigkeit - Verfügbarkeit - semantische Interoperabilität. Proceedings der 11. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation, Konstanz, 20. bis 22. Februar 2008. Hrsg.: J. Sieglerschmidt u. H.P.Ohly. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2010. S.124-134.
(Fortschritte in der Wissensorganisation; Bd.11)
Abstract: The Integrative Level Classification (ILC) research project is experimenting with a knowledge organization system based on phenomena rather than disciplines. Each phenomenon has a constant notation, which can be combined with that of any other phenomenon in a freely faceted structure. Citation order can express differential focality of the facets. Very specific subjects can have long classmarks, although their complexity is reduced by various devices. Freely faceted classification is being tested by indexing a corpus of about 3300 papers in the interdisciplinary domain of bioacoustics. The subjects of these papers often include phenomena from a wide variety of integrative levels (mechanical waves, animals, behaviour, vessels, fishing, law, ...) as well as information about the methods of study, as predicted in the León Manifesto. The archive is recorded in a MySQL database, and can be fed and searched through PHP Web interfaces. Indexer's work is made easier by mechanisms that suggest possible classes on the basis of matching title words with terms in the ILC schedules, and synthesize automatically the verbal caption corresponding to the classmark being edited. Users can search the archive by selecting and combining values in each facet. Search refinement should be improved, especially for the cases where no record, or too many records, match the faceted query. However, experience is being gained progressively, showing that freely faceted classification by phenomena, theories, and methods is feasible and successfully working.
Themenfeld: Universale Facettenklassifikationen
Objekt: BioAcoustic Reference Database
14Gnoli, C.: Facets: a fruitful notion in many domains.
In: Axiomathes. 18(2008) no.2, S.127-130.
Abstract: This special issue of ''Axiomathes'' is devoted to a technique originally developed within library science: facet analysis. During discussions with Roberto Poli, it was realized that facet analysis shares interesting features with analytical methods in several other fields, including philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and computer science. For these reasons, in an interdisciplinary spirit, we believe that facet analysis is a relevant topic for the scope of this journal. It is hoped that readers will be persuaded by this after examining the present contributions.
Inhalt: Einführungsbeitrag zu einem Themenheft: "Facets: a fruitful notion in many domains".
15Gnoli, C.: Categories and facets in integrative levels.
In: Axiomathes. 18(2008) no.2, S.177-192.
Abstract: Facets and general categories used in bibliographic classification have been based on a disciplinary organization of knowledge. However, facets and categories of phenomena independent from disciplines can be identified similarly. Phenomena can be classified according to a series of integrative levels (layers), which in turn can be grouped into the major strata of form, matter, life, mind, society and culture, agreeing with Nicolai Hartmann's ontology. Unlike a layer, a stratum is not constituted of elements of the lower ones; rather, it represents the formal pattern of the lower ones, like the horse hoof represents the shape of the steppe. Bibliographic categories can now be seen in the light of level theory: some categories are truly general, while others only appear at a given level, being the realization of a general category in the specific context of the level: these are the facets of that level. In the notation of the Integrative Level Classification project, categories and facets are represented by digits, and displayed in a Web interface with the help of colours.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Facets: a fruitful notion in many domains".
Themenfeld: Universale Facettenklassifikationen
16Gnoli, C.: Ten long-term research questions in knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge organization. 35(2008) nos.2/3, S.137-149.
Abstract: Research can benefit by periodical consideration of its status in a long-term perspective. In knowledge organization (KO), a number of basic questions remain to be addressed in the 21st century. Ten of them are identified and synthetically discussed: (1) Can KO principles be extended to a broader scope, including hypertexts, multimedia, museum objects, and monuments? (2) Can the two basic approaches, ontological and epistemological, be reconciled? (3) Can any ontological foundation of KO be identified? (4) Should disciplines continue to be the structural base of KO? (5) How can viewpoint warrant be respected? (6) How can KO be adapted to local collection needs? (7) How can KO deal with changes in knowledge? (8) How can KO systems represent all the dimensions listed above? (9) How can software and formats be improved to better serve these needs? (10) Who should do KO: information professionals, authors or readers?
17Szostak, R. ; Gnoli, C.: Classifying by phenomena, theories and methods : examples with focused social science theories.
In: Culture and identity in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Tenth International ISKO Conference 5-8 August 2008, Montreal, Canada. Ed. by Clément Arsenault and Joseph T. Tennis. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.203-209.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.11)
Inhalt: This paper shows how a variety of theories employed across a range of social sciences could be classified in terms of theory type. In each case, notation within the Integrated Level Classification is provided. The paper thus illustrates how one key element of the Leon Manifesto that scholarly documents should be classified in terms of the theory(ies) applied can be achieved in practice.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0b5550a/index.php.
Objekt: Integrated Level Classification
18Gnoli, C. ; Szostak, R.: ¬The Leon Manifesto.
In: Knowledge organization. 34(2007) no.1, S.6-8.
Abstract: Some relevant proposals regarding the future of knowledge organization emerged during the 8th conference of the ISKO Spanish chapter, which took place in the beautiful, lively atmosphere of the town of León, between 18 and 20 of April 2007. These proposals are here labeled as "the Leon manifesto", and can be summarized in the following points: - the current trend towards an increasing interdisciplinarity of knowledge calls for essentially new knowledge organization systems (KOS), based on a substantive revision of the principles underlying the traditional discipline-based KOS; - this innovation is not only desirable, but also feasible, and should be implemented by actually developing some new KOS; instead of disciplines, the basic unity of the new KOS should be phenomena of the real world as it is represented in human knowledge; - the new KOS should allow users to shift from one perspective or viewpoint to another, thus reflecting the multidimensional nature of complex thought. In particular, it should allow them to search independently for particular phenomena, for particular theories about phenomena (and about relations between phenomena), and for particular methods of investigation; - the connections between phenomena, those between phenomena and the theories studying them, and those between phenomena and the methods to investigate them, can be expressed and managed by analytico-synthetic techniques already developed in faceted classification.
19Gnoli, C.: "Classic"vs. "freely" faceted classification.
Abstract: Claudio Gnoli of the University of Pavia in Italy and Chair of ISKO Italy, explored the relative merits of classic 'faceted classification' (FC) and 'freely faceted classification' (FFC). In classic FC, the facets (and their relationships) which might be combined to express a compound subject, are restricted to those prescribed as inherent in the subject area. FC is therefore largely bounded by and restricted to a specific subject area. At the other extreme, free classification (as in the Web or folksonomies) allows the combination of values from multiple, disparate domains where the relationships among the elements are often indeterminate, and the semantics obscure. Claudio described how punched cards were an early example of free classification, and cited the coordination of dogs : postmen : bites as one where the absence of defined relationships made the semantics ambiguous
Inhalt: Vortrag anlässlich: KOnnecting KOmmunities: RANGANATHAN REVISITED: FACETS FOR THE FUTURE, 5th November 2007, London. - Vgl. auch den Bericht unter: http://www.iskouk.org/presentations/KOKO_event_report_2007-11-05.pdf.
Themenfeld: Universale Facettenklassifikationen
20Albrechtsen, H. (Hrsg.): Gnoli, C.: ISKO News.
In: Knowledge organization. 34(2007) no.3, S.169-171.
Abstract: Bericht über: Levels of Reality, Seminar, Bolzano (Bozen) Italy, 26-28 September 2007: Ontologies, the knowledge organization systems now widely used in knowledge management applications, take their name from a branch of philosophy. Philosophical ontology deals with the kinds and the properties of what exists, and with how they can be described by categories like entity, attribute, or process. Readers familiar with facet analysis will notice some analogy with the "fundamental categories" of faceted classifications, and this resemblance is not accidental. Indeed, knowledge organization systems use conceptual structures that can be variously reconnected with the categories of ontology. Though having more practical purposes, the ontologies and classifications of information science can benefit of those of philosophy. ; Darin: "However, John Sowa (Vivomind, USA) argued in his speech that the formalized approach, already undertaken by the pioneering project Cyc now having run for 23 years, is not the best way to analyze complex systems. People don't really use axioms in their cognitive processes (even mathematicians first get an idea intuitively, then work on axioms and proofs only at the moment of writing papers). To map between different ontologies, the Vivomind Analogy Engine throws axioms out, and searches instead for analogies in their structures. Analogy is a pragmatic human faculty using a combination of the three logical procedures of deduction, induction, and abduction. Guarino comments that people can communicate without need of axioms as they share a common context, but in order to teach computers how to operate, the requirements are different: he would not trust an airport control system working by analogy."