Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
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1Wallis, R. ; Isaac, A. ; Charles, V. ; Manguinhas, H.: Recommendations for the application of Schema.org to aggregated cultural heritage metadata to increase relevance and visibility to search engines : the case of Europeana.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 36(2017), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: Europeana provides access to more than 54 million cultural heritage objects through its portal Europeana Collections. It is crucial for Europeana to be recognized by search engines as a trusted authoritative repository of cultural heritage objects. Indeed, even though its portal is the main entry point, most Europeana users come to it via search engines. Europeana Collections is fuelled by metadata describing cultural objects, represented in the Europeana Data Model (EDM). This paper presents the research and consequent recommendations for publishing Europeana metadata using the Schema.org vocabulary and best practices. Schema.org html embedded metadata to be consumed by search engines to power rich services (such as Google Knowledge Graph). Schema.org is an open and widely adopted initiative (used by over 12 million domains) backed by Google, Bing, Yahoo!, and Yandex, for sharing metadata across the web It underpins the emergence of new web techniques, such as so called Semantic SEO. Our research addressed the representation of the embedded metadata as part of the Europeana HTML pages and sitemaps so that the re-use of this data can be optimized. The practical objective of our work is to produce a Schema.org representation of Europeana resources described in EDM, being the richest as possible and tailored to Europeana's realities and user needs as well the search engines and their users.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/12330.
Objekt: Schema.org ; Europeana
2Manguinhas, H. ; Charles, V. ; Isaac, A. ; Miles, T. ; Lima, A. ; Neroulidis, A. ; Ginouves, V. ; Atsidis, D. ; Hildebrand, M. ; Brinkerink, M. ; Gordea, S.: Linking subject labels in cultural heritage metadata to MIMO vocabulary using CultuurLink.
In: Proceedings of the 15th European Networked Knowledge Organization Systems Workshop (NKOS 2016) co-located with the 20th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Digital Libraries 2016 (TPDL 2016), Hannover, Germany, September 9, 2016. Edi. by Philipp Mayr et al. [http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/=urn:nbn:de:0074-1676-5].
(CEUR workshop proceedings; vol. 1676)
Abstract: The Europeana Sounds project aims to increase the amount of cultural audio content in Europeana. It also strongly focuses on enriching the metadata records that are aggregated by Europeana. To provide metadata to Europeana, Data Providers are asked to convert their records from the format and model they use internally to a specific profile of the Europeana Data Model (EDM) for sound resources. These metadata include subjects, which typically use a vocabulary internal to each partner.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1676/paper4.pdf. Other workshop material incl. presentations are available on the website < https://at-web1.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/research/hypermedia/nkos/nkos2016/programme.html>.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
Behandelte Form: Tonträger
Objekt: CultuurLink ; Europeana
3Isaac, A. ; Baker, T.: Linked data practice at different levels of semantic precision : the perspective of libraries, archives and museums.
In: Bulletin of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 41(2015) no.4, S.34-39.
Abstract: Libraries, archives and museums rely on structured schemas and vocabularies to indicate classes in which a resource may belong. In the context of linked data, key organizational components are the RDF data model, element schemas and value vocabularies, with simple ontologies having minimally defined classes and properties in order to facilitate reuse and interoperability. Simplicity over formal semantics is a tenet of the open-world assumption underlying ontology languages central to the Semantic Web, but the result is a lack of constraints, data quality checks and validation capacity. Inconsistent use of vocabularies and ontologies that do not follow formal semantics rules and logical concept hierarchies further complicate the use of Semantic Web technologies. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) helps make existing value vocabularies available in the linked data environment, but it exchanges precision for simplicity. Incompatibilities between simple organized vocabularies, Resource Description Framework Schemas and OWL ontologies and even basic notions of subjects and concepts prevent smooth translations and challenge the conversion of cultural institutions' unique legacy vocabularies for linked data. Adopting the linked data vision requires accepting loose semantic interpretations. To avoid semantic inconsistencies and illogical results, cultural organizations following the linked data path must be careful to choose the level of semantics that best suits their domain and needs.
Anmerkung: Contribution to a special section "Linked data and the charm of weak semantics".
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Semantische Interoperabilität
Objekt: SKOSD ; RDF
Anwendungsfeld: Archive ; Museen
4Freire, N. ; Charles, V. ; Isaac, A.: Subject information and multilingualism in European bibliographic datasets : experiences with Universal Decimal Classification.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.201-202.
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme
5Wang, S. ; Isaac, A. ; Schlobach, S. ; Meij, L. van der ; Schopman, B.: Instance-based semantic interoperability in the cultural heritage.
In: Semantic Web journal. 3(2012) no.1, S.45-64.
Abstract: This paper gives a comprehensive overview over the problem of Semantic Interoperability in the Cultural Heritage domain, with a particular focus on solutions centered around extensional, i.e., instance-based, ontology matching methods. It presents three typical scenarios requiring interoperability, one with homogenous collections, one with heterogeneous collections, and one with multi-lingual collection. It discusses two different ways to evaluate potential alignments, one based on the application of re-indexing, one using a reference alignment. To these scenarios we apply extensional matching with different similarity measures which gives interesting insights. Finally, we firmly position our work in the Cultural Heritage context through an extensive discussion of the relevance for, and issues related to this specific field. The findings are as unspectacular as expected but nevertheless important: the provided methods can really improve interoperability in a number of important cases, but they are not universal solutions to all related problems. This paper will provide a solid foundation for any future work on Semantic Interoperability in the Cultural Heritage domain, in particular for anybody intending to apply extensional methods.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Schwerpunktthemas: Semantic Web and Reasoning for Cultural Heritage and Digital Libraries: http://www.semantic-web-journal.net/content/instance-based-semantic-interoperability-cultural-heritage http://www.semantic-web-journal.net/sites/default/files/swj157_1.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
6Boer, V. de ; Wielemaker, J. ; Gent, J. van ; Hildebrand, M. ; Isaac, A. ; Ossenbruggen, J. van ; Schreiber, G.: Supporting linked data production for cultural heritage institutes : the Amsterdam Museum case study.
In: 9th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), 2012-05-27/2012-05-31 in Hersonissos, Crete, Greece. Eds.: Elena Simperl et al. Berlin : Springer, 2012. S.733-747.
(Lecture notes in computer science; 7295)
Abstract: Within the cultural heritage field, proprietary metadata and vocabularies are being transformed into public Linked Data. These efforts have mostly been at the level of large-scale aggregators such as Europeana where the original data is abstracted to a common format and schema. Although this approach ensures a level of consistency and interoperability, the richness of the original data is lost in the process. In this paper, we present a transparent and interactive methodology for ingesting, converting and linking cultural heritage metadata into Linked Data. The methodology is designed to maintain the richness and detail of the original metadata. We introduce the XMLRDF conversion tool and describe how it is integrated in the ClioPatria semantic web toolkit. The methodology and the tools have been validated by converting the Amsterdam Museum metadata to a Linked Data version. In this way, the Amsterdam Museum became the first 'small' cultural heritage institution with a node in the Linked Data cloud.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Wissensrepräsentation
Land/Ort: NL ; Amsterdam
7Baker, T. ; Bermès, E. ; Coyle, K. ; Dunsire, G. ; Isaac, A. ; Murray, P. ; Panzer, M. ; Schneider, J. ; Singer, R. ; Summers, E. ; Waites, W. ; Young, J. ; Zeng, M.: Library Linked Data Incubator Group Final Report.W3C Incubator Group Report 25 October 2011.
Abstract: The mission of the W3C Library Linked Data Incubator Group, chartered from May 2010 through August 2011, has been "to help increase global interoperability of library data on the Web, by bringing together people involved in Semantic Web activities - focusing on Linked Data - in the library community and beyond, building on existing initiatives, and identifying collaboration tracks for the future." In Linked Data [LINKEDDATA], data is expressed using standards such as Resource Description Framework (RDF) [RDF], which specifies relationships between things, and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, or "Web addresses") [URI]. This final report of the Incubator Group examines how Semantic Web standards and Linked Data principles can be used to make the valuable information assets that library create and curate - resources such as bibliographic data, authorities, and concept schemes - more visible and re-usable outside of their original library context on the wider Web. The Incubator Group began by eliciting reports on relevant activities from parties ranging from small, independent projects to national library initiatives (see the separate report, Library Linked Data Incubator Group: Use Cases) [USECASE]. These use cases provided the starting point for the work summarized in the report: an analysis of the benefits of library Linked Data, a discussion of current issues with regard to traditional library data, existing library Linked Data initiatives, and legal rights over library data; and recommendations for next steps. The report also summarizes the results of a survey of current Linked Data technologies and an inventory of library Linked Data resources available today (see also the more detailed report, Library Linked Data Incubator Group: Datasets, Value Vocabularies, and Metadata Element Sets) [VOCABDATASET]. ; Key recommendations of the report are: - That library leaders identify sets of data as possible candidates for early exposure as Linked Data and foster a discussion about Open Data and rights; - That library standards bodies increase library participation in Semantic Web standardization, develop library data standards that are compatible with Linked Data, and disseminate best-practice design patterns tailored to library Linked Data; - That data and systems designers design enhanced user services based on Linked Data capabilities, create URIs for the items in library datasets, develop policies for managing RDF vocabularies and their URIs, and express library data by re-using or mapping to existing Linked Data vocabularies; - That librarians and archivists preserve Linked Data element sets and value vocabularies and apply library experience in curation and long-term preservation to Linked Data datasets.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
8Doerr, M. ; Gradmann, S. ; Hennicke, S. ; Isaac, A. ; Meghini, C. ; Van de Sompel, H.: ¬The Europeana Data Model (EDM).
Abstract: The Europeana Data Model (EDM) is a new approach towards structuring and representing data delivered to Europeana by the various contributing cultural heritage institutions. The model aims at greater expressivity and flexibility in comparison to the current Europeana Semantic Elements (ESE), which it is destined to replace. The design principles underlying the EDM are based on the core principles and best practices of the Semantic Web and Linked Data efforts to which Europeana wants to contribute. The model itself builds upon established standards like RDF(S), OAI-ORE, SKOS, and Dublin Core. It acts as a common top-level ontology which retains original data models and information perspectives while at the same time enabling interoperability. The paper elaborates on the aforementioned aspects and the design principles which drove the development of the EDM.
Inhalt: Vortrag im Rahmen der Session 93. Cataloguing der WORLD LIBRARY AND INFORMATION CONGRESS: 76TH IFLA GENERAL CONFERENCE AND ASSEMBLY, 10-15 August 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden - 149. Information Technology, Cataloguing, Classification and Indexing with Knowledge Management
Themenfeld: Information Gateway ; Datenformate
Objekt: Europeana ; EDM
9Hennicke, S. ; Olensky, M. ; Boer, V. de ; Isaac, A. ; Wielemaker, J.: ¬A data model for cross-domain data representation : the "Europeana Data Model" in the case of archival and museum data.
In: Information und Wissen: global, sozial und frei? Proceedings des 12. Internationalen Symposiums für Informationswissenschaft (ISI 2011) ; Hildesheim, 9. - 11. März 2011. Hrsg.: J. Griesbaum, T. Mandl u. C. Womser-Hacker. Boizenburg : VWH, Verl. W. Hülsbusch, 2010. S.136-147.
(Schriften zur Informationswissenschaft; Bd.58)
Abstract: This paper reports on ongoing work about heterogeneous and cross-domain data conversion to a common data model in EuropeanaConnect. The "Europeana Data Model" (EDM) provides the means to accommodate data from different domains while mostly retaining the original metadata notion. We give an introduction to the EDM and demonstrate how important metadata principles of two different metadata standards can be represented by EDM: one from the library domain ("Bibliopolis"), and one from the archive domain based on the "Encoded Archival Description" (EAD) standard. We conclude that the EDM offers a feasible approach to the issue of heterogeneous data interoperability in a digital library environment.
Anwendungsfeld: Archive ; Museen
10Isaac, A. ; Wang, S. ; Zinn, C. ; Matthezing, H. ; Meij, L. van der ; Schlobach, S.: Evaluating thesaurus alignments for semantic interoperability in the library domain.
In: IEEE intelligent systems. 24(2009) no.2, S.76-86.
Abstract: Thesaurus alignments play an important role in realizing efficient access to heterogeneous cultural-heritage data. Current technology, however, provides only limited value for such access because it fails to bridge the gap between theoretical study and practical application requirements. This article explores common real-world library problems and identifies solutions that focus on the application-embedded study, development, and evaluation of matching technology.
Inhalt: Vgl. auch: http://www.dit.unitn.it/~p2p/RelatedWork/Matching/wang_ieee.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
11Wang, S. ; Isaac, A. ; Schopman, B. ; Schlobach, S. ; Meij, L. van der: Matching multilingual subject vocabularies.
Abstract: Most libraries and other cultural heritage institutions use controlled knowledge organisation systems, such as thesauri, to describe their collections. Unfortunately, as most of these institutions use different such systems, united access to heterogeneous collections is difficult. Things are even worse in an international context when concepts have labels in different languages. In order to overcome the multilingual interoperability problem between European Libraries, extensive work has been done to manually map concepts from different knowledge organisation systems, which is a tedious and expensive process. Within the TELplus project, we developed and evaluated methods to automatically discover these mappings, using different ontology matching techniques. In experiments on major French, English and German subject heading lists Rameau, LCSH and SWD, we show that we can automatically produce mappings of surprisingly good quality, even when using relatively naive translation and matching methods.
Inhalt: Beitrag für: ECDL 2009, Sept. 27 - Oct. 02, 2009, Korfu.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität ; Multilinguale Probleme
Objekt: TEL ; SWD ; Rameau ; LCSH
12Angjeli, A. ; Isaac, A.: Semantic web and vocabularies interoperability : an experiment with illuminations collections.
Abstract: During the years 2006 and 2007, the BnF has collaborated with the National Library of the Netherlands within the framework of the Dutch project STITCH. This project, through concrete experiments, investigates semantic interoperability, especially in relation to searching. How can we conduct semantic searches across several digital heritage collections? The metadata related to content analysis are often heterogeneous. Beyond using manual mapping of semantically similar entities, STITCH explores the techniques of the semantic web, particularly ontology mapping. This paper is about an experiment made on two digital iconographic collections: Mandragore, iconographic database of the Manuscript Department of the BnF, and the Medieval Illuminated manuscripts collection of the KB. While the content of these two collections is similar, they have been processed differently and the vocabularies used to index their content is very different. Vocabularies in Mandragore and Iconclass are both controlled and hierarchical but they do not have the same semantic and structure. This difference is of particular interest to the STITCH project, as it aims to study automatic alignment of two vocabularies. The collaborative experiment started with a precise analysis of each of the vocabularies; that included concepts and their representation, lexical properties of the terms used, semantic relationships, etc. The team of Dutch researchers then studied and implemented mechanisms of alignment of the two vocabularies. The initial models being different, there had to be a common standard in order to enable procedures of alignment. RDF and SKOS were selected for that. The experiment lead to building a prototype that allows for querying in both databases at the same time through a single interface. The descriptors of each vocabulary are used as search terms for all images regardless of the collection they belong to. This experiment is only one step in the search for solutions that aim at making navigation easier between heritage collections that have heterogeneous metadata.
Inhalt: Beitrag während: World library and information congress: 74th IFLA general conference and council, 10-14 August 2008, Québec, Canada.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
Land/Ort: F ; NL
13Summers, E. ; Isaac, A. ; Redding, C. ; Krech, D.: LCSH, SKOS and Linked Data.
In: Metadata for semantic and social applications : proceedings of the International Conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications, Berlin, 22 - 26 September 2008, DC 2008: Berlin, Germany / ed. by Jane Greenberg and Wolfgang Klas. Göttingen : Univ.-Verl., 2008. S.25-33.
Abstract: A technique for converting Library of Congress Subject Headings MARCXML to Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) RDF is described. Strengths of the SKOS vocabulary are highlighted, as well as possible points for extension, and the integration of other semantic web vocabularies such as Dublin Core. An application for making the vocabulary available as linked data on the Web is also described.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://dcpapers.dublincore.org/ojs/pubs/article/view/916/912.
Objekt: LCSH ; SKOS ; RDF
14Isaac, A. ; Schlobach, S. ; Matthezing, H. ; Zinn, C.: Integrated access to cultural heritage resources through representation and alignment of controlled vocabularies.
In: Library review. 57(2008) no.3, S.187-199.
Abstract: Purpose - To show how semantic web techniques can help address semantic interoperability issues in the broad cultural heritage domain, allowing users an integrated and seamless access to heterogeneous collections. Design/methodology/approach - This paper presents the heterogeneity problems to be solved. It introduces semantic web techniques that can help in solving them, focusing on the representation of controlled vocabularies and their semantic alignment. It gives pointers to some previous projects and experiments that have tried to address the problems discussed. Findings - Semantic web research provides practical technical and methodological approaches to tackle the different issues. Two contributions of interest are the simple knowledge organisation system model and automatic vocabulary alignment methods and tools. These contributions were demonstrated to be usable for enabling semantic search and navigation across collections. Research limitations/implications - The research aims at designing different representation and alignment methods for solving interoperability problems in the context of controlled subject vocabularies. Given the variety and technical richness of current research in the semantic web field, it is impossible to provide an in-depth account or an exhaustive list of references. Every aspect of the paper is, however, given one or several pointers for further reading. Originality/value - This article provides a general and practical introduction to relevant semantic web techniques. It is of specific value for the practitioners in the cultural heritage and digital library domains who are interested in applying these methods in practice.
Inhalt: This paper is based on a talk given at "Information Access for the Global Community, An International Seminar on the Universal Decimal Classification" held on 4-5 June 2007 in The Hague, The Netherlands. An abstract of this talk will be published in Extensions and Corrections to the UDC, an annual publication of the UDC consortium. Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Digital libraries and the semantic web: context, applications and research".
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=/published/emeraldfulltextarticle/pdf/0350570303.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Semantische Interoperabilität
15Hollink, L. ; Assem, M. van ; Wang, S. ; Isaac, A. ; Schreiber, G.: Two variations on ontology alignment evaluation : methodological issues.
Abstract: Evaluation of ontology alignments is in practice done in two ways: (1) assessing individual correspondences and (2) comparing the alignment to a reference alignment. However, this type of evaluation does not guarantee that an application which uses the alignment will perform well. In this paper, we contribute to the current ontology alignment evaluation practices by proposing two alternative evaluation methods that take into account some characteristics of a usage scenario without doing a full-fledged end-to-end evaluation. We compare different evaluation approaches in three case studies, focussing on methodological issues. Each case study considers an alignment between a different pair of ontologies, ranging from rich and well-structured to small and poorly structured. This enables us to conclude on the use of different evaluation approaches in different settings.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantische Interoperabilität
16Isaac, A.: After EDLproject : controlled Vocabularies in TELPlus.
Inhalt: Vortrag anlässlich des Workshops: "Extending the multilingual capacity of The European Library in the EDL project Stockholm, Swedish National Library, 22-23 November 2007".
Objekt: TELPlus ; SKOS ; MACS ; EDLproject
17Isaac, A.: Aligning thesauri for an integrated access to Cultural Heritage Resources.
Abstract: Currently, a number of efforts are being carried out to integrate collections from different institutions and containing heterogeneous material. Examples of such projects are The European Library  and the Memory of the Netherlands . A crucial point for the success of these is the availability to provide a unified access on top of the different collections, e.g. using one single vocabulary for querying or browsing the objects they contain. This is made difficult by the fact that the objects from different collections are often described using different vocabularies - thesauri, classification schemes - and are therefore not interoperable at the semantic level. To solve this problem, one can turn to semantic links - mappings - between the elements of the different vocabularies. If one knows that a concept C from a vocabulary V is semantically equivalent to a concept to a concept D from vocabulary W, then an appropriate search engine can return all the objects that were indexed against D for a query for objects described using C. We thus have an access to other collections, using a single one vocabulary. This is however an ideal situation, and hard alignment work is required to reach it. Several projects in the past have tried to implement such a solution, like MACS  and Renardus . They have demonstrated very interesting results, but also highlighted the difficulty of aligning manually all the different vocabularies involved in practical cases, which sometimes contain hundreds of thousands of concepts. To alleviate this problem, a number of tools have been proposed in order to provide with candidate mappings between two input vocabularies, making alignment a (semi-) automatic task. Recently, the Semantic Web community has produced a lot of these alignment tools'. Several techniques are found, depending on the material they exploit: labels of concepts, structure of vocabularies, collection objects and external knowledge sources. Throughout our presentation, we will present a concrete heterogeneity case where alignment techniques have been applied to build a (pilot) browser, developed in the context of the STITCH project . This browser enables a unified access to two collections of illuminated manuscripts, using the description vocabulary used in the first collection, Mandragore , or the one used by the second, Iconclass . In our talk, we will also make the point for using unified representations the vocabulary semantic and lexical information. Additionally to ease the use of the alignment tools that have these vocabularies as input, turning to a standard representation format helps designing applications that are more generic, like the browser we demonstrate. We give pointers to SKOS , an open and web-enabled format currently developed by the Semantic Web community. ; References  http:// www.theeuropeanlibrary.org  http://www.geheugenvannederland.nl  http://macs.cenl.org  Day, M., Koch, T., Neuroth, H.: Searching and browsing multiple subject gateways in the Renardus service. In Proceedings of the RC33 Sixth International Conference on Social Science Methodology, Amsterdam , 2005.  http://stitch.cs.vu.nl  http://mandragore.bnf.fr  http://www.iconclass.nl  www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/ 1 The Semantic Web vision supposes sharing data using different conceptualizations (ontologies), and therefore implies to tackle the semantic interoperability problem
Inhalt: Präsentation anlässlich des 'UDC Seminar: Information Access for the Global Community, The Hague, 4-5 June 2007'
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Semantische Interoperabilität