Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Jörgensen, C. ; Stvilia, B. ; Wu, S.: Assessing the relationships among tag syntax, semantics, and perceived usefulness.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.4, S.836-849.
Abstract: With the recent interest in socially created metadata as a potentially complementary resource for image description in relation to established tools such as thesauri and other forms of controlled vocabulary, questions remain about the quality and reuse value of these metadata. This study describes and examines a set of tags using quantitative and qualitative methods and assesses relationships among categories of image tags, tag assignment order, and users' perceptions of usefulness of index terms and user-contributed tags. The study found that tags provide much descriptive information about an image but that users also value and trust controlled vocabulary terms. The study found no correlation between tag length and assignment order, and tag length and its perceived usefulness. The findings of this study can contribute to the design of controlled vocabularies, indexing processes, and retrieval systems for images. In particular, the findings of the study can advance the understanding of image tagging practices, tag facet/category distributions, relative usefulness and importance of these categories to the user, and potential mechanisms for identifying useful terms.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
2Huang, H. ; Jörgensen, C.: Characterizing user tagging and Co-occurring metadata in general and specialized metadata collections.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.9, S.1878-1889.
Abstract: This study aims to identify the categorical characteristics and usage patterns of the most popular image tags in Flickr. The "metadata usage ratio" is introduced as a means of assessing the usage of a popular tag as metadata. We also compare how popular tags are used as image tags or metadata in the Flickr general collection and the Library of Congress's photostream (LCP), also in Flickr. The Flickr popular tags in the list overall are categorically stable, and the changes that do appear reflect Flickr users' evolving technology-driven cultural experience. The popular tags in Flickr had a high number of generic objects and specific locations-related tags and were rarely at the abstract level. Conversely, the popular tags in the LCP describe more in the specific objects and time categories. Flickr users copied the Library of Congress-supplied metadata that related to specific objects or events and standard bibliographic information (e.g., author, format, time references) as popular tags in the LCP. Those popular tags related to generic objects and events showed a high metadata usage ratio, while those related to specific locations and objects showed a low image metadata usage ratio. Popular tags in Flickr appeared less frequently as image metadata when describing specific objects than specific times and locations for historical images in Flickr LCP collections. Understanding how people contribute image tags or image metadata in Flickr helps determine what users need to describe and query images, and could help improve image browsing and retrieval.
Themenfeld: Social tagging
Behandelte Form: Bilder
3Huang, H. ; Stvilia, B. ; Jörgensen, C. ; Bass, H.W.: Prioritization of data quality dimensions and skills requirements in genome annotation work.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 63(2012) no.1, S.195-207.
Abstract: The rapid accumulation of genome annotations, as well as their widespread reuse in clinical and scientific practice, poses new challenges to management of the quality of scientific data. This study contributes towards better understanding of scientists' perceptions of and priorities for data quality and data quality assurance skills needed in genome annotation. This study was guided by a previously developed general framework for assessment of data quality and by a taxonomy of data-quality (DQ) skills, and intended to define context-sensitive models of criteria for data quality and skills for genome annotation. Analysis of the results revealed that genomics scientists recognize specific sets of criteria for quality in the genome-annotation context. Seventeen data quality dimensions were reduced to 5-factor constructs, and 17 relevant skills were grouped into 4-factor constructs. The constructs defined by this study advance the understanding of data quality relationships and are an important contribution to data and information quality research. In addition, the resulting models can serve as valuable resources to genome data curators and administrators for developing data-curation policies and designing DQ-assurance strategies, processes, procedures, and infrastructure. The study's findings may also inform educators in developing data quality assurance curricula and training courses.
4Stvilia, B. ; Jörgensen, C.: Member activities and quality of tags in a collection of historical photographs in Flickr.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.12, S.2477-2489.
Abstract: To enable and guide effective metadata creation it is essential to understand the structure and patterns of the activities of the community around the photographs, resources used, and scale and quality of the socially created metadata relative to the metadata and knowledge already encoded in existing knowledge organization systems. This article presents an analysis of Flickr member discussions around the photographs of the Library of Congress photostream in Flickr. The article also reports on an analysis of the intrinsic and relational quality of the photostream tags relative to two knowledge organization systems: the Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM) and the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). Thirty seven percent of the original tag set and 15.3% of the preprocessed set (after the removal of tags with fewer than three characters and URLs) were invalid or misspelled terms. Nouns, named entity terms, and complex terms constituted approximately 77% of the preprocessed set. More than a half of the photostream tags were not found in the TGM and LCSH, and more than a quarter of those terms were regular nouns and noun phrases. This suggests that these terms could be complimentary to more traditional methods of indexing using controlled vocabularies.
Themenfeld: Bilder ; Social tagging
Hilfsmittel: Thesaurus for Graphic Materials ; LCSH
5Jörgensen, C.: Still image indexing.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.xx-xx.
Abstract: General considerations in still image indexing are addressed, and theoretical foundations and major approaches to image indexing among several communities are explained. The most frequently used tools that support this endeavor are discussed. Newer approaches are considered, and major research topics for the future are presented.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
6Rising III, H.K. ; Jörgensen, C.: Semantic description in MPEG-7 : the rich recursion of ripeness.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1338-1345.
Abstract: Metadata describing multimedia can address a wide variety of purposes, from the purely physical characteristics of an item, to the circumstances surrounding its production, to attributes that cannot necessarily be determined by examining the item itself directly. These latter attributes, often dealing with "meaning" or interpretation of an item's content, are frequently deemed too difficult to determine and subject to individual and cultural variability. At the same time, however, research has shown that these abstract, interpretive attributes, which carry meaning, are frequently the ones for which people search. To describe an item fully, therefore, means to describe it at both the "syntactic" and the "semantic" levels. This article discusses the development of the semantic description schemes within the MPEG-7 standard from both a historical and an intellectual perspective, as well as the difficulties inherent in creating a descriptive schema that can fully capture the complexity of "narrative worlds."
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Metadaten
7Jörgensen, C.: ¬The MPEG-7 standard : multimedia description in theory and application.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1323-1328.
Abstract: Allowing the description of the structure of documents has been one of the key factors for the success of the hypertext markup language (HTML) family of markup languages. This capability has motivated the phenomenon that has become known as the World Wide Web (the "Web"). The next generation of the Web, known as the Semantic Web (Berners-Lee, Hendler. & Lassila, 2001), aims at describing the meaning rather than the structure of data, adding more intelligent search, retrieval, and other agent functionalities to the Web, and tools that make the implementation of this Semantic Web possible are greatly needed. The increasing availability of multimedia on the World Wide Web makes metadata description efforts for multimedia a pressing need, yet with the volume of content being created, often only a rudimentary description of the multimedia content is available. In addition, the digital mode entails a host of other descriptive needs, such as the format, factors such as compression and transmission, and issues such as copyright restrictions and terns for usage. Thus, new and efficient ways of describing multimedia content and meaning are needed as well as a structure that is capable of carrying such descriptions. Several attempts have been made to grapple with this issue using descriptive metadata, one of the earliest of which was the revision of the Dublin Core to ascertain essential features necessary to resource discovery of visual items in a networked environment (Weibel & Miller, 1997). Other metadata schemes, such as the Visual Resources Association Core Categories (http://www.vraweb.org/vracore3.htm), also include format information necessary to the use and display of digital images.
Anmerkung: Einführender Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
8Jörgensen, C. ; Jörgensen, P.: Image querying by image professionals.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.12, S.1346-1359.
Abstract: This article reports the analysis of two samples of search logs from a commercial image provider over a 1-month period. The study analyzes image searches and queries, user query modification strategies, and user browsing and downloading of results. Unique term searches are less frequent than earlier research has shown; descriptive and thematic queries are more common. Boolean searching, although heavily employed, appears to be ineffective and leads to query modifications. Although there was a large amount of query modification (61.7% of queries across the two sampies), the tactics overall do not appear to be carefully thought out and seem to be largely experimental. Given the willingness to modify queries but the inability to do so in an effective way, more support for query modification may be beneficial.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
9Jörgensen, C.: Unlocking the museum : a manifesto.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 55(2004) no.5, S.462-464.
Abstract: At the same time that the Internet is becoming more accessible to large numbers of people and information consumers are becoming information producers, traditional methods of organizing, describing, and providing access to "documents" are being overwhelmed by the ever-increasing number of digitized materials. Another parallel occurrence is the disappearance of cultural and indigenous knowledge as environments and peoples cease to exist. Therefore, the knowledge and ability to build and describe collections needs to be spread among a larger distributed group of participants. Three mechanisms are needed to facilitate this "unlocking" of collections and their management: the distributed description and annotation of documents, distributed collection building, and distributed knowledge creation.
10Jörgensen, C.: Image retrieval : theory and research.
Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press, 2003. XII, 340 S.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: KO 31(2004) no.2, S.114-115 (J. Turner): "Professor Corinne Jörgensen's book will be useful to researchers, practitioners, and graduate students working in the area of the management of collections of still images. The book is a fine piece of scholarship that is thoroughly researched and nicely written. It integrates information from a number of perspectives, including cognitive psychology and computer science, into an information science text. This work is timely, since images and other nontextual information are forming an ever larger part of the mass of information available to us. Indeed, in the long history of recorded information an our planet, images "were the only form of written communication for 25,000 out of the 30,000 years of human recorded experience ... we are, it appears, an the hinge of an important historical swing back towards what may be called the primacy of the image" (p. ix). The book will be valued for the richness of the information it gathers and for the intelligent discussion it offers. There are six chapters to the work: 1. Why images, and what do we know about them? 2. Cognitive foundations for image processing; 3. Organizing and providing access to images; 4. Machine processing of images; 5. Image attributes: the research framework; 6. Towards the future. In addition, there is an excellent bibliography of over forty pages, which is valuable because it provides so many good leads into the literatures of information science and of related disciplines that contribute to the discussions of image retrieval presented in the book. There are separate subject and author indexes. The author index is considerably longer than the subject index, an indication of how muck published literature is discussed in the text. Finally, a list of figures and a list of tables provide additional finding aids. The inclusion of discussions of issues from disciplines other than information science reflects the changing reality of information systems for managing picture collections. Throughout the time such collections have been built, there has never been much coordination of approaches, methods, or practices, even within the discipline of information science. Since the arrival about ten years ago of the World Wide Web, major changes have taken place in the way information is organised, stored, and retrieved. The new networked environment requires a great deal of coordination, common standards, and much more uniform practices than managers of collections of pictures have been used to in the past. Jörgensen's extensive research into the work accomplished by a number of contributing disciplines and her presentation of it in relation to the problem of managing collections of images indicates a deep understanding of the issues and a remarkable capacity to relate them to issues in information science. Accomplishing such a feat so successfully makes this work a valuable contribution to the ongoing discussion of how collections need to be managed in the networked environment. The interdisciplinary nature of the problem has never before been presented so clearly, nor so thoroughly. ; The discussion of available tools is excellent and quite comprehensive. This will prove very helpful to practitioners and students setting out to learn about the world of storage, retrieval, and indexing of images. The author's simple, straightforward writing style is praiseworthy, since it will help those just starting out in the field to grasp the material quickly. It will also contribute to understanding an the part of readers from other language communities who have English as a second language. Although this book discusses a number of complex topics, the author has succeeded in making the treatment of them eminently understandable. Chapter 6 will prove particularly useful to researchers in the area, many more of whom are needed, and especially to graduate students thinking about undertaking a doctoral programme in the area of image management. The author provides a research agenda which describes a number of areas in which research is needed, including a number of research questions to work on. She also includes her wish list, which "represents a personal perspective, and is offered ... as food for thought and future discussion" (p. 267). Jörgensen feels her book will soon be out of date, and indeed, that in writing the book she has been "pursuing a moving target" (p. 4). Since there is so muck work going an in the broad field of image retrieval (although not enough in the area of information science), new discoveries will be made, new issues we hadn't thought about before will come to light, new methods and standards for managing picture databases will be developed, and new approaches will surely come along. However, I'm not so sure this book will be out of date any time soon, since it serves as a record of arriving at a plateau, a point at which the knowledge accumulated to date has been gathered, recorded, and presented as a portrait of what has been achieved and of where we are now. At the very least, then, Jörgensen's book will remain as a solid record of the research to date. More immediately, it will serve as a guide to what we should be doing now, and to the next steps that need to be taken."
Behandelte Form: Bilder
11D'Elia, G. ; Jörgensen, C. ; Woelfel, J. ; Rodger, E.J.: ¬The impact of the Internet on public library use : an analysis of the current consumer market for library and Internet sources.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.10, S.802-802.
Abstract: The potential impact of the Internet an the public's Jemand for the services and resources of public libraries is an issue of critical importance. The research reported in this article provides baseline data concerning the evolving relationship between the public's use of the library and its use of the Internet. The authors developed a consumer model of the American adult market for information services and resources, segmented by use (or nonuse) of the public library and by access (or lack of access) to, and use (or nonuse) of, the Internet. A national Random Digit Dialing telephone survey collected data to estimate the size of each of six market segments, and to describe their usage choices between the public library and the Internet. The analyses presented in this article provide estimates of the size and demographics of each of the market segments; describe why people are currently using the public library and the Internet; identify the decision criteria people use in their choices of which provider to use; identify areas in which libraries and the Internet appear to be competing and areas in which they appear to be complementary; and identify reasons why people choose not to use the public library and/or the Internet. The data suggest that some differentiation between the library and the Internet is taking place, which may very well have an impact an consumer choices between the two. Longitudinal research is necessary to fully reveal trends in these usage choices, which have implications for all types of libraries in planning and policy development.
Anwendungsfeld: Öffentliche Bibliotheken
12Jörgensen, C.: Image access : introduction and overview.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.11, S.906-910.
Abstract: We are, it appears, on the hinge of an important historical swing back towards what may be called the primacy of the image. For the last few centuries, words have been the privileged form of communication and the preferred means of education. A shift has taken place, however, within the last several decades, and images have been reasserting their primacy as immediate and influential messengers. This change was heralded some years ago in a slim volume entitled, "The Telling Image: The Changing Balance between Pictures and Words in a Technological Age."' (Davies, Bathurst, & Bathurst). The author of this book describes a past in which images (e.g., pictograms, ideograms) were the only form of written communication for 25,000 out of the 30,000 years of human recorded experience. The invention of the phonetic alphabet began to change this. It is only during the last 500 years, with the invention of printing, that pictures as serious "messengers" receded well into the background. One reason for this was the sheer difficulty in producing images. However, with the widespread availability of easy-to-use image creation technologies, images are again being widely used in education, training, and persuasion, not to mention entertainment. The rise in image production and use has been accompanied by the theory of hemispheric lateralization (more popularly referred to as "left-brain/right brain" abilities), which arose during the last 40 years (Jaynes, 1976; Levy, 1974; Penfield & Roberts, 1959). This theory holds that functions of cognitive processing are located primarily in either the left or right hemispheres of the brain. The brain's left hemisphere seems to be linked to language processing, and is well exercised by the overall emphasis on speech and text in education and information systems. The brain's right hemisphere handles spatial reasoning, symbolic processing, and pictorial interpretation. The widespread use and acceptance of Graphic User Interfaces (GUIs) in computer systems and the development of iconic programming languages demonstrate that visual mechanisms appeal to a broader range of cognitive abilities than text alone. In a sense, then, images are the hinge between textual representation and direct experience.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
13Jörgensen, C. ; Jaimes, A. ; Benitez, A.B. ; Chang, S.-F.: ¬A conceptual framework and empirical research for classifying visual descriptors.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.11, S.938-947.
Abstract: This article presents exploratory research evaluating a conceptual structure for the description of visual content of images. The structure, which was developed from empirical research in several fields (e.g., Computer Science, Psychology, Information Studies, etc.), classifies visual attributes into a "Pyramid" containing four syntactic levels (type/technique, global distribution, local structure, composition), and six semantic levels (generic, specific, and abstract levels of both object and scene, respectively). Various experiments are presented, which address the Pyramid's ability to achieve several tasks: (1) classification of terms describing image attributes generated in a formal and an informal description task, (2) classification of terms that result from a structured approach to indexing, and (3) guidance in the indexing process. Several descriptions, generated by naive users and indexers, are used in experiments that include two image collections: a random Web sample, and a set of news images. To test descriptions generated in a structured setting, an Image Indexing Template (developed independently over several years of this project by one of the authors) was also used. The experiments performed suggest that the Pyramid is conceptually robust (i.e., can accommodate a full range of attributes), and that it can be used to organize visual content for retrieval, to guide the indexing process, and to classify descriptions obtained manually and automatically
Behandelte Form: Bilder
14Jörgensen, C.: ¬The applicability of selected classification systems to image attributes.
In: Knowledge organization and change: Proceedings of the Fourth International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Ed.: R. Green. Frankfurt : INDEKS, 1996. S.189-197.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.5)
Abstract: Recent research investigated image attributes as reported by participants in describing, sorting, and searching tasks with images and defined 46 specific image attributes which were then organized into 12 major classes. Attributes were also grouped as being 'perceptual' (directly stimulated by visual percepts), 'interpretive' (requiring inference from visual percepts), and 'reactive' (cognitive and affective responses to the images). This research describes the coverage of two image indexing and classification systems and one general classification system in relation to the previous findings and analyzes the extent to which components of these systems are capable of describing the range of image attributes as revealed by the previous research
Behandelte Form: Bilder
15Jörgensen, C. ; Liddy, E.D.: Information access or information anxiety? : an explanatory evaluation of book index features.
In: Indexer. 20(1996) no.2, S.64-68.
Abstract: The authors conducted a controlled user study in both print and electronic environments and present here a subset of results from index use in the print format
Themenfeld: Register ; Benutzerstudien
16Jorgensen, C.: Indexing images : testing an image description template.
In: Global complexity: information, chaos and control. Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, ASIS'96, Baltimore, Maryland, 21-24 Oct 1996. Ed.: S. Hardin. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1996. S.209-213.
Abstract: Reports on research following on from an investigation of pictorial image attributes typically described by participants in several types of tasks which showed that perceptually stimulated attributes were most typically noted. Tests a template for image description to be used by naive image searchers in recording their descriptions of images. Results indicate that users may need training or more guidance in order to correctly assign descriptors to higher level classes
Behandelte Form: Bilder
17Jorgensen, C. ; Liddy, E.D.: ¬An analysis of information seeking behaviours in index use, or opening Pandora's Box.
In: Proceedings of the 15th National Online Meeting 1994, New York, 10-12 May 1994. Ed. by M.E. Williams. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1994. S.233-241.
Abstract: Gives an overview of a research project which had aimed to: empirically investigate book-index usage behaviours and the extent to which specific print index features affect a user's search for information; and to examine these same features in an electronic environment. Aims to determine the optimum specifications for indexes in electronic texts by gathering evidence from a controlled user study. Presents a subset of results from index use in both print and electronic formats. Suggests a preliminay model representing users' behaviours when using an index and suggests implications for system design
18Liddy, E.C. ; Jorgensen, C.L.: Reality check! : Book index characteristics that ficilitate information access.
In: Indexing, providing access to information: looking back, looking ahead. Proceedings of the 25th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Indexers. Ed.: N.C. Mulvany. Port Aransas, TX : American Society of Indexers, 1993. S.125-138.
19Liddy, E.D. ; Jorgensen, C.: Modelling information seeking behaviours in index use.
In: Integrating technologies - converging professions: proceedings of the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, Columbus, OH, 24-28 October 1993. Ed.: S. Bonzi. Medford, NJ : Learned Information, 1993. S.185-190.
Abstract: Part of a larger study which aims to: empirically investigate book-index usage, behaviours, and the extent to which specific print index features affect a user's search for information; and to examine these features in an electronic environment and to determine the optimum specifications for indexes in electronic texts by gathering evidence from a controlled user study. Provides an overview of the research project, focusing on a subset of the results from the study of hard-copy book indexes. Describes observable behaviours of a sample of users when consulting different variations of a hard copy book index. Suggests a preliminary model at 3 levels of abstraction repressing users' behaviours when using a book index
Themenfeld: Register ; Benutzerstudien
20Jörgensen, C. ; Jörgensen, P.: Citations in hypermedia : maintaining critical links.
In: College and research libraries. 52(1991) no.6, S.528-536.
Abstract: The lack of complete and accurate citations for referenced works is a persistent and significant problem in scholarly writing. The advent of new froms of electronic publishing, especially hypermedia, has the potential for either aggravating or alleviating this problem. Incorrect and missing citations will become more prevalent (and, indeed, have become so within large bibliographic databases) without a concerted and ccoperative effort on the part of systems developers to provide adequate references and the means for easily accessing and downloading them. Examines some of the basic issues involved in the problem of maintaining the critical authorship links between source and expression in one specific form of electronic publishing - hypermedia - and proposes some solutions