Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Mai, J.-E.: Marginalization and exclusion : unraveling systemic bias in classification.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.5, S.324-330.
Abstract: This paper explores the knowledge organization landscape in which Hope Olson's numerous contributions to the field are situated. The paper first explores some of the foundational conceptual notions within knowledge organization that today are well accepted. The paper then reviews Hope Olson's contributions to that landscape and places her work in the context of Borges' essay about John Wilkins' project to develop a universal language that would organize and contain all human thought. The paper shows how Hope Olson's work on marginalization and exclusion of specific topics and groups of people in large library classification has unraveled the systemic bias found in all classifications. The paper calls for stronger engagement between scholarship and practice to address marginalization and exclusion in further work on classification systems.
Inhalt: Beitrag in: Special Issue: "A Festschrift for Hope A. Olson," Guest Editor Thomas Walker.
2Mai, J.-E.: ¬The quality and qualities of information.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.4, S.675-688.
Abstract: The paper discusses and analyzes the notion of information quality in terms of a pragmatic philosophy of language. It is argued that the notion of information quality is of great importance, and needs to be situated better within a sound philosophy of information to help frame information quality in a broader conceptual light. It is found that much research on information quality conceptualizes information quality as either an inherent property of the information itself, or as an individual mental construct of the users. The notion of information quality is often not situated within a philosophy of information. This paper outlines a conceptual framework in which information is regarded as a semiotic sign, and extends that notion with Paul Grice's pragmatic philosophy of language to provide a conversational notion of information quality that is contextual and tied to the notion of meaning.
3Mai, J.-E.: Ethics, values and morality in contemporary library classifications.
In: Knowledge organization. 40(2013) no.4, S.242-253.
Abstract: This paper explores the ethics of classification. The paper outlines recent conceptual moves in knowledge organization research and shows that contemporary classification theory is based on a pragmatic understanding of the world. It suggests that unjust statements and assumptions about the world challenge contemporary library classifications and that a proper response is needed. It outlines a framework for the development of ethical classifications based on MacIntyre's practice-based ethical theory. It provides a framework within which editors and managers of library classifications can make ethically sound decisions.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_40_2013_4_c.pdf.
4Mai, J.-E.: Folksonomies and the new order : authority in the digital disorder.
In: Knowledge organization. 38(2011) no.2, S.114-122.
Abstract: While the organization and representation of information and knowledge have historically been done by professionals, the rise of social media has spread the notion that this can be done more collaboratively. A more collaborative approach would entail a change in the role of professionals and in the goals and values of the systems. This paper explores the notion of authority and the role of professionals in a changing environment where more people participate in the organization and representation of information and knowledge. The paper questions the traditional role of the professionals and argues that systems must be designed to facilitate trust and authority, and that the authority of folksonomies and systems comes from the users' collective interpretations and meaning production.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_38_2011_2_c.pdf.
5Mai, J.-E.: ¬The modernity of classification.
In: Journal of documentation. 67(2011) no.4, S.710-730.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the modernity of current classification theory and work, and outline a foundation for moving classification toward a late-modern conception. Design/methodology/approach - The paper examines the conceptual foundation for current modern classification work, provides critical analysis of that approach, and outlines three conflicts with modernity that shape the path out of the consequences of modernity. Findings - The paper presents an understanding of classification that establishes classification on a late-modern epistemology, and it lays the contours of how to reclaim the intellectual core of classification theory and work. Originality/value - The paper establishes a foundation for rethinking classification work, outlines consequences of current mainstream work, and provides concept for developing late-modern classification theory and practice.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
6Mai, J.-E.: Classification in a social world : bias and trust.
In: Journal of documentation. 66(2010) no.5, S.627-642.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to establish pluralism as the basis for bibliographic classification theory and practice and examine the possibility of establishing trustworthy classifications. Design/methodology/approach - The paper examines several key notions in classification and extends previous frameworks by combining an explanation-based approach to classification with the concepts of cognitive authority and trust. Findings - The paper presents an understanding of classification that allows designers and editors to establish trust through the principle of transparency. It demonstrates that modern classification theory and practice are tied to users' activities and domains of knowledge and that trustworthy classification systems are in close dialogue with users to handle bias responsible and establish trust. Originality/value - The paper establishes a foundation for exploring trust and authority for classification systems.
7Mai, J.-E.: Actors, domains, and constraints in the design and construction of controlled vocabularies.
In: Knowledge organization. 35(2008) no.1, S.16-29.
Abstract: Classification schemes, thesauri, taxonomies, and other controlled vocabularies play important roles in the organization and retrieval of information in many different environments. While the design and construction of controlled vocabularies have been prescribed at the technical level in great detail over the past decades, the methodological level has been somewhat neglected. However, classification research has in recent years focused on developing approaches to the analysis of users, domains, and activities that could produce requirements for the design of controlled vocabularies. Researchers have often argued that the design, construction, and use of controlled vocabularies need to be based on analyses and understandings of the contexts in which these controlled vocabularies function. While one would assume that the growing body of research on human information behavior might help guide the development of controlled vocabularies shed light on these contexts, unfortunately, much of the research in this area is descriptive in nature and of little use for systems design. This paper discusses these trends and outlines a holistic approach that demonstrates how the design of controlled vocabularies can be informed by investigations of people's interactions with information. This approach is based on the Cognitive Work Analysis framework and outlines several dimensions of human-information interactions. Application of this approach will result is a comprehensive understanding of the contexts in which the controlled vocabulary will function and which can be used for the development of for the development of controlled vocabularies.
Themenfeld: Theorie verbaler Dokumentationssprachen
8Mai, J.-E.: Analysis in indexing : document and domain centered approaches.
In: Information processing and management. 41(2005) no.3, S.599-611.
Abstract: The paper discusses the notion of steps in indexing and reveals that the document-centered approach to indexing is prevalent and argues that the document-centered approach is problematic because it blocks out context-dependent factors in the indexing process. A domain-centered approach to indexing is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain the indexing process and suggests that the domain-centered approach offers a guide for indexers that can help them manage the complexity of indexing.
9Jens-Erik Mai, J.-E.: ¬The role of documents, domains and decisions in indexing.
In: Knowledge organization and the global information society: Proceedings of the 8th International ISKO Conference 13-16 July 2004, London, UK. Ed.: I.C. McIlwaine. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2004. S.207-213.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.9)
Abstract: The paper demonstrates that indexing is a complex phenomenon and presents a domain centered approach to indexing. The indexing process is analysed using the Means-Ends Analysis, a tool developed for the Cognitive Work Analysis framework. A Means-Ends Analysis of indexing provides a holistic understanding of indexing and Shows the importance of understanding the users' activities when indexing. The paper presents a domain-centered approach to indexing that includes an analysis of the users' activities and the paper outlines that approach to indexing.
Inhalt: 1. Introduction The document at hand is often regarded as the most important entity for analysis in the indexing situation. The indexer's focus is directed to the "entity and its faithful description" (Soergel, 1985, 227) and the indexer is advised to "stick to the text and the author's claims" (Lancaster, 2003, 37). The indexer's aim is to establish the subject matter based an an analysis of the document with the goal of representing the document as truthfully as possible and to ensure the subject representation's validity by remaining neutral and objective. To help indexers with their task they are guided towards particular and important attributes of the document that could help them determine the document's subject matter. The exact attributes the indexer is recommended to examine varies, but typical examples are: the title, the abstract, the table of contents, chapter headings, chapter subheadings, preface, introduction, foreword, the text itself, bibliographical references, index entries, illustrations, diagrams, and tables and their captions. The exact recommendations vary according to the type of document that is being indexed (monographs vs. periodical articles, for instance). It is clear that indexers should provide faithful descriptions, that indexers should represent the author's claims, and that the document's attributes are helpful points of analysis. However, indexers need much more guidance when determining the subject than simply the documents themselves. One approach that could be taken to handle the Situation is a useroriented approach in which it is argued that the indexer should ask, "how should I make this document ... visible to potential users? What terms should I use to convey its knowledge to those interested?" (Albrechtsen, 1993, 222). The basic idea is that indexers need to have the users' information needs and terminology in mind when determining the subject matter of documents as well as when selecting index terms.
10Mai, J.-E.: Classification in context : Relativity, reality, and representation.
In: Knowledge organization. 31(2004) no.1, S.39-48.
Abstract: This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been an establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary classification research focus an contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
11Mai, J.-E.: Organization of knowledge in a networked environment : a report on the 6th Networked Knowledge Organization Systems (NKOS) Workshop.
In: Knowledge organization. 30(2003) no.1, S.36-37.
12Mai, J.-E.: Is classification theory possible? : Rethinking classification research.
In: Challenges in knowledge representation and organization for the 21st century: Integration of knowledge across boundaries. Proceedings of the 7th ISKO International Conference Granada, Spain, July 10-13, 2002. Ed.: M. López-Huertas. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2003. S.472-478.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.8)
Abstract: 1. Introduction Theoretical context independent explanations of classification could enhance the universality of classification research and make knowledge about classification available to settings other than traditional libraries. There is a tremendous need for constructing classificatory structures in a range of settings many of which are far removed from the environment in which classification theory and research has been practiced in the last century and a half. The construction of classificatory structures an the Internet, intranets, and in knowledge management systems has received some attention lately. The question examined here is whether it is possible to create a single theory of classification that applies to the range of contexts in which classificatory structures are applied. The object of this paper is to question the assumption that bibliographic classification theory can resemble scientific theories. It is argued that the context of any classification influences the use and understanding of the classification to such a degree that the classification cannot be understood separate from its context. Furthermore, the development from being a novice classifier or classificationist to becoming an expert is explored. lt is assumed scientific theories must relate as much to the activity of novices as to the activity of experts and that scientific theories explain both what it is that novices do and what experts do. It is argued that expertise is achieved not through a correct application of a classification theory but through experiences and adjustment to a particular context and that the activities of novices are quite distinct from the activities of experts in that experts draws an the context of the situation and that novices do not. 2. Theory of Classification Langridge (1976) provides an account of the principles of constructing knowledge organization systems and the theoretical underpinnings of different approaches. He identifies four principles that have guided construction of knowledge organization systems: 1) ideological, 2) social purpose, 3) scientific, and 4) the disciplines. The ideological principle organizes knowledge according to an ideology that the knowledge organization system serves. Langridge gives the examples of "the Christian schemes of the Middle Ages and the Soviet scheme which substitutes for the Bible and Christianity the works of Marx and Lenin and the 'religion' of communism" (Langridge, 1976, p. 4-5).
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
13Mai, J.-E.: Semiotics and indexing : an analysis of the subject indexing process.
In: Journal of documentation. 57(2001) no.5, S.591-622.
Abstract: This paper explains at least some of the major problems related to the subject indexing process and proposes a new approach to understanding the process, which is ordinarily described as a process that takes a number of steps. The subject is first determined, then it is described in a few sentences and, lastly, the description of the subject is converted into the indexing language. It is argued that this typical approach characteristically lacks an understanding of what the central nature of the process is. Indexing is not a neutral and objective representation of a document's subject matter but the representation of an interpretation of a document for future use. Semiotics is offered here as a framework for understanding the "interpretative" nature of the subject indexing process. By placing this process within Peirce's semiotic framework of ideas and terminology, a more detailed description of the process is offered which shows that the uncertainty generally associated with this process is created by the fact that the indexer goes through a number of steps and creates the subject matter of the document during this process. The creation of the subject matter is based on the indexer's social and cultural context. The paper offers an explanation of what occurs in the indexing process and suggests that there is only little certainty to its result.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007095.
15Mai, J.-E.: ¬A postmodern theory of knowledge organization.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.547-556.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: This paper argues that traditional theories of classification is based in the modem belief in dualism, and that this belief has led to the use of the concept of universe of knowledge as its main component. In this view knowledge organizations are seen as objective and neutral descriptions of an already there universe of knowledge. The tools provided for this task is mainly drawn from logic and are intended to be used independently of the domain for which the knowledge organization is created. The object is to mirror reality as closely as possible. However, the idea of objectivity and neutrality falls with the rise of the postmodern thought. In a postmodern view of the world facts, truth and knowledge is regarded as fabricated and constructed in particular discourse communities. A postmodern theory of knowledge organization therefore regards knowledge organizations as active constructions of a perceived conception of the particular discourse communities in the company, organization or knowledge fields for which the knowledge organization is intended. Therefore the rules, guidelines and standards for knowledge organization becomes of little interest - what becomes much more important is the interpretative processes in knowledge organization and the cultural and social context of which the knowledge organization is a part
16Mai, J.-E.: Semiotikken og dens anvendelsesmuligheder indenfor biblioteks- og informationsvidenskaben.
In: Svensk biblioteks forskning. 1997, no.3, S.43-62.
Abstract: Describes central elements of semiotics, a theory which discusses problems of interest to library and information science. Introduces 2 of Peirce's central elements, abduction and faneroscopy, while describing his philosophical development's 4 phases. Uses his concept's unlimited semiosis and sign tricotomies to analyse the subject indexing process, and places documents and indexing terms in Peirce's 10 sign classes, thus showing the extent of subjective evaluation in human indexing
Anmerkung: Übers. d. Titels: Semiotics and its uses within library and information science