Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Madden, A.D. ; Ford, N.J. ; Miller, D. ; Levy, P.: Children's use of the internet for information-seeking : what strategies do they use, and what factors affect their performance?.
In: Journal of documentation. 62(2006) no.6, S.744-761.
Abstract: Purpose - A common criticism of research into information seeking on the internet is that information seekers are restricted by the demands of the researcher. Another criticism is that the search topics, are often imposed by the researcher, and; particularly when working with children, domain knowledge could be as important as information-seeking skills. The research reported here attempts to address both these problems. Design/methodology/approach - A total of 15 children, aged 11 to 16, were each set three "think aloud" internet searches. In the first, they were asked to recall the last time they had sought information on the internet, and to repeat the search. For the second, they were given a word, asked to interpret it, then asked to search for their interpretation. For the third, they were asked to recall the last time they had been unsuccessful in a search, and to repeat the search. While performing each task, the children were encouraged to explain their actions. Findings - The paper finds that the factors that determined a child's ability to search successfully appeared to be: the amount of experience the child had of using the internet; the amount of guidance, both from adults and from peers; and the child's ability to explore the virtual environment, and to use the tools available for so doing. Originality/value - Many of the searches performed by participants in this paper were not related to schoolwork, and so some of the search approaches differed from those taught by teachers. Instead, they evolved through exploration and exchange of ideas. Further studies of this sort could provide insights of value to designers of web environments.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Internet ; Benutzerstudien
2Wynar, B.S. ; Taylor, A.G. ; Miller, D.P.: Introduction to cataloging and classification.10th ed.
Westport, CN : Libraries Unlimited, 2006. xviii, 589 S.
(Library and information science text series)
Abstract: This revised edition of Wynar's Introduction to Cataloging and Classification (9th ed., 2000) completely incorporates revisions of AACR2, enhancements to MARC 21, and developments in areas such as resource description and access. Aside from the many revisions and updates and improved organization, the basic content remains the same. Beginning with an introduction to cataloging, cataloging rules, and MARC format, the book then turns to its largest section, "Description and Access." Authority control is explained, and the various methods of subject access are described in detail. Finally, administrative issues, including catalog management, are discussed. The glossary, source notes, suggested reading, and selected bibliography have been updated and expanded, as has the index. The examples throughout help to illustrate rules and concepts, and most MARC record examples are now shown in OCLC's Connexion format. This is an invaluable resource for cataloging students and beginning catalogers as well as a handy reference tool for more experienced catalogers.
Inhalt: Rev. ed. of: Wynar's introduction to cataloging and classification. Rev. 9th ed. 2004.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Reference and user services quarterly 46(2007) no.3, S.104-105 (C.N. Conway); Technicalities 27(2007) no.2, S.19-20 (S.S. Intner)
Themenfeld: Grundlagen u. Einführungen: Allgemeine Literatur
LCSH: Cataloging ; Anglo / American cataloguing rules ; Classification / Books
BK: 06.70 / Katalogisierung / Bestandserschließung
DDC: 025.3 / dc22
LCC: Z693 .W94 2006
3Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: Web search strategies and human individual differences : cognitive and demographic factors, Internet attitudes, and approaches.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.7, S.741-756.
Abstract: The research reported here was an exploratory study that sought to discover the effects of human individual differences an Web search strategy. These differences consisted of (a) study approaches, (b) cognitive and demographic features, and (c) perceptions of and preferred approaches to Web-based information seeking. Sixtyeight master's students used AItaVista to search for information an three assigned search topics graded in terms of complexity. Five hundred seven search queries were factor analyzed to identify relationships between the individual difference variables and Boolean and best-match search strategies. A number of consistent patterns of relationship were found. As task complexity increased, a number of strategic shifts were also observed an the part of searchers possessing particular combinations of characteristics. A second article (published in this issue of JASIST; Ford, Miller, & Moss, 2005) presents a combined analyses of the data including a series of regression analyses.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien ; Internet
4Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: Web search strategies and human individual differences : a combined analysis.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.7, S.757-764.
Abstract: This is the second of two articles published in this issue of JASIST reporting the results of a study investigating relationships between Web search strategies and a range of human individual differences. In this article we provide a combined analysis of the factor analyses previously presented separately in relation to each of three groups of human individual difference (study approaches, cognitive and demographic features, and perceptions of and approaches to Internet-based information seeking). It also introduces two series of regression analyses conducted an data spanning all three individual difference groups. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which they satisfy the original aim of this exploratory research, namely to identify any relationships between search strategy and individual difference variables for which there is a prima facie case for more focused systematic study. It is argued that a number of such relationships do exist. The results of the project are summarized and suggestions are made for further research.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien ; Internet
5Miller, D. ; Olson, T. ; Layne, S.S.: Promoting research and best practices in subject reference structures : a decade of work by the subject analysis committee.
In: Library resources and technical services. 49(2005) no.3, S.154-166.
Abstract: In 2004, the ALCTS (Association for Library Collections & Technical Services) Cataloging and Classification Section Subject Analysis Committee (SAC) produced the report Recommendations for Providing Access to, Display of, Navigation within and among, and Modifications of Existing Practice Regarding Subject Reference Structures in Automated Systems. This document is one important outcome of nearly ten years' work by three SAC (Subject Analysis Committee) subcommittees investigating the theoretical, pragmatic, and political dimensions of improving subject access through better use of reference structure data. The work of those subcommittees is reviewed and their recommendations are described and summarized. Potential future effects of the report are discussed, as is a snapshot view of several major automation systems' current compliance with the recommendations.
Objekt: ALCTS ; SAC
6Miller, D.H.: User perception and the online catalogue : public library OPAC users "think aloud".
In: Knowledge organization and the global information society: Proceedings of the 8th International ISKO Conference 13-16 July 2004, London, UK. Ed.: I.C. McIlwaine. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2004. S.275-280.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.9)
Abstract: The paper presents findings based on user feedback and opinion of online public access catalogues as tools for finding, identifying, and selecting bibliographic materials in a public library setting. Participants spoke their thoughts aloud while conducting known-item searches. The findings describe an iterative process of action, observation, identification, and emotion.
Inhalt: 1. Introduction Significant research in the design and use of online public access catalogues (OPACs) has been conducted by professionals in library and information science (Borgman, 1996; Carlyle, 2001, Carlyle & Timmons, 2002; Hancock, 1987). However, only limited research has addressed actual library user interaction with and perceptions of online catalogue displays and bibliographic elements (Abrera, 1986; Luk, 1996; Markey, 1983). Retrieval systems, specifically online library catalogues, should consider user perceptions and expectations as an important aspect of design and implementation for improved catalogue efficiency (Hert, 1996). Therefore, it is necessary to examine the online catalogue from a user perspective to determine if it is currently succeeding in meeting the bibliographic needs of users in terms of description, display, navigation, and to provide principles for design of future OPACs. A study seeking to understand better how public library users interact with general OPAC displays and the more specific displays of bibliographic information was conducted in 2003. Research questions focused an 1) user perceptions of the OPAC, 2) the elements in a bibliographic display standing out as most important in selection and identification, and 3) user feedback an the process of using the OPAC. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the larger study findings having implications for future research and online catalogue design.
Themenfeld: OPAC ; Suchoberflächen ; Benutzerstudien
7Miller, D. ; Boeuf, P. le: "Such stuff as dreams are made on" : how does FRBR fit performing arts?.
In: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR): hype or cure-all. Ed. by P. le Boeuf,. Binghamton, NY : Haworth, 2004. S.xx-xx.
(Cataloging and classification quarterly; 39, nos.3/4)
Abstract: Since it is obviously impossible to "hold" live performances in library collections (in contrast to recorded performances and motion pictures), such creations are barely accounted for in library catalogues and cataloging prescriptions, even as a topic in subject headings. The way AACR and the Anglo-American cataloging tradition deals with performing arts is discussed at length. Conversely, specialized institutions have developed their own rules for the description of live performances: the Dance Heritage Coalition (New York) creates authority records for choreographic works, and the Département des Arts du Spectacle at Bibliothèque nationale de France creates bibliographic records for theatrical, operatic, and choreographic performances. As a conclusion, a tentative modeling of performing arts as bibliographic entities, strictly based on FRBR, is proposed.
8Miller, D.R.: XOBIS - an experimental schema for unifying bibliographic and authority records.
In: Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR): hype or cure-all. Ed. by P. le Boeuf,. Binghamton, NY : Haworth, 2004. S.xx-xx.
(Cataloging and classification quarterly; 39, nos.3/4)
Abstract: XOBIS is an XML schema which reorganizes bibliographic and authority data elements into a single, integrated structure. It explores balancing valuable traditions with new technologies to create a potential foundation for future access to information in a distributed digital environment. It also attempts to determine a middle path between the complexity of MARC and the oversimplification of the Dublin Core. XOBIS represents an experimental effort focused on addressing metadata as the critical bridge between content and sophisticated access-all three increasingly focused on XML in a digital environment.
Objekt: FRBR ; XOBIS
9Miller, D.R. ; Clarke, K.S.: Putting XML to work in the library : tools for improving access and management.
Chicago : ALA, 2004. 205 S.
Abstract: The authors, hoping to stimulate interest in XML (Extensible Markup Language) and explain its value to the library community, offer a fine introduction to the topic. The opening chapter defines XML as "a system for electronically tagging or marking up documents in order to label, organize, and categorize their content" and then goes on to describe its origins and fundamental building blocks. Subsequent chapters address related technologies, schema development, XML-based tools, and current and future library uses. The authors argue persuasively for increased XML use, emphasizing its advantages over HTML in flexibility, interoperability, extensibility, and internationalization. Information is detailed, deftly written, and supported by numerous examples. Readers without a technological bent may find the text daunting, but their perseverance will be richly rewarded. Particularly recommended for webmasters and those working in library information systems and technical services.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 57(2006) no.2, S.294-295 (J. Nelson)
LCSH: XML (Document markup language) ; Libraries / Data processing ; Cataloging / Data processing ; Digital libraries
BK: 54.55 / Auszeichnungssprachen
DDC: 005.7/2 / dc21
LCC: Z678.93.X54M55 2004
10Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: Web search strategies and approaches to studying.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 54(2003) no.6, S.473-488.
Abstract: In this issue Ford, Miller and Moss utilize 68 volunteers from a population of 250 Master's students to complete on the web three search tasks with clear fact based goals and three or less facets. One task required broadening the search concepts from those given, a second provided a specific terminology for one facet but required a second facet that would require translation, and the third required general to specific transformation. The students were measured as to their performance on Entewistle's Revised Inventory of Approaches to Studying providing values for ten study variables and asked to assess their experience on the Internet, with Alta Vista, and with Boolean search. Searches were conducted on Alta Vista using Netscape Navigator 4 with participants free to choose and switch Boolean, best match or combined search modes at will while a front end script recorded all submitted searches and help access. Search related variables extracted were from Boolean only queries, best match only queries, and combined queries. Factor analyses were conducted on all variables for each search mode for each search. In task one Boolean is differentiated from best match search by sharing high loads on active interest, intention to reproduce, fear of failure, and relating ideas. The combined searcher is linked with the best match searcher with low active interest, low intention to reproduce and low fear of failure. In task 2 Boolean is differentiated from best match search by sharing high loads on intention to reproduce and low on intention to understand. Best match loads positively with intention to understand and negatively with intention to reproduce. Combined searching linked with both good and with poor time management. In task 3 the loads mimic task 1. It seems Boolean is consistently linked to a reproductive rather than a meaning seeking approach, but also with high levels of interest and fear of failure. Best match associates with the converse of these measures.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Suchtaktik
11Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: Web search strategies and retrieval effectiveness : an empirical study.
In: Journal of documentation. 58(2002) no.1, S.30-48.
Abstract: This paper reports the results of a study funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Board which sought to investigate links between Web search strategies and retrieval effectiveness. A total of 68 students, enrolled on masters programmes in librarianship, information management and information systems, searched for two topics using the AltaVista search engine. Logs of the resultant 341 queries, along with relevance judgements for over 4,000 retrieved items, were analysed using factor analysis and regression. The differing but complementary types and strengths of evidence produced by these two forms of analysis are discussed and presented. Retrieval effectiveness was associated positively with best-match searching and negatively with Boolean searching. The implications of these findings for Web searching are discussed.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410210425395.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Suchtaktik
12Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Moss, N.: ¬The role of individual differences in Internet searching : an empirical study.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.12, S.1049-1066.
Abstract: This article reports the results of a study of the role of individual differences in Internet searching. The dimensions of individual differences forming the focus of the research consisted of: cognitive styles; levels of prior experience; Internet perceptions; study approaches; age; and gender. Sixty-nine Masters students searched for information on a prescribed topic using the AItaVista search engine. Results were assessed using simple binary relevance judgements. Factor analysis and multiple regression revealed interesting differences, retrieval effectiveness being linked to: male gender; low cognitive complexity; an imager (as opposed to verbalizer) cognitive style; and a number of Internet perceptions and study approaches grouped here as indicating low self-efficacy. The implications of these findings for system development and for future research are discussed.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien ; Suchtaktik
13Miller, D.R.: XML: Libraries' strategic opportunity.
Abstract: XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is fast gaining favor as the universal format for data and document exchange -- in effect becoming the lingua franca of the Information Age. Currently, "library information" is at a particular disadvantage on the rapidly evolving World Wide Web. Why? Despite libraries'explorations of web catalogs, scanning projects, digital data repositories, and creation of web pages galore, there remains a digital divide. The core of libraries' data troves are stored in proprietary formats of integrated library systems (ILS) and in the complex and arcane MARC formats -- both restricted chiefly to the province of technical services and systems librarians. Even they are hard-pressed to extract and integrate this wealth of data with resources from outside this rarefied environment. Segregation of library information underlies many difficulties: producing standard bibliographic citations from MARC data, automatically creating new materials lists (including new web resources) on a particular topic, exchanging data with our vendors, and even migrating from one ILS to another. Why do we continue to hobble our potential by embracing these self-imposed limitations? Most ILSs began in libraries, which soon recognized the pitfalls of do-it-yourself solutions. Thus, we wisely anticipated the necessity for standards. However, with the advent of the web, we soon found "our" collections and a flood of new resources appearing in digital format on opposite sides of the divide. If we do not act quickly to integrate library resources with mainstream web resources, we are in grave danger of becoming marginalized
Themenfeld: Datenformate ; Auszeichnungssprachen
14Miller, D.P.: Out from under : form/genre access in LCSH.
In: The LCSH century: one hundred years with the Library of Congress Subject Headings system. Ed.: A.T.Stone. New York : Haworth Press, 2000. S.169-188.
(Cataloging and classification quarterly; vol.29, nos.1/2)
Abstract: The provisions for access to genres and forms of library materials in LCSH are examined through a survey of Library of Congress policy over the century. This article focuses on main headings for literature and moving-image materials, and form subdivisions. Policy documents in this area have become steadily more elaborate and explicit in their instructions, indicating an increased awareness of the importance of form and genre to the library community at large. Nevertheless, there remain doubts as to whether a general subject vocabulary is best suited to provide the full spectrum of form/genre access as well
15Miller, D.R.: Bibliographic access management at Lane Medical Library : fin de millennium experimentation and bruised-edge innovation.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 30(2000) nos.2/3, S.139-166.
Abstract: This paper surveys four aspects of Bibliographic Management at Lane Medical Library, Stanford University Medical Center. First, a capsulized overview of the current scope and organization provides context. Second, counts of selected form/genre headings statistically present the extent and nature of databases maintained and illustrate our emphasis on form/genre. Third, descriptive summaries of selected policies and practices currently in effect illustrate how staff are attempting to improve bibliographic access and prepare for future retrieval systems. Because many of the positions taken may be controversial, discussion includes how the impact of differences is minimized in external systems. Last, selected new and/or experimental initiatives explore near future projects to further extend and enhance bibliographic control. The potential of these options derives from a more flexible integration and deployment of traditional and digital library resources focused on domain - specific user needs. A conjectural conclusion identifies the need for radical changes in the scope and structure of bibliographic control necessary to utilize rapidly evolving technologies effectively. Lane's ongoing XML MARC experiment suggests the feasibility and necessity of replacing MARC with a less arcane scheme and posits the concept of organic bibliography as the basis for a more robust bibliographic infrastructure.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Managing cataloging and the organization of information: philosophies, practices and challenges at the onset of the 21st century. Part II: Specialized and academic libraries in the United States"
17Miller, D.S.: ¬An attitude of caring.
In: Reference librarian. 1998, no.60, S.139-144.
Abstract: Argues that the goal of reference librarians in serving each user should be to give service beyond their expectations, and that outstanding service is not so much a skill as an attitude. Discusses what this attitude consists of, and suggests that those who do not have this attitude do not belong in the public sector of the library
Anmerkung: Part of an issue devoted to electronic resources and their use in libraries, from the viewpoint of reference services, with an emphasis on the Internet and Geographic Information Systems
19Miller, D.: Identical in appearance but not in actuality : headings shared by a subject-access and a form/genre access authority list.
In: Library resources and technical services. 41(1997) no.3, S.190-204.
Abstract: Authority records were compared for established headings that are identical in LCSH (18th ed.) and Moving Image Materials (MIM). The Use For, Broader Term, Narrower Term, and Related Term references in the LCSH authority file were compared with their counterparts in MIM, to determine the proportion of duplication existing between them. Fewer that 10% of these reference headings are identical. A qualitative comparison was made of the 'semantic spaces' inhibited by identical headings in different contexts: a general purpose subject access list is compared with a medium specific form and genre access list. It was found that, in many cases, headings that are identical as character strings have markedly differnt meanings in different contexts. The conclusion offered is that, both quantitatively and qualitatively, pairs of identical headings differ sufficiently from each other that the creation of authority records for each usage represents no duplication in any meaningful sense. The striking divergence, in many instances, between semantic spaces poses intellectual questions regarding the differences between the meaning of subjects and of forms and genres
Behandelte Form: Filme ; Videos
20Wood, F. ; Ford, N. ; Miller, D. ; Sobczyk, G. ; Duffin, R.: Information skills, searching behaviour and cognitive styles for student-centred learning : a computer-assisted learning approach.
In: Journal of information science. 22(1996) no.2, S.79-92.
Abstract: Undergraduates were tested to establish how they searched databases, the effectiveness of their searches and their satisfaction with them. The students' cognitive and learning styles were determined by the Lancaster Approaches to Studying Inventory and Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis tests. There were significant differences in the searching behaviour and the effectiveness of the searches carried out by students with different learning and cognitive styles. Computer-assisted learning (CAL) packages were developed for three departments. The effectiveness of the packages were evaluated. Significant differences were found in the ways students with different learning styles used the packages. Based on the experience gained, guidelines for the teaching of information skills and the production and use of packages were prepared. About 2/3 of the searches had serious weaknesses, indicating a need for effective training. It appears that choice of searching strategies, search effectiveness and use of CAL packages are all affected by the cognitive and learning styles of the searcher. Therefore, students should be made aware of their own styles and, if appropriate, how to adopt more effective strategies
Themenfeld: Retrievalstudien ; Computer Based Training