Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Zhang, L. ; Olson, H.A.: Distilling abstractions : genre redefining essence versus context.
In: Library trends. 63(2015) no.3, S.540-554.
Abstract: The construction of concepts achieved by the apparently incompatible ideas of essence and context is examined through genre. Essence is defined by essential characteristics: innate, immutable, independent of context. Unlike essences, contexts are fluid, changing with time and location. Genre has the stability of the essential characteristics that define essence and the fluidity of differing circumstances that define context, thus making it effective for the exploration of essence and context. Controlled vocabularies reveal diachronically and synchronically the stable/fluid ambivalence of genre classes. The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC1, DDC13, DDC23) exhibits stability (and modest fluidity) in the Divisions, the primary reflection of academic disciplines one hierarchical step below the main classes and the development of the standard subdivisions as a slow multi-edition evolution. Genre serves as a lens for us to better understand essences, contexts, and concepts and their manifestations, classes. Rather than being incompatible opposites, essences and contexts complement each other in the definition of concepts. How these abstractions relate to classification is a question both theoretical and practical to our efforts to further knowledge organization.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: 'Exploring Philosophies of Information'.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: 10.1353/lib.2015.0015.
2Milani, S.O. ; Chaves Guimarães, J.A. ; Olson, H.A.: Bias in subject representation : convergences and divergences in the international literature.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.335-342.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Terms chosen to represent document subjects, the classification notations assigned to them, the abstracts and indices contain biases in two contexts. In a negative context, document surrogates are constructed with bias when they leave out diverse features, disenfranchise groups and topics outside an accepted norm (Olson, 2002). In this way, these document surrogates would convey inclinations, or prejudices. In a positive context, slanting or tendency (Hjørland, 2008a, McIlwaine, 2003) conveyed by the document surrogates to ensure specificity to particular discursive communities or knowledge domains can be observed. Considering that topics related to biases are scarce in the Information Organization literature, this paper proposes a discussion on the characteristics and occurrences of bias in subject representation. This study is exploratory and bibliographic, and adopts an inductive method.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_46.pdf.
3Martínez-Ávila, D. ; San Segundo, R. ; Olson, H.A.: ¬The use of BISAC in libraries as new cases of Reader-Interest Classifications.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 52(2014) no.2, S.137-155.
Abstract: In the recent years, several libraries in the United States have been experimenting with Book Industry Standards and Communications (BISAC), the classification system of the book industry, as an alternative to the Dewey Decimal Classification. Although rarely discussed, these cases of implementation of BISAC arguably resemble other past cases of replacement of traditional classifications that received the name of reader-interest classifications. In this article, a comparison of the BISAC cases to the previous cases of reader-interest classifications is taken in order to determine if the current application of BISAC to libraries is susceptible to the same problems, dangers, and ends as occurred in the past.
Objekt: Reader interest classification ; BISAC
Anwendungsfeld: Öffentliche Bibliotheken
4Martínez-Ávila, D. ; Olson, H.A. ; Kipp, M.E.I.: New roles and gobal agents in information organization in Spanish libraries.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.2, S.125-136.
Abstract: In a new globalized scenario, the traditional activities of information organization agents in libraries have tended to converge with those from the book industry under the presumption that most traditional library practices are not adequate for the new globalized situation. This article analyzes the nature and consequences for libraries of the links between agents from the book industry and the organizations in charge of the main library information organization systems, both at an international level and in Spain. Some of the agents whose discourses were analyzed include OCLC, the UDC Consortium, BISG, BIC, EDItEUR, DILVE, Google and Amazon. We conclude that there is evidence of an incursion of book industry practices into the information organization practices of OCLC and that collaboration between both sectors will result in an increase in universality and homogenization in library information organization practices without consideration for the nature and specific characteristics of the library and how it differs from the bookstore.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_2_h.pdf.
Anmerkung: Beitrag im Rahmen einer Special Section: Papers from the 10th ISKO Spanish Chapter Conference (X Congreso Capítulo Español de ISKO), Ferrol, Spain, 30 June-1 July, 2011.
5Martínez-Ávila, D. ; Kipp, M. ; Olson, H.A.: DDC or BISAC : the changing balance between corporations and public institutions.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.5, S.309-319.
Abstract: The changing role of libraries demands examination of the impact of the 21st century book market. Traditionally, public libraries have provided access to information in a physical form, but the purpose of the library has remained unchanged, that of providing access to information for all users. The increasing emphasis on electronic collections has led librarians to consider the issues involved with electronic sources. Changes in the book market, including globalization and the inclusion of the ebook affect libraries in many ways. This paper will examine the effect of globalization on the library and its relationship with publishers and publisher groups.
Inhalt: Beitrag aus einem Themenheft zu den Proceedings of the 2nd Milwaukee Conference on Ethics in Information Organization, June 15-16, 2012, School of Information Studies, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Hope A. Olson, Conference Chair. Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_5_a.pdf.
6Olson, H.A.: Earthly order and the oneness of mysticism : Hugh of Saint Victor and medieval classification of wisdom.
In: Knowledge organization. 37(2010) no.2, S.121-138.
Abstract: Hugh of St. Victor's Didascalicon is a twelfth-century classification of knowledge, or as Hugh would put it, of Wisdom, written in the context of medieval, Christian mysticism. This study reads the text through its cultural and intellectual context, including medieval themes of the problem of universals and the importance of numerology. The study addresses the question of whether or not Hugh's classification is part of the Aristotelian tradition of classificatory structure characterized by mutually exclusive categories, teleological progress toward a goal, and hierarchy, which is still with us today. It also examines the role of the liberal arts in Hugh's pedagogy and philosophy as exhibited in the Didascalicon.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special issue: A Festschrift for Clare Beghtol
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko372e.pdf.
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Klassifikationssysteme
7Olson, H.A.: Hegel's epistemograph, classification, and Spivak's postcolonial reason.
In: Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Eleventh International ISKO Conference, 23-26 February 2010 Rome, Italy. Edited by Claudio Gnoli and Fulvio Mazzocchi. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2010. S.23-30.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.12)
Abstract: A major characteristic of classification is teleology interpreted as a linear progression toward knowledge. G.W.F. Hegel's three stages of knowledge development: Being (Sein), Essence (Wesen), and Idea (Begriff), explicated in his Science of logic form such a progression. Feminist postcolonial critic Gayatri Spivak calls this kind of progression as an "epistemograph". Classification is a manifestation of Western logic and the sequence of main classes is illustrative of the progression that reflects Hegel's epistemograph. DDC and UDC between them represent library classification globally and use a sequence of main classes derived from Hegel and indirectly from Bacon. The lingering consequences of this heritage still create dilemmas in our organization of knowledge.
Themenfeld: Geschichte der Klassifikationssysteme
8Olson, H.A.: Social influences on classification.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2010. S.4806-4813.
Abstract: The social and cultural influences on classification are evident in both the content and structure of classifications. In content, warrant, the basis on which content is determined, is most significant. Warrant is related to the purpose of the classification and has varied historically from the classical Greeks to the present. Warrant, whether it be what is written or published on a topic, what is taught, natural phenomena, or other factors is susceptible to all of the biases of the society that produces a classification. Biases of race, gender, orientation, geography, culture, language, and other factors are well-documented in relation to bibliographic classification. Bias occurs not only as a result of the warrant that determines content, but also as a result of classificatory structure. Classificatory structure may be culturally specific and the hierarchy typical of western classificatory structure can convey social influence through hierarchical force, ghettoization, and diasporization. Jesse Shera suggests the social importance of librarians and their role in classification. Combining Shera's theoretical stance with the historical/philosophical record and the empirical evidence of numerous studies in bibliographic classification, the link between society and classification is robust and of significance to the field of library and information science.
Inhalt: Digital unter: http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/E-ELIS3-120044536. Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
9Wolfram, D. ; Olson, H.A. ; Bloom, R.: Measuring consistency for multiple taggers using vector space modeling.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.10, S.1995-2003.
Abstract: A longstanding area of study in indexing is the identification of factors affecting vocabulary usage and consistency. This topic has seen a recent resurgence with a focus on social tagging. Tagging data for scholarly articles made available by the social bookmarking Website CiteULike (www.citeulike.org) were used to test the use of inter-indexer/tagger consistency density values, based on a method developed by the authors by comparing calculations for highly tagged documents representing three subject areas (Science, Social Science, Social Software). The analysis revealed that the developed method is viable for a large dataset. The findings also indicated that there were no significant differences in tagging consistency among the three topic areas, demonstrating that vocabulary usage in a relatively new subject area like social software is no more inconsistent than the more established subject areas investigated. The implications of the method used and the findings are discussed.
Themenfeld: Social tagging
10Olson, H.A. ; Wolfram, D.: Syntagmatic relationships and indexing consistency on a larger scale.
In: Journal of documentation. 64(2008) no.4, S.602-615.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this article is to examine interindexer consistency on a larger scale than other studies have done to determine if group consensus is reached by larger numbers of indexers and what, if any, relationships emerge between assigned terms. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 64 MLIS students were recruited to assign up to five terms to a document. The authors applied basic data modeling and the exploratory statistical techniques of multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) and hierarchical cluster analysis to determine whether relationships exist in indexing consistency and the coocurrence of assigned terms. Findings - Consistency in the assignment of indexing terms to a document follows an inverse shape, although it is not strictly power law-based unlike many other social phenomena. The exploratory techniques revealed that groups of terms clustered together. The resulting term cooccurrence relationships were largely syntagmatic. Research limitations/implications - The results are based on the indexing of one article by non-expert indexers and are, thus, not generalizable. Based on the study findings, along with the growing popularity of folksonomies and the apparent authority of communally developed information resources, communally developed indexes based on group consensus may have merit. Originality/value - Consistency in the assignment of indexing terms has been studied primarily on a small scale. Few studies have examined indexing on a larger scale with more than a handful of indexers. Recognition of the differences in indexing assignment has implications for the development of public information systems, especially those that do not use a controlled vocabulary and those tagged by end-users. In such cases, multiple access points that accommodate the different ways that users interpret content are needed so that searchers may be guided to relevant content despite using different terminology.
11Olson, H.A.: Wind and rain and dark of night : classification in scientific discourse communities.
In: Culture and identity in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Tenth International ISKO Conference 5-8 August 2008, Montreal, Canada. Ed. by Clément Arsenault and Joseph T. Tennis. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.235-241.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.11)
Inhalt: Classifications of natural phenomena demonstrate the applicability of discourse analysis in finding the importance of concepts such as warrant for categorization and classification. Temperature scales provide a body of official literature for close consideration. Official documents of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) reveal the reasoning behind choices affecting these standards. A more cursory scrutiny of the Saffir-Simpson Scale through scholarly publications and documentation from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (KIST) indicates the potential of this form of analysis. The same holds true for an examination of the definition of what is a planet as determined by the International Astronomical Union. As Sayers, Richardson, and Bliss have indicated, there seem to be principles and a reliance on context that bridge the differences between natural and artificial, scientific and bibliographic classifications.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0b5550a/index.php.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
12Olson, H.A.: How we construct subjects : a feminist analysis.
In: Library trends. 56(2007) no.2, S.509-541.
Abstract: To organize information, librarians create structures. These structures grow from a logic that goes back at least as far as Aristotle. It is the basis of classification as we practice it, and thesauri and subject headings have developed from it. Feminist critiques of logic suggest that logic is gendered in nature. This article will explore how these critiques play out in contemporary standards for the organization of information. Our widely used classification schemes embody principles such as hierarchical force that conform to traditional/Aristotelian logic. Our subject heading strings follow a linear path of subdivision. Our thesauri break down subjects into discrete concepts. In thesauri and subject heading lists we privilege hierarchical relationships, reflected in the syndetic structure of broader and narrower terms, over all other relationships. Are our classificatory and syndetic structures gendered? Are there other options? Carol Gilligan's In a Different Voice (1982), Women's Ways of Knowing (Belenky, Clinchy, Goldberger, & Tarule, 1986), and more recent related research suggest a different type of structure for women's knowledge grounded in "connected knowing." This article explores current and potential elements of connected knowing in subject access with a focus on the relationships, both paradigmatic and syntagmatic, between concepts.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Themenheft 'Gender Issues in Information Needs and Services'.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: 10.1353/lib.2008.0007.
13Lee, H.-L. ; Olson, H.A.: Hierarchical navigation : an exploration of Yahoo! directories.
In: Knowledge organization. 32(2005) no.1, S.10-24.
Abstract: Although researchers have theorized the critical importance of classification in the organization of information, the classification approach seems to have given way to the alphabetical subject approach in retrieval tools widely used in libraries, and research an how users utilize classification or classification-like arrangements in information seeking has been scant. To better understand whether searchers consider classificatory structures a viable alternative to information retrieval, this article reports an a study of how 24 library and information science students used Yahoo! directories, a popular search service resembling classification, in completing an assigned simple task. Several issues emerged from the students' reporting of their search process and a comparison between hierarchical navigation and keyword searching: citation order of facets, precision vs. recall, and other factors influencing searchers' successes and preferences. The latter included search expertise, knowledge of the discipline, and time required to complete the search. Without a definitive conclusion, we suggest a number of directoons for further research.
Themenfeld: Klassifikationssysteme im Online-Retrieval ; Suchmaschinen
14Olson, H.A.: ¬The ubiquitous hierarchy : an army to overcome the threat of a mob.
In: Library trends. 52(2004) no.3, S.604-616.
Abstract: This article explores the connections between Melvil Dewey and Hegelianism and Charles Cutter and the Scottish Common Sense philosophers. It traces the practice of hierarchy from these philosophical influences to Dewey and Cutter and their legacy to today's Dewey Decimal Classification and Library of Congress Subject Headings. The ubiquity of hierarchy is linked to Dewey's and Cutter's metaphor of organizing the mob of information into an orderly army using the tool of logic.
Anmerkung: Artikel in einem Themenheft: The philosophy of information
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur ; Geschichte der Klassifikationssysteme
Objekt: DDC ; LCSH
16Olson, H.A.: Transgressive deconstructions : feminist/postcolonial methodology for research in knowledge organization.
In: Tendencias de investigación en organización del conocimient: IV Cologuio International de Ciencas de la Documentación , VI Congreso del Capitulo Espanol de ISKO = Trends in knowledge organization research. Eds.: J.A. Frias u. C. Travieso.
(Aquilafuente ; 51)
17Olson, H.A. ; Ward, D.B.: Mundane standards, everyday technologies, equitable access.
In: Subject retrieval in a networked environment: Proceedings of the IFLA Satellite Meeting held in Dublin, OH, 14-16 August 2001 and sponsored by the IFLA Classification and Indexing Section, the IFLA Information Technology Section and OCLC. Ed.: I.C. McIlwaine. München : Saur, 2003. S.50-58.
(UBCIM publications: new series; vol.25)
Abstract: The problem of access to marginalized knowledge using general subject access standards is well-established, but few successful solutions have been developed. This paper surveys four different approaches to ameliorating bias: revision of general standards, adaptation of general standards, specialized standards for particular knowledge domains and specialized standards for particular situations. lt then examines their technological alternatives and institutional barriers to solutions. The analysis of standards, technologies and barriers is addressed through Ursula Franklin's interpretation of the real world of technology.
19Kublik, A. ; Clevette, V. ; Ward, D. ; Olson, H.A.: Adapting dominant classifications to particular contexts.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 37(2003) nos.1/2, S.13-31.
Abstract: This paper addresses the process of adapting to a particular culture or context a classification that has grown out of western culture to become a global standard. The authors use a project that adapts DDC for use in a feminist/women's issues context to demonstrate an approach that works. The project is particularly useful as an interdisciplinary example. Discussion consists of four parts: (1) definition of the problem indicating the need for adaptation and efforts to date; (2) description of the methodology developed for creating an expansion; (3) description of the interface developed for actually doing the work, with its potential for a distributed group to work on it together (could even be internationally distributed); and (4) generalization of how the methodology could be used for particular contexts by country, ethnicity, perspective or other defining factors.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes "Knowledge organization and classification in international information retrieval"
Themenfeld: Klassifikationstheorie: Elemente / Struktur
20Olson, H.A.: ¬The power to name : locating the limits of subject representation in libraries.
Berlin : Springer Netherland, 2002. 276 S.
Abstract: The names we give things colour the ways we perceive them. Those in a position to name hold the power to construct others' perceptions and realities. This book looks at the pervasive naming of information that libraries undertake as a matter of course through representation of subjects. It examines the 19th century foundations, current standards, and canonical application of internationally used classification (Melvil Dewey and his decimal scheme) and subject headings (Charles Cutter and the Library of Congress Subject Headings). A feminist poststructural critique is used to reveal the presumption that these standards are universally applicable even though their marginalizations and exclusions are well-documented. The book will be of interest to librarians, information scholars and professionals, researchers interested in representation and the construction of meaning, and anyone who uses a library. TOC: Preface.- 1. Naming is Power.- 2. Armies, Railroads and Procrustean Beds.- 3. The Iterability of the Public and Efficiency.- 4. The Authority to Name.- 5. Ite/Arating Women.- 6. Toward Eccentric Techniques.- Notes.- Index.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Libraries and the cultural record. 42(2007) no.1, S.75-79 u.d.T.: Miksa, F.: "The power to name": a review essay (vgl. eigenen Datensatz).
RSWK: Bibliothek / Inhaltserschließung / Dewey-Dezimalklassifikation / Library of Congress Subject Headings / Geschichte