Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 16. Dezember 2019)
1Vinod Vydiswaran, V.G. ; Zhai, C.X. ; Roth, D. ; Pirolli, P.: Overcoming bias to learn about controversial topics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.8, S.1655-1672.
Abstract: Deciding whether a claim is true or false often requires a deeper understanding of the evidence supporting and contradicting the claim. However, when presented with many evidence documents, users do not necessarily read and trust them uniformly. Psychologists and other researchers have shown that users tend to follow and agree with articles and sources that hold viewpoints similar to their own, a phenomenon known as confirmation bias. This suggests that when learning about a controversial topic, human biases and viewpoints about the topic may affect what is considered "trustworthy" or credible. It is an interesting challenge to build systems that can help users overcome this bias and help them decide the truthfulness of claims. In this article, we study various factors that enable humans to acquire additional information about controversial claims in an unbiased fashion. Specifically, we designed a user study to understand how presenting evidence with contrasting viewpoints and source expertise ratings affect how users learn from the evidence documents. We find that users do not seek contrasting viewpoints by themselves, but explicitly presenting contrasting evidence helps them get a well-rounded understanding of the topic. Furthermore, explicit knowledge of the credibility of the sources and the context in which the source provides the evidence document not only affects what users read but also whether they perceive the document to be credible.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23274/abstract.
2Pirolli, P.: Information foraging theory : adaptive interaction with information.
New York : Oxford University Press, 2007. ix, 204 S.
(Oxford series in human-technology interaction)
Abstract: Although much of the hubris and hyperbole surrounding the 1990's Internet has softened to a reasonable level, the inexorable momentum of information growth continues unabated. This wealth of information provides resources for adapting to the problems posed by our increasingly complex world, but the simple availability of more information does not guarantee its successful transformation into valuable knowledge that shapes, guides, and improves our activity. When faced with something like the analysis of sense-making behavior on the web, traditional research models tell us a lot about learning and performance with browser operations, but very little about how people will actively navigate and search through information structures, what information they will choose to consume, and what conceptual models they will induce about the landscape of cyberspace. Thus, it is fortunate that a new field of research, Adaptive Information Interaction (AII), is becoming possible. AII centers on the problems of understanding and improving human-information interaction. It is about how people will best shape themselves to their information environments, and how information environments can best be shaped to people. Its roots lie in human-computer interaction (HCI), information retrieval, and the behavioral and social sciences. This book is about Information Foraging Theory (IFT), a new theory in Adaptive Information Interaction that is one example of a recent flourish of theories in adaptationist psychology that draw upon evolutionary-ecological theory in biology. IFT assumes that people (indeed, all organisms) are ecologically rational, and that human information-seeking mechanisms and strategies adapt the structure of the information environments in which they operate. Its main aim is to create technology that is better shaped to users. Information Foraging Theory will be of interest to student and professional researchers in HCI and cognitive psychology.
Inhalt: Inhalt: 1. Information Foraging Theory: Framework and Method 2. Elementary Foraging Models 3. The Ecology of Information Foraging on the World Wide Web 4. Rational Analyses of Information Scent and Web Foraging 5. A Cognitive Model of Information Foraging on the Web 6. A Rational Analysis and Computational Cognitive Model of the Scatter/Gather Document Cluster Browser 7. Stochastic Models of Information Foraging by Information Scent 8. Social Information Foraging 9. Design Heuristics, Engineering Models, and Applications 10. Future Directions: Upward, Downward, Inward, and Outward
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 61(2010) no. 10, S.2161-2164 (P.E. Sandstrom)
RSWK: Informationstheorie / Informationsbeschaffung
BK: 06.35 / Informationsmanagement
DDC: 025.5/24 / dc22
LCC: ZA3075 .P57 2007
RVK: CV 3500
3Woodruff, A. ; Rosenholtz, R. ; Morrison, J.B. ; Faulring, A. ; Pirolli, P.: ¬A comparison of the use of text summaries, plain thumbnails, and enhanced thumbnails for Web search tasks.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.2, S.172-185.
Abstract: We introduce a technique for creating novel, enhanced thumbnails of Web pages. These thumbnails combine the advantages of plain thumbnails and text summaries to provide consistent performance on a variety of tasks. We conducted a study in which participants used three different types of summaries (enhanced thumbnails, plain thumbnails, and text summaries) to search Web pages to find several different types of information. Participants took an average of 67, 86, and 95 seconds to find the answer with enhanced thumbnails, plain thumbnails, and text summaries, respectively. As expected, there was a strong effect of question category. For some questions, text summaries outperformed plain thumbnails, while for other questions, plain thumbnails outperformed text summaries. Enhanced thumbnails (which combine the features of text summaries and plain thumbnails) had more consistent performance than either text summaries or plain thumbnails, having for all categories the best performance or performance that was statistically indistinguishable from the best
4Hearst, M. ; Pedersen, J. ; Pirolli, P. ; Schütze, H. ; Grefenstette, G. ; Hull, D.: Xerox site report : four TREC-4 tracks.
In: The Fourth Text Retrieval Conference (TREC-4). Ed.: K. Harman. Gaithersburgh, MD : National Institute of Standards and Technology, 1996. S.97-119.
(NIST special publication; 500-236)