Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Smith, C.L. ; Matteson, M.L.: Information literacy in the age of machines that learn : desiderata for machines that teach.
In: Libri. 68(2018) no.2, S.71-84.
Abstract: With the use of machine learning and other advances, modern information search systems make it easy for searchers to access information to meet their most frequent information needs. Building from Kuhlthau's concepts of exploration and differentiating, this article argues that along with the benefits of greater accessibility, these advances impede the development of information literacy, conceptualized as processes for planning, accessing, judging and communicating information. It is argued that information literacy emerges during interaction with search systems and modern system designs hide or render unworkable the contextual information needed for the judgment processes of information literacy. In response to these concerns, the article contributes desiderata for new designs that facilitate the discovery, navigation and use of context information.
Inhalt: Vgl.: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/libri-2017-0025.
2Smith, C.L.: Investigating the role of semantic priming in query expression : a framework and two experiments.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.168-181.
Abstract: Modern search systems often meet their users' information needs, but when the system fails, searchers struggle to formulate effective queries. Query suggestions may help, but research suggests these often go unused. Although much is known about how searchers scan results pages when assessing relevance, little is known about the processes searchers use when struggling to reformulate queries. Investigating how searchers overcome query difficulties, and how search systems help and hinder that process, requires enquiry into the cognitive procedures searchers use to select words for queries. The purpose of this paper is to investigate one cognitive process involved: semantic priming of words in memory. A framework for conceptualizing the role of semantic priming in search interaction is presented, along with results from two experiments that applied research methods from cognitive psychology, in an investigation of word selection and subsequent search for selected words. The results show that word selection activates related words in memory and that looking for a selected word among related words is effortful. The finding suggests that semantic priming may play a role in the difficulties people experience when reformulating queries. Ideas for continued development of semantic priming methods and their use in future research are also presented.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23611/full.
3Smith, C.L.: Domain-independent search expertise : gaining knowledge in query formulation through guided practice.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.6, S.1462-1479.
Abstract: Although modern search systems require minimal skill for meeting simple information needs, most systems provide weak support for gaining advanced skill; hence, the goal of designing systems that guide searchers in developing expertise. Essential to developing such systems are a description of expert search behavior and an understanding of how it may be acquired. The present study contributes a detailed analysis of the query behavior of 10 students as they completed assigned exercises during a semester-long course on expert search. Detailed query logs were coded for three dimensions of query expression: the information structure searched, the type of query term used, and intent of the query with respect to specificity. Patterns of query formulation were found to evidence a progression of instruction, suggesting that the students gained knowledge of fundamental system-independent constructs that underlie expert search, and that domain-independent search expertise may be defined as the ability to use these constructs. Implications for system design are addressed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23776/full.
4Smith, C.L.: Domain-independent search expertise : a description of procedural knowledge gained during guided instruction.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.7, S.1388-1405.
Abstract: This longitudinal study examined the search behavior of 10 students as they completed assigned exercises for an online professional course in expert searching. The research objective was to identify, describe, and hypothesize about features of the behavior that are indicative of procedural knowledge gained during guided instruction. Log-data of search interaction were coded using a conceptual framework focused on components of search practice hypothesized to organize an expert searcher's attention during search. The coded data were analyzed using a measure of pointwise mutual information and state-transition analysis. Results of the study provide important insight for future investigation of domain-independent search expertise and for the design of systems that assist searchers in gaining expertise.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23272/abstract.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
5Nicholson, S. ; Smith, C.A.: Using lessons from health care to protect the privacy of library users : guidelines for the de-identification of library data based on HIPAA.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.8, S.1198-1206.
Abstract: Although libraries have employed policies to protect the data about use of their services, these policies are rarely specific or standardized. Since 1996, the U.S. health care system has been grappling with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA; Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, 1996), which is designed to provide those handling personal health information with standardized, definitive instructions as to the protection of data. In this work, the authors briefly discuss the present situation of privacy policies about library use data, outline the HIPAA guidelines to understand parallels between the two, and finally propose methods to create a de-identified library data warehouse based on HIPAA for the protection of user privacy.
6Smith, C.: Building an Internet archive system for the British Broadcasting Corporation.
In: Library trends. 54(2005) no.1, S.16-32.
Abstract: The amount of digital content produced at academic research institutions is large, and libraries and archives at these institutions have a responsibility to bring this digital material under curatorial control in order to manage and preserve it over time. But this is a daunting task with few proven models, requiring new technology, policies, procedures, core staff competencies, and cost models. The MIT Libraries are working with the DSpace(TM) open-source digital repository platform to explore the problem of capturing research and teaching material in any digital format and preserving it over time. By collaborating on this problem with other research institutions using the DSpace platform in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe, and other parts of the world, as well as with other important efforts in the digital preservation arena, we are beginning to see ways of managing arbitrary digital content that might make digital preservation an achievable goal.
Inhalt: Vgl.: DOI: 10.1353/lib.2006.0008.
Themenfeld: Dokumentenmanagement ; Elektronische Dokumente
Anwendungsfeld: Medienarchive (Rundfunk/Fernsehen)
7Mehra, B. ; Bishop, A.P. ; Bazzell, I. ; Smith, C.: Scenarios in the Afya project as a participatory action research (PAR) tool for studying information seeking and use across the 'digital divide'.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.14, S.1259-1266.
Abstract: This article explores the role of scenarios (or use-oriented design representations) in the Afya project as a participatory action research (PAR) tool for studying information seeking and use across the "digital divide." With the aim of improving access to health information and services for Black women, the Afya project has involved forging community-level partnerships with SisterNet, a local grassroots group of Black women devoted to improving their physical, emotional, intellectual, and spiritual health. In the context of community health care, scenarios in the Afya project as a socially grounded planning and design methodology have taken the form of personal narratives of Black women that capture their social experiences and typical problematic health situations. Scenarios of Black women point towards the need to foster social justice by nurturing equitable and participative social activities around technological development and use associated with health information services. Scenarios also suggest specific action-oriented strategies for empowering Black women to build social and digital technologies that we hope will make the provision of health care in our community more just.