Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 23. Dezember 2017)
1Golub, K. ; Soergel, D. ; Buchanan, G. ; Tudhope, D. ; Lykke, M. ; Hiom, D.: ¬A framework for evaluating automatic indexing or classification in the context of retrieval.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.1, S.3-16.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: Tools for automatic subject assignment help deal with scale and sustainability in creating and enriching metadata, establishing more connections across and between resources and enhancing consistency. Although some software vendors and experimental researchers claim the tools can replace manual subject indexing, hard scientific evidence of their performance in operating information environments is scarce. A major reason for this is that research is usually conducted in laboratory conditions, excluding the complexities of real-life systems and situations. The article reviews and discusses issues with existing evaluation approaches such as problems of aboutness and relevance assessments, implying the need to use more than a single "gold standard" method when evaluating indexing and retrieval, and proposes a comprehensive evaluation framework. The framework is informed by a systematic review of the literature on evaluation approaches: evaluating indexing quality directly through assessment by an evaluator or through comparison with a gold standard, evaluating the quality of computer-assisted indexing directly in the context of an indexing workflow, and evaluating indexing quality indirectly through analyzing retrieval performance.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23600/abstract.
Themenfeld: Automatisches Indexieren ; Automatisches Klassifizieren
2Huang, X. ; Soergel, D. ; Klavans, J.L.: Modeling and analyzing the topicality of art images.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.8, S.1616-1644.
Abstract: This study demonstrates an improved conceptual foundation to support well-structured analysis of image topicality. First we present a conceptual framework for analyzing image topicality, explicating the layers, the perspectives, and the topical relevance relationships involved in modeling the topicality of art images. We adapt a generic relevance typology to image analysis by extending it with definitions and relationships specific to the visual art domain and integrating it with schemes of image-text relationships that are important for image subject indexing. We then apply the adapted typology to analyze the topical relevance relationships between 11 art images and 768 image tags assigned by art historians and librarians. The original contribution of our work is the topical structure analysis of image tags that allows the viewer to more easily grasp the content, context, and meaning of an image and quickly tune into aspects of interest; it could also guide both the indexer and the searcher to specify image tags/descriptors in a more systematic and precise manner and thus improve the match between the two parties. An additional contribution is systematically examining and integrating the variety of image-text relationships from a relevance perspective. The paper concludes with implications for relational indexing and social tagging.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23269/abstract.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
3Soergel, D. ; Popescu, D.: Organization authority database design with classification principles.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.69-82.
Abstract: We illustrate the principle of unified treatment of all authority data for any kind of entities, subjects/topics, places, events, persons, organizations, etc. through the design and implementation of an enriched authority database for organizations, maintained as an integral part of an authority database that also includes subject authority control / classification data, using the same structures for data and common modules for processing and display of data. Organization-related data are stored in information systems of many companies. We specifically examine the case of the World Bank Group (WBG) according to organization role: suppliers, partners, customers, competitors, authors, publishers, or subjects of documents, loan recipients, suppliers for WBG-funded projects and subunits of the organization itself. A central organization authority where each organization is identified by a URI, represented by several names and linked to other organizations through hierarchical and other relationships serves to link data from these disparate information systems. Designing the conceptual structure of a unified authority database requires integrating SKOS, the W3C Organization Ontology and other schemes into one comprehensive ontology. To populate the authority database with organizations, we import data from external sources (e.g., DBpedia and Library of Congress authorities) and internal sources (e.g., the lists of organizations from multiple WBG information systems).
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Soergel-Popescu_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
4Golub, K. ; Hansson, J. ; Soergel, D. ; Tudhope, D.: Managing classification in libraries : a methodological outline for evaluating automatic subject indexing and classification in Swedish library catalogues.
In: Classification and authority control: expanding resource discovery: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar 2015, 29-30 October 2015, Lisbon, Portugal. Eds.: Slavic, A. u. M.I. Cordeiro. Würzburg : Ergon-Verlag, 2015. S.163-175.
Abstract: Subject terms play a crucial role in resource discovery but require substantial effort to produce. Automatic subject classification and indexing address problems of scale and sustainability and can be used to enrich existing bibliographic records, establish more connections across and between resources and enhance consistency of bibliographic data. The paper aims to put forward a complex methodological framework to evaluate automatic classification tools of Swedish textual documents based on the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) recently introduced to Swedish libraries. Three major complementary approaches are suggested: a quality-built gold standard, retrieval effects, domain analysis. The gold standard is built based on input from at least two catalogue librarians, end-users expert in the subject, end users inexperienced in the subject and automated tools. Retrieval effects are studied through a combination of assigned and free tasks, including factual and comprehensive types. The study also takes into consideration the different role and character of subject terms in various knowledge domains, such as scientific disciplines. As a theoretical framework, domain analysis is used and applied in relation to the implementation of DDC in Swedish libraries and chosen domains of knowledge within the DDC itself.
Inhalt: Präsentation unter: http://www.udcds.com/seminar/2015/media/slides/Hansson_InternationalUDCSeminar2015.pdf.
Themenfeld: Automatisches Klassifizieren
5Soergel, D.: Unleashing the power of data through organization : structure and connections for meaning, learning and discovery.
In: Knowledge organization. 42(2015) no.6, S.401-427.
Abstract: Knowledge organization is needed everywhere. Its importance is marked by its pervasiveness. This paper will show many areas, tasks, and functions where proper use of knowledge organization, construed as broadly as the term implies, provides support for learning and understanding, for sense making and meaning making, for inference, and for discovery by people and computer programs and thereby will make the world a better place. The paper focuses not on metadata but rather on structuring and representing the actual data or knowledge itself and argues for more communication between the largely separated KO, ontology, data modeling, and semantic web communities to address the many problems that need better solutions. In particular, the paper discusses the application of knowledge organization in knowledge bases for question answering and cognitive systems, knowledge bases for information extraction from text or multimedia, linked data, big data and data analytics, electronic health records as one example, influence diagrams (causal maps), dynamic system models, process diagrams, concept maps, and other node-link diagrams, information systems in organizations, knowledge organization for understanding and learning, and knowledge transfer between domains. The paper argues for moving beyond triples to a more powerful representation using entities and multi-way relationships but not attributes.
Inhalt: Selected Papers from "Knowledge Organization, Making a Difference: ISKO-UK Biennial Conference, 13th-14th July 2015, London. Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_42_2015_6.
6Zhang, P. ; Soergel, D.: Towards a comprehensive model of the cognitive process and mechanisms of individual sensemaking.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.9, S.1733-1756.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: This review introduces a comprehensive model of the cognitive process and mechanisms of individual sensemaking to provide a theoretical basis for: - empirical studies that improve our understanding of the cognitive process and mechanisms of sensemaking and integration of results of such studies; - education in critical thinking and sensemaking skills; - the design of sensemaking assistant tools that support and guide users. The paper reviews and extends existing sensemaking models with ideas from learning and cognition. It reviews literature on sensemaking models in human-computer interaction (HCI), cognitive system engineering, organizational communication, and library and information sciences (LIS), learning theories, cognitive psychology, and task-based information seeking. The model resulting from this synthesis moves to a stronger basis for explaining sensemaking behaviors and conceptual changes. The model illustrates the iterative processes of sensemaking, extends existing models that focus on activities by integrating cognitive mechanisms and the creation of instantiated structure elements of knowledge, and different types of conceptual change to show a complete picture of the cognitive processes of sensemaking. The processes and cognitive mechanisms identified provide better foundations for knowledge creation, organization, and sharing practices and a stronger basis for design of sensemaking assistant systems and tools.
7Soergel, D.: Knowledge organization for learning.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.22-32.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: This paper discusses and illustrates through examples how meaningful or deep learning can be supported through well-structured presentation of material, through giving learners schemas they can use to organize knowledge in their minds, and through helping learners to understand knowledge organization principles they can use to construct their own schemas. It is a call to all authors, educators and information designers to pay attention to meaningful presentation that expresses the internal structure of the domain and facilitates the learner's assimilation of concepts and their relationships.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_05.pdf.
8Ahn, J.-w. ; Soergel, D. ; Lin, X. ; Zhang, M.: Mapping between ARTstor terms and the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.184-191.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: To make better use of knowledge organization systems (KOS) for query expansion, we have developed a pattern-based technique for composition ontology mapping in a specific domain. The technique was tested in a two-step mapping. The user's free-text queries were first mapped to Getty's Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) terms. The AAT-based queries were then mapped to a search engine's indexing vocabulary (ARTstor terms). The result indicated that our technique has improved the mapping success rate from 40% to 70%. We discuss also how the technique may be applied to other KOS mapping and how it may be implemented in practical systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_26.pdf.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
Wissenschaftsfach: Architektur ; Kunst
Objekt: ARTstor ; AAT Thesaurus
9Huang, X. ; Soergel, D.: Relevance: an improved framework for explicating the notion.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 64(2013) no.1, S.18-35.
Abstract: Synthesizing and building on many ideas from the literature, this article presents an improved conceptual framework that clarifies the notion of relevance with its many elements, variables, criteria, and situational factors. Relevance is defined as a Relationship (R) between an Information Object (I) and an Information Need (N) (which consists of Topic, User, Problem/Task, and Situation/Context) with focus on R. This defines Relevance-as-is (conceptual relevance, strong relevance). To determine relevance, an Agent A (a person or system) operates on a representation I? of the information object and a representation N? of the information need, resulting in relevance-as-determined (operational measure of relevance, weak relevance, an approximation). Retrieval tests compare relevance-as-determined by different agents. This article discusses and compares two major approaches to conceptualizing relevance: the entity-focused approach (focus on elaborating the entities involved in relevance) and the relationship-focused approach (focus on explicating the relational nature of relevance). The article argues that because relevance is fundamentally a relational construct the relationship-focused approach deserves a higher priority and more attention than it has received. The article further elaborates on the elements of the framework with a focus on clarifying several critical issues on the discourse on relevance.
10Soergel, D.: Conceptual foundations for semantic mapping and semantic search.
In: Concepts in context: Proceedings of the Cologne Conference on Interoperability and Semantics in Knowledge Organization July 19th - 20th, 2010. Eds.: F. Boteram, W. Gödert u. J. Hubrich. Würzburg : Ergon, 2011. S.13-35.
(Bibliotheca Academica - Reihe Informations- und Bibliothekswissenschaften; Bd. 1)
Abstract: This article proposes an approach to mapping between Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS), including ontologies, classifications, taxonomies, and thesauri and even natural languages, that is based on deep semantics. In this approach, concepts in each KOS are expressed through canonical expressions, such as description logic formulas, that combine atomic (or elemental) concepts drawn from a core classification. Relationships between concepts within or across KOS can then be derived by reasoning over the canonical expressions. The canonical expressions can also be used to provide a facet-based query formulation front-end for free-text search. The article illustrates this approach through many examples. It presents methods for the efficient construction of canonical expressions (linguistic analysis, exploiting information in the KOS and their hierarchies, and crowdsourcing) that make this approach feasible.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität
11Soergel, D.: Towards a relation ontology for the Semantic Web.
In: Classification and ontology: formal approaches and access to knowledge: proceedings of the International UDC Seminar, 19-20 September 2011, The Hague, The Netherlands. Eds.: A. Slavic u. E. Civallero. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2011. S.159.
Abstract: The Semantic Web consists of data structured for use by computer programs, such as data sets made available under the Linked Open Data initiative. Much of this data is structured following the entity-relationship model encoded in RDF for syntactic interoperability. For semantic interoperability, the semantics of the relationships used in any given dataset needs to be made explicit. Ultimately this requires an inventory of these relationships structured around a relation ontology. This talk will outline a blueprint for such an inventory, including a format for the description/definition of binary and n-ary relations, drawing on ideas put forth in the classification and thesaurus community over the last 60 years, upper level ontologies, systems like FrameNet, the Buffalo Relation Ontology, and an analysis of linked data sets.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantische Interoperabilität
12Soergel, D.: Digital libraries and knowledge organization.
In: Semantic digital libraries. Eds.: S.R. Kruk, B. McDaniel. Berlin : Springer, 2009. S.9-39.
Abstract: This chapter describes not so much what digital libraries are but what digital libraries with semantic support could and should be. It discusses the nature of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS) and how KOS can support digital library users. It projects a vision for designers to make and for users to demand better digital libraries. What is a digital library? The term \Digital Library" (DL) is used to refer to a range of systems, from digital object and metadata repositories, reference-linking systems, archives, and content management systems to complex systems that integrate advanced digital library services and support for research and practice communities. A DL may offer many technology-enabled functions and services that support users, both as information producers and as information users. Many of these functions appear in information systems that would not normally be considered digital libraries, making boundaries even more blurry. Instead of pursuing the hopeless quest of coming up with the definition of digital library, we present a framework that allows a clear and somewhat standardized description of any information system so that users can select the system(s) that best meet their requirements. Section 2 gives a broad outline for more detail see the DELOS DL Reference Model.
Inhalt: Vgl. die digitale Ausgabe unter: http://www.springerlink.com/content/p416374353100075/.
Themenfeld: Information Gateway ; Wissensrepräsentation
13Komlodi, A. ; Marchionini, G. ; Soergel, D.: Search history support for finding and using information : user interface design recommendations from a user study.
In: Information processing and management. 43(2007) no.1, S.10-29.
Abstract: Recording search histories, presenting them to the searcher, and building additional interface tools on them offer many opportunities for supporting user tasks in information seeking and use. This study investigated the use of search history information in legal information seeking. Qualitative methods were used to explore how attorneys and law librarians used their memory and external memory aids while searching for information and in transferring to information use. Based on the findings, interface design recommendations were made for information systems. Results of the study from the legal user group presented evidence of the usefulness of search histories and history-based interface tools. Both user manifestations and researcher observations revealed that searchers need historical information in information seeking. Search histories were found to be useful in many user tasks: memory support, search system use, information seeking, information use, task management, task integration, and collaboration. Integrating information across various user tasks and collaborating with others are extensions of traditional information-seeking and use models. These findings encouraged the design of user interface tools and guidelines building on search history information.
14Komlodi, A. ; Soergel, D. ; Marchionini, G.: Search histories for user support in user interfaces.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 57(2006) no.6, S.803-897.
Abstract: The authors describe user interface tools based on search histories to support legal information seekers. The design of the tools was informed by the results of a user study (Komlodi, 2002a) that examined the use of human memory, external memory aids, and search histories in legal information seeking and derived interface design recommendations for information storage and retrieval systems. The data collected were analyzed to identify potential task areas where search histories can support information seeking and use. The results show that many information-seeking tasks can take advantage of automatically and manually recorded history information. These findings encouraged the design of user interface tools building on search history information: direct search history displays, history-enabled scratchpad facilities, and organized results collection tools.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einer Special Section "Perspectives on Search User Interfaces: Best Practices and Future Visions"
16Soergel, D.: ¬The rise of ontologies or the reinvention of classification.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.12, S.1119-1120.
Inhalt: Beitrag eines Themenheftes: The 50th Anniversary of the Journal of the American Society for Information Science. Pt.2: Paradigms, models, and models of information science
17Ding, W. ; Soergel, D. ; Marchionini, G.: Performance of visual, verbal, and combined video surrogates.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.651-664.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: This study investigates the information representation power of different modalities in the video data in order to collect empirical evidence for video surrogate creation and thus better support effective video browsing and information retrieval. Three types of video surrogates - keyframe, keyword/phrase, and combination of the two were created and compared under two user tasks-verbal comprehension and visual gisting in user performance and preference. Results and discussions follow
Behandelte Form: Videos
18Wang, P. ; Soergel, D.: ¬A cognitive model of document use during a research project : Study I: Document selection.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 49(1998) no.2, S.115-133.
Abstract: This article proposes a model of document selection by real users of a bibliographic retrieval system. It reports on Part 1 of a longitudinal study of decision making on document use by academics during a actual research project. (Part 2 followed up the same users on how the selected documents were actually used in subsequent stages). The participants are 25 self-selected faculty and graduate students in Agricultural Economics. After a reference interview, the researcher conducted a search of DIALOG databases and prepared a printout. The users selected documents from this printout, They were asked to read and think aloud while selecting documents. There verbal reports were recorded and analyzed from a utiliy-theoretic perspective. The following model of the decision-making in the selection process emerged: document information lemenets (DIEs) in document records provide the information for judging the documents on 11 criteria (including topicality, orientation, quality, novelty, and authority); the criteria judgments are comninded in an assessment of document value along 5 dimensions (Epistemic, functional, conditional, social, and emotional values), leading to the use decision. This model accounts for the use of personal knowledge and decision strategies applied in the selection process. The model has implications for the design of an intelligent document selection assistant
19Soergel, D.: Indexing and retrieval performance : the logical evidence.
In: From classification to 'knowledge organization': Dorking revisited or 'past is prelude'. A collection of reprints to commemorate the firty year span between the Dorking Conference (First International Study Conference on Classification Research 1957) and the Sixth International Study Conference on Classification Research (London 1997). Ed.: A. Gilchrist. The Hague : International Federation for Information and Documentation (FID), 1997. S.85-100.
(FID publication; no.714)(FIC occasional paper; no.14)
Anmerkung: Wiederabdruck aus: JASIS 45(1994) no.8, S.589-599
20Soergel, D.: Data structure and software support for for integrated thesauri.
In: Compatibility and integration of order systems: Research Seminar Proceedings of the TIP/ISKO Meeting, Warsaw, 13-15 September 1995. Warszawa : Stowazys. Bibliotekarzy Polskich, 1996. S. -.
(Propozycje i Materialy; 6)
Themenfeld: Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus