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2Sowa, J.F.: Ontology, metadata, and semiotics.
In: Conceptual structures: logical, linguistic, and computational issues. 8th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2000, Darmstadt, Germany, August 14-18, 2000. Ed.: B. Ganter et al. Berlin : Springer, 2000. S.55-81.
(Lecture notes in computer science; vol.1867: Lecture notes on artificial intelligence)
Abstract: The Internet is a giant semiotic system. It is a massive collection of Peirce's three kinds of signs: icons, which show the form of something; indices, which point to something; and symbols, which represent something according to some convention. But current proposals for ontologies and metadata have overlooked some of the most important features of signs. A sign has three aspects: it is (1) an entity that represents (2) another entity to (3) an agent. By looking only at the signs themselves, some metadata proposals have lost sight of the entities they represent and the agents - human, animal, or robot - which interpret them. With its three branches of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics, semiotics provides guidelines for organizing and using signs to represent something to someone for some purpose. Besides representation, semiotics also supports methods for translating patterns of signs intended for one purpose to other patterns intended for different but related purposes. This article shows how the fundamental semiotic primitives are represented in semantically equivalent notations for logic, including controlled natural languages and various computer languages
Themenfeld: Metadaten ; Begriffstheorie
3Sowa, J.F.: Top-level ontological categories.
In: International journal of human-computer studies. 43(1995) nos.5/6, S.669-685.
Abstract: Surveys ontological questions that arise in artificial intelligence, some of the answers that have been proposed by various philosophers, and an application of the philosophical analysis to the clarification of some current issues in artificial intelligence. Charles Sanders Peirce and Alfred North Whitehead have developed the most complete systems of categories. Their analyses suggest a basic structure of categories that can provide some guidelines for the design of artificial intelligence systems