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1Henderson, L. ; Tallman, J.I.: Stimulated recall and mental models : tools for teaching and learning computer information literacy.
Lanham, MD : Scarecrow Press, 2006. xi, 289 S.
(Research methods in library and information studies ; 2)
Inhalt: Inhalt: The research study - Mental models - Stimulated recall methodology - Mental models emphasizing procedural and product goals - Mental models facilitating procedural and conceptual understanding - The role of stimulated recall in identifying the effects of mental models on teaching - Use of mental models to analyze and understand teachers' pedagogies
Anmerkung: Rez. in: JASIST 58(2007) no.3, S.456-457 (D. Cook): "In February 2006, the Educational Testing Service (ETS) announced the release of its brand new core academic assessment of its Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Literacy Assessment. The core assessment is designed to assess the information literacy of high school students transitioning to higher education. Many of us already know ETS for some of its other assessment tools like the SAT and GRE. But ETS's latest test comes on the heels of its 2005 release of an advanced level of its ICT Literacy Assessment for college students progressing to their junior and senior year of undergraduate studies. Neither test, ETS insists, is designed to be an entrance examination. Rather, they are packaged and promoted as diagnostic assessments. We are in the grips of the Information Age where information literacy is a prized skill. Knowledge is power. However, information literacy is not merely creating flawless documents or slick PowerPoint presentations on a home PC. It is more than being able to send photos and text messages via cell phone. Instead, information literacy is gauged by one's ability to skillfully seek, access, and retrieve valid information from credible and reliable sources and using that information appropriately. It involves strong online search strategies and advanced critical thinking skills. And, although it is not clear whether they seized the opportunity or inherited it by default, librarians are in the vanguard of teaching information literacy to the next generation of would-be power brokers. ; The release of Stimulated Recall and Mental Models, therefore, could not have been timelier. It describes an empirical qualitative, case study research conducted by authors Lyn Henderson and Julie Tallman in which they studied the mental models of school librarians teaching K-12 students how to use electronic databases. In this research, funded by the Spencer Foundation, Henderson and Tallman studied and analyzed the mental models of their subjects, six American and four Australian school librarians, as they went about the task of teaching students one-on-one how to access and retrieve the information they needed for class assignments from electronic databases. Each librarian and student underwent a structured pre-lesson interview to ascertain their mental models (the sum of their prior learning and experiences) regarding the upcoming lesson. The lesson followed immediately and was carefully video- and audio-recorded, with the full knowledge of the librarian and her student. After the lessons, both student and librarian were interviewed with the intent of learning what each were thinking and feeling at specific points during the lesson, using the recordings as memory joggers. After the first librarian-pupil session, the student was freed but the librarian was re-studied tutoring a second learner. Again, the teacher and new student were preinterviewed, their lesson was recorded, and they were debriefed using the recordings for stimulated recall. It is important to note here the use of the recordings to create stimulated recall. Though considered a dubious practice by many respected researchers, Henderson and Tallman expend considerable time and effort in this book trying to establish the credibility of stimulated recall as a valid research tool. I find it interesting that the authors report that their realization of the value of stimulated recall was a collateral benefit of their study; they claim the original objective of their research was to analyze and compare the pre- and post-lesson mental models of the teacher-librarians (p.15). Apparently, this realization provided the inspiration for this book (pp. I & 208). Hence, its place of importance in the book's title. ; This book is evidence that Henderson and Tallman were meticulous in following their established protocols and especially in their record keeping while conducting their research. There are, however, a few issues in the study's framework and methodology that are worth noting. First, although the research was conducted in two different countries - the United Slates and Australia - it is not clear from the writing if the librarian-pupil pairs of each country hailed from the same schools (making the population opportunistic) or if the sampling was indeed more randomly selected. Readers do know, though, that the librarians were free to select the students they tutored from within their respective schools. Thus, there appears to he no randomness. Second, "[t]he data collection tools and questionnaires were grounded in a [single] pilot study with a [single] teacher-Iibrarian" (p. 7). Neither the procedures used nor the data collected from the pilot study are presented to establish its reliability and validity. Therefore, readers are left with only limited confidence in the study's instrumentation. Further, it is obvious from the reading, and admitted by the researchers, that the recording equipment in open view of the study's subjects skewed the data. That is, one of the librarians tinder study confessed that were it not for the cameras, she would have completely deserted one of her lessons when encountering what she perceived to be overwhelming obstacles: a classic example of the Hawthorne Effect in research. Yet. despite these issues, researchers Henderson and Tallman make a respectable ease in this book for the validity of both mental models and stimulated recall. The mental models developed during the prelesson interviews seem remarkably accurate when observing the school librarians during the lessons. Additionally, while the librarians were able to adapt their lessons based on situations, they generally did so within their mental models of what constitutes good teachers and good teaching. ; As for the value of reflecting on their teaching performance, the authors report the not-so-startling denouement that while it is easy to identify and define malpractice and to commit to changing performance errors, it is often difficult to actually implement those improvements. Essentially, what is first learned is best learned and what is most used is best used. In the end, however, the authors rightfully call for further study to be conducted by themselves and others. ETS's core ICT Literacy Assessment is not currently a mandatory college entrance examination. Neither is the advanced ICT Literacy Assessment a mandatory examination for promotion to upper level undergraduate studies. But it would be naïve not to expect some enterprising institutions of higher education to at least consider making them so in the very near future. Consequently, librarians of all stripes (public. academic, school, or others) would do well to read and study Stimulated Recall and Mental Models if they are truly committed to leading the charge on advancing information literacy in the Information Age. In this book are some valuable how-tos for instructing patrons on searching electronic databases. And some of those same principles could be applicable to other areas of information literacy instruction."
LCSH: Electronic information resource literacy / Study and teaching / Evaluation ; Teacher / librarians / Psychology
BK: 05.38 / Neue elektronische Medien
; 02.02 / Wissenschaftstheorie
DDC: 025.04/072 / dc22
LCC: ZA4065.H46 2006