Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1Freund, L. ; Toms, E.G.: Interacting with archival finding aids.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.4, S.994-1008.
Abstract: This research aimed to gain a detailed understanding of how genealogists and historians interact with, and make use of, finding aids in print and digital form. The study uses the lens of human information interaction to investigate finding aid use. Data were collected through a lab-based study of 32 experienced archives' users who completed two tasks with each of two finding aids. Participants were able to carry out the tasks, but they were somewhat challenged by the structure of the finding aid and employed various techniques to cope. Their patterns of interaction differed by task type and they reported higher rates of satisfaction, ease of use, and clarity for the assessment task than the known-item task. Four common patterns of interaction were identified: top-down, bottom-up, interrogative, and opportunistic. Results show how users interact with findings aids and identify features that support and hinder use. This research examines process and performance in addition to outcomes. Results contribute to the archival science literature and also suggest ways to extend models of human information interaction.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23436/abstract.
2McCay-Peet, L. ; Toms, E.G.: Investigating serendipity : how it unfolds and what may influence it.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.7, S.1463-1476.
Abstract: Serendipity is not an easy word to define. Its meaning has been stretched to apply to experiences ranging from the mundane to the exceptional. Serendipity, however, is consistently associated with unexpected and positive personal, scholarly, scientific, organizational, and societal events and discoveries. Diverse serendipitous experiences share a conceptual space; therefore, what lessons can we draw from an exploration of how serendipity unfolds and what may influence it? This article describes an investigation of work-related serendipity. Twelve professionals and academics from a variety of fields were interviewed. The core of the semi-structured interviews focused on participants' own work-related experiences that could be recalled and discussed in depth. This research validated and augmented prior research while consolidating previous models of serendipity into a single model of the process of serendipity, consisting of: Trigger, Connection, Follow-up, and Valuable Outcome, and an Unexpected Thread that runs through 1 or more of the first 4 elements. Together, the elements influence the Perception of Serendipity. Furthermore, this research identified what factors relating to the individual and their environment may facilitate the main elements of serendipity and further influence its perception.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23273/abstract.
3Wildemuth, B. ; Freund, L. ; Toms, E.G.: Untangling search task complexity and difficulty in the context of interactive information retrieval studies.
In: Journal of documentation. 70(2014) no.6, S.1118-1140.
Abstract: Purpose - One core element of interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments is the assignment of search tasks. The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical review of current practice in developing those search tasks to test, observe or control task complexity and difficulty. Design/methodology/approach - Over 100 prior studies of IIR were examined in terms of how each defined task complexity and/or difficulty (or related concepts) and subsequently interpreted those concepts in the development of the assigned search tasks. Findings - Search task complexity is found to include three dimensions: multiplicity of subtasks or steps, multiplicity of facets, and indeterminability. Search task difficulty is based on an interaction between the search task and the attributes of the searcher or the attributes of the search situation. The paper highlights the anomalies in our use of these two concepts, concluding with suggestions for future methodological research related to search task complexity and difficulty. Originality/value - By analyzing and synthesizing current practices, this paper provides guidance for future experiments in IIR that involve these two constructs.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special Issue: Festschrift in honour of Nigel Ford
4Dufour, C. ; Bartlett, J.C. ; Toms, E.G.: Understanding how webcasts are used as sources of information.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 62(2011) no.2, S.343-362.
Abstract: Webcasting systems were developed to provide remote access in real-time to live events. Today, these systems have an additional requirement: to accommodate the "second life" of webcasts as archival information objects. Research to date has focused on facilitating the production and storage of webcasts as well as the development of more interactive and collaborative multimedia tools to support the event, but research has not examined how people interact with a webcasting system to access and use the contents of those archived events. Using an experimental design, this study examined how 16 typical users interact with a webcasting system to respond to a set of information tasks: selecting a webcast, searching for specific information, and making a gist of a webcast. Using several data sources that included user actions, user perceptions, and user explanations of their actions and decisions, the study also examined the strategies employed to complete the tasks. The results revealed distinctive system-use patterns for each task and provided insights into the types of tools needed to make webcasting systems better suited for also using the webcasts as information objects.
5Toms, E.G.: Task-based information searching and retrieval.
In: Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval. Eds.: Ruthven, I. u. D. Kelly. London : Facet Publ., 2011. S.43-59.
6O'Brien, H.L. ; Toms, E.G.: ¬The development and evaluation of a survey to measure user engagement.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 61(2010) no.1, S.50-69.
Abstract: Facilitating engaging user experiences is essential in the design of interactive systems. To accomplish this, it is necessary to understand the composition of this construct and how to evaluate it. Building on previous work that posited a theory of engagement and identified a core set of attributes that operationalized this construct, we constructed and evaluated a multidimensional scale to measure user engagement. In this paper we describe the development of the scale, as well as two large-scale studies (N=440 and N=802) that were undertaken to assess its reliability and validity in online shopping environments. In the first we used Reliability Analysis and Exploratory Factor Analysis to identify six attributes of engagement: Perceived Usability, Aesthetics, Focused Attention, Felt Involvement, Novelty, and Endurability. In the second we tested the validity of and relationships among those attributes using Structural Equation Modeling. The result of this research is a multidimensional scale that may be used to test the engagement of software applications. In addition, findings indicate that attributes of engagement are highly intertwined, a complex interplay of user-system interaction variables. Notably, Perceived Usability played a mediating role in the relationship between Endurability and Novelty, Aesthetics, Felt Involvement, and Focused Attention.
7Toms, E.G.: User-centered design of information systems.
In: Encyclopedia of library and information sciences. 3rd ed. Ed.: M.J. Bates. London : Taylor & Francis, 2009. S.xx-xx.
Abstract: User-centered design (UCD) emerged a couple of decades ago because people had difficulties in using systems. It is founded on the principle that users need to be involved in the design and development process for systems to be truly usable-efficient, effective, and satisfying. This entry provides an account of the background-the technological and social forces that affect the evolution of systems development, an explanation of the theoretical foundation on which UCD is build, and a description of a typical UCD process.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/book/10.1081/E-ELIS3.
8O'Brien, H.L. ; Toms, E.G.: What is user engagement? : a conceptual framework for defining user engagement with technology.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 59(2008) no.6, S.938-955.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to critically deconstruct the term engagement as it applies to peoples' experiences with technology. Through an extensive, critical multidisciplinary literature review and exploratory study of users of Web searching, online shopping, Webcasting, and gaming applications, we conceptually and operationally defined engagement. Building on past research, we conducted semistructured interviews with the users of four applications to explore their perception of being engaged with the technology. Results indicate that engagement is a process comprised of four distinct stages: point of engagement, period of sustained engagement, disengagement, and reengagement. Furthermore, the process is characterized by attributes of engagement that pertain to the user, the system, and user-system interaction. We also found evidence of the factors that contribute to nonengagement. Emerging from this research is a definition of engagement - a term not defined consistently in past work - as a quality of user experience characterized by attributes of challenge, positive affect, endurability, aesthetic and sensory appeal, attention, feedback, variety/novelty, interactivity, and perceived user control. This exploratory work provides the foundation for future work to test the conceptual model in various application areas, and to develop methods to measure engaging user experiences.
9Toms, E.G. ; O'Brien, H.L.: Understanding the information and communication technology needs of the e-humanist.
In: Journal of documentation. 64(2008) no.1, S.102-130.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand the needs of humanists with respect to information and communication technology (ICT) in order to prescribe the design of an e-humanist's workbench. Design/methodology/approach - A web-based survey comprising over 60 questions gathered the following data from 169 humanists: profile of the humanist, use of ICT in teaching, e-texts, text analysis tools, access to and use of primary and secondary sources, and use of collaboration and communication tools. Findings - Humanists conduct varied forms of research and use multiple techniques. They rely on the availability of inexpensive, quality-controlled e-texts for their research. The existence of primary sources in digital form influences the type of research conducted. They are unaware of existing tools for conducting text analyses, but expressed a need for better tools. Search engines have replaced the library catalogue as the key access tool for sources. Research continues to be solitary with little collaboration among scholars. Research limitations/implications - The results are based on a self-selected sample of humanists who responded to a web-based survey. Future research needs to examine the work of the scholar at a more detailed level, preferably through observation and/or interviewing. Practical implications - The findings support a five-part framework that could serve as the basis for the design of an e-humanist's workbench. Originality/value - The paper examines the needs of the humanist, founded on an integration of information science research and humanities computing for a more comprehensive understanding of the humanist at work.
10Bartlett, J.C. ; Toms, E.G.: Developing a protocol for bioinformatics analysis : an integrated information behavior and task analysis approach.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.5, S.469-482.
Abstract: The purpose of this research is to capture, understand, and model the process used by bioinformatics analysts when facing a specific scientific problem. Integrating information behavior with task analysis, we interviewed 20 bioinformatics experts about the process they follow to conduct a typical bioinformatics analysis - a functional analysis of a gene, and then used a task analysis approach to model that process. We found that each expert followed a unique process in using bioinformatics resources, but had significant similarities with their peers. We synthesized these unique processes into a standard research protocol, from which we developed a procedural model that describes the process of conducting a functional analysis of a gene. The model protocol consists of a series of 16 individual steps, each of which specifies detail for the type of analysis, how and why it is conducted, the tools used, the data input and output, and the interpretation of the results. The linking of information behavior and task analysis research is a novel approach, as it provides a rich high-level view of information behavior while providing a detailed analysis at the task level. In this article we concentrate on the latter.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem special issue on bioinformatics
11Toms, E.G. ; Freund, L. ; Li, C.: WilRE: the Web Interactive information retrieval experimentation system prototype.
In: Information processing and management. 40(2004) no.4, S.655-676.
Abstract: We introduce WiIRE, a prototype system for conducting interactive information retrieval (IIR) experiments via the Internet. We conceived Wi IRE to increase validity while streamlining procedures and adding efficiencies to the conduct of IIR experiments. The system incorporates password-controlled access, online questionnaires, study instructions and tutorials, conditional interface assignment, and conditional query assignment as well as provision for data collection. As an initial evaluation, we used WiIRE inhouse to conduct a Web-based IIR experiment using an external search engine with customized search interfaces and the TREC 11 Interactive Track search queries. Our evaluation of the prototype indicated significant cost efficiencies in the conduct of IIR studies, and additionally had some novel findings about the human perspective: about half participants would have preferred some personal contact with the researcher, and participants spent a significantly decreasing amount of time on tasks over the course of a session.
12Toms, E.G. ; Taves, A.R.: Measuring user perceptions of Web site reputation.
In: Information processing and management. 40(2004) no.2, S.291-317.
Abstract: In this study, we compare a search tool, TOPIC, with three other widely used tools that retrieve information from the Web: AltaVista, Google, and Lycos. These tools use different techniques for outputting and ranking Web sites: external link structure (TOPIC and Google) and semantic content analysis (AltaVista and Lycos). TOPIC purports to output, and highly rank within its hit list, reputable Web sites for searched topics. In this study, 80 participants reviewed the output (i.e., highly ranked sites) from each tool and assessed the quality of retrieved sites. The 4800 individual assessments of 240 sites that represent 12 topics indicated that Google tends to identify and highly rank significantly more reputable Web sites than TOPIC, which, in turn, outputs more than AltaVista and Lycos, but this was not consistent from topic to topic. Metrics derived from reputation research were used in the assessment and a factor analysis was employed to identify a key factor, which we call 'repute'. The results of this research include insight into the factors that Web users consider in formulating perceptions of Web site reputation, and insight into which search tools are outputting reputable sites for Web users. Our findings, we believe, have implications for Web users and suggest the need for future research to assess the relationship between Web page characteristics and their perceived reputation.
Objekt: TOPIC ; Google ; AltaVista ; Lycos
13Toms, E.G. ; Duff, W.: "I spent 1 1/2 hours sifting through one large box ..." : diaries as information behavior of the archives user: lessons learned.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.14, S.1232-1238.
Abstract: This article describes how diaries were implemented in a study of the use of archives and archival finding aids by history graduate students. The issues concerning diary use as a data collection technique are discussed as well as the different types of diaries.
14Toms, E.G.: Information interaction : providing a framework for information architcture.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 53(2002) no.10, S.855-862.
Abstract: Information interaction is the process that people use in interacting with the content of an information system. Information architecture is a blueprint and navigational aid to the content of information-rich systems. As such information architecture performs an important supporting rote in information interactivity. This article elaborates an a model of information interactivity that crosses the "no-man's land" between user and computer articulating a model that includes user, content and system, illustrating the context for information architecture.
Anmerkung: Teil eines Themenschwerpunktes Information architecture
15Toms, E.G. ; Campbell, D.G. ; Blades, R.: Does genre define the shape of information? : the role of form and function in user interaction with digital documents.
In: Knowledge: creation, organization and use. Proceedings of the 62nd Annual Meeting of the American Society for Information Science, 31.10.-4.11.1999. Ed.: L. Woods. Medford, NJ : Information Today, 1999. S.693-704.
(Proceedings of the American Society for Information Science; vol.36)
Abstract: Documents belonging to a genre have a definite structure which has evolved within specific discourse communities to the point where its use is fixed and standardized. We speculate that such a structure exhibits a strong visual cue, facilitating document recognition and defining a shape of information. To test the concept of shape, 72 participants from two groups (half currently working in an academic setting and half from the general public) examined 24 documents typically used in the academic environment. The documents were in three versions: one based on form, in which the text was masked, leaving only the layout, a second based on content, in which the document was reduced to its semantic information only, and the full version, the original unaltered document. On examining each of the 24 documents (e.g., journal article, call for papers, annotated bibliography) in one of the three versions, participants identified: the type of document and, its recognizable and/or unfamiliar features. In addition, they assessed 8 print versions of the form document for suggestive features of shape. Two variables were tested: the genre element (form or content) and the participant's membership in the academic community. Not unexpectedly, participants identified more documents in the Full and Content versions than the Form versions. But Form versions were recognized twice as quickly as the other two versions. Thus when document shape was evident, the document was immediately discernible to participants; when participants were required to read the semantic content for a gist of the document and an extrapolation of its contents, it took more time. Surprisingly, discourse community had no effect
16Toms, E.G.: What motivates the browser?.
In: Exploring the contexts of information behaviour: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 13-15 August 1998, Sheffield, UK. Ed. by D.K. Wilson u. D.K. Allen. London : Taylor Graham Publ., 1999. S.191-208.
Abstract: Browsing is considered to be unstructured and human-driven, although not a cognitively intensive process. It is conducted using systems that facilitate considerable user-system interactivity. Cued by the content, people immerse themselves in a topic of interest and meander from topic to topic while concurrently recognising interesting and informative information en route. They seem to seek and gather information in a purposeless, illogical and indiscriminate manner. Typical examples of these ostensibly random acts are scanning a non-fiction book, examining the morning newspaper, perusing the contents of a business report and scavenging the World Wide Web. Often the result is the acquisition of new information, the rejection or confirmation of an idea, or the genesis of new, perhaps not-wholly-formed thoughts about a topic. Noteworthy about this approach is that people explore information without having consciously structured queries or explicit goals. This form of passive information interaction behaviour is defined as acquiring and gathering information while scanning an information space without a specific goal in mind (Waterworth & Chignell, 1991; Toms, 1997), and for the purposes of this study, is called browsing. Traditionally, browsing is thought of in two ways: as a physical process - the action taken when one scans a list, a document, or a set of linked information nodes (e.g., Fox & Palay, 1979; Thompson & Croft, 1989; Ellis, 1989), and as a conceptual process, information seeking when the goal is ill-defined (e.g., Cove & Walsh, 1987). Browsing is also combined with searching in an integrated information-seeking process for retrieving information (e.g., Ellis, 1989; Belkin, Marchetti & Cool, 1993; Marchionini, 1995; Chang, 1995). Each of these cases focuses primarily on seeking information when the objective ranges from fuzzy to explicit.
17Toms, E.G. ; Kinnucan, M.T.: ¬The effectiveness of the electronic city metaphor for organizing the menus of free-nets.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 47(1996) no.12, S.919-931.
Abstract: Metaphors are used in the design of systems to ameliorate complxities, to exploit prior knowledge, and to enhace the user's understanding of the system. In this study, we examined the electronic city metaphor adopted by Free-Nets, the average citizen's medium for accessing electronic community information. The electronic city metaphor represents a categorized set of menus as buildings in a mythical city. To examnie this metaphor, we compared the performance of 2 groups of university student subjects who used a simulated Free-Net to find answers to simple factual questions. One group used an interface that embodied the electronic city metaphor, while the other group used an interface with labels composed from everyday language. Subjects used the simulated Free-Net in 2 sessions, about a week apart. Results were assessed using 3 performance measures: Number of top-level menu choices used, number of correct answers, and amout of time taken to respond to questions. Preference ratings were also obtained. Results indicated that both groups performed about equally in the first session, but that only the subjects who used the everyday language menu showed a learning effect over time. Subjects in both groups expressed a definite preference for the non-metaphor interface. The results raise questions about the utility of this type of metaphor, especially to represent categorized lists
18Toms, E.G.: Free-Neets : delivering information to the community.
In: Public libraries. 33(1994) no.6, S.311-315.
Abstract: Computer-based systems are increasingly used by society for everyday activities. Yet these systems are rarely exploited to meet personal information needs. One development that may change this imbalance is the community online system. This paper examines one type of community online system, the Free-Net, and discusses its usefulness in delivering the information and services typically provided by community information centers