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1Tononi, G.: Integrated information theory of consciousness : an updated account.
In: Archives Italiennes de Biologie. 150(2012), S.290-326.
Abstract: This article presents an updated account of integrated information theory of consciousness (IIT) and some of its implications. IIT stems from thought experiments that lead to phenomenological axioms (existence, compositionality, information, integration, exclusion) and corresponding ontological postulates. The information axiom asserts that every experience is specific - it is what it is by differing in its particular way from a large repertoire of alternatives. The integration axiom asserts that each experience is unified - it cannot be reduced to independent components. The exclusion axiom asserts that every experience is definite - it is limited to particular things and not others and flows at a particular speed and resolution. IIT formalizes these intuitions with postulates. The information postulate states that only "differences that make a difference" from the intrinsic perspective of a system matter: a mechanism generates cause-effect information if its present state has selective past causes and selective future effects within a system. The integration postulate states that only information that is irreducible matters: mechanisms generate integrated information only to the extent that the information they generate cannot be partitioned into that generated within independent components. The exclusion postulate states that only maxima of integrated information matter: a mechanism specifies only one maximally irreducible set of past causes and future effects - a concept. A complex is a set of elements specifying a maximally irreducible constellation of concepts, where the maximum is evaluated over elements and at the optimal spatio-temporal scale. Its concepts specify a maximally integrated conceptual information structure or quale, which is identical with an experience. Finally, changes in information integration upon exposure to the environment reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world. After introducing an updated definition of information integration and related quantities, the article presents some theoretical considerations about the relationship between information and causation and about the relational structure of concepts within a quale. It also explores the relationship between the temporal grain size of information integration and the dynamic of metastable states in the corticothalamic complex. Finally, it summarizes how IIT accounts for empirical findings about the neural substrate of consciousness, and how various aspects of phenomenology may in principle be addressed in terms of the geometry of information integration.
Objekt: Integrated information theory
2Tononi, G.: Phi : a voyage from the brain to the soul.
New York : Pantheon Books, 2012. XII, 364 S.
Abstract: From one of the most original and influential neuroscientists at work today, here is an exploration of consciousness unlike any other-as told by Galileo, who opened the way for the objectivity of science and is now intent on making subjective experience a part of science as well. Giulio Tononi is one of the most creative and the most influential neurologists in the world nowadays. Tononis way of exploring consciousness is different from those of the others, which is that his course of exploring consciousness is narrated by Galileo who used to pave the way for the objectivity of science and devoted himself to making subjective experience a part of science in the book Phi:a Voyage from the Brain to the Soul. Galileo's journey has three parts, each with a different guide. In the first, accompanied by a scientist who resembles Francis Crick, he learns why certain parts of the brain are important and not others, and why consciousness fades with sleep. In the second part, when his companion seems to be named Alturi (Galileo is hard of hearing; his companion's name is actually Alan Turing), he sees how the facts assembled in the first part can be unified and understood through a scientific theory-a theory that links consciousness to the notion of integrated information (also known as phi). In the third part, accompanied by a bearded man who can only be Charles Darwin, he meditates on how consciousness is an evolving, developing, ever-deepening awareness of ourselves in history and culture-that it is everything we have and everything we are. Not since Gödel, Escher, Bach has there been a book that interweaves science, art, and the imagination with such originality. This beautiful and arresting narrative will transform the way we think of ourselves and the world.
LCSH: Consciousness / Physiological aspects ; Brain / Physiology ; Mind and body ; Neuropsychology
RSWK: Bewusstsein / Gehirn / Physiologie / Leib-Seele-Problem
BK: 77.50 (Psychophysiologie) ; 77.47 (Bewußtseinszustände) ; 44.37 (Physiologie)
DDC: 612.8 / dc23
GHBS: TUP ; TZH
3Tononi, G.: Consciousness as integrated information : a provisional manifesto.
In: Biological bulletin. 215(2008) no.3, S.216-42.
Abstract: The integrated information theory (IIT) starts from phenomenology and makes use of thought experiments to claim that consciousness is integrated information. Specifically: (i) the quantity of consciousness corresponds to the amount of integrated information generated by a complex of elements; (ii) the quality of experience is specified by the set of informational relationships generated within that complex. Integrated information (Phi) is defined as the amount of information generated by a complex of elements, above and beyond the information generated by its parts. Qualia space (Q) is a space where each axis represents a possible state of the complex, each point is a probability distribution of its states, and arrows between points represent the informational relationships among its elements generated by causal mechanisms (connections). Together, the set of informational relationships within a complex constitute a shape in Q that completely and univocally specifies a particular experience. Several observations concerning the neural substrate of consciousness fall naturally into place within the IIT framework. Among them are the association of consciousness with certain neural systems rather than with others; the fact that neural processes underlying consciousness can influence or be influenced by neural processes that remain unconscious; the reduction of consciousness during dreamless sleep and generalized seizures; and the distinct role of different cortical architectures in affecting the quality of experience. Equating consciousness with integrated information carries several implications for our view of nature.
Inhalt: Vgl.: 10.2307/25470707.
4Edelman, G.M. ; Tononi, G.: Gehirn und Geist : Wie aus Materie Bewusstsein entsteht.Aus dem Engl. von Susanne Kuhlmann-Krieg.
München : C.H. Beck, 2002. 380 S.
Abstract: Was geht vor, wenn in unserem Gehirn etwas vorgeht? Wie werden die verschiedenen neuronalen Systeme für die Verarbeitung eines Reizes miteinander verknüpft? Die Erforschung des Bewusstseins zählt zum spannendsten, was die Wissenschaft derzeit zu bieten hat. Obwohl wir einerseits genau zu wissen glauben, was Bewusstsein ist, tun wir uns schon als Laien außerordentlich schwer, dies zu erklären. Die Antworten der Autoren auf diese Fragen sind sehr umfassend und geben die neuesten Erkenntnisse wieder. Eines ist den Autoren allerdings auch klar: Die Einzigartigkeit des menschlichen Geistes werden wir mit wissenschaftlichen Mitteln allein nie völlig verstehen können
Anmerkung: Originaltitel: A universe of consciousness
RSWK: Gehirn / Bewusstsein (DNB) ; Neurophysiologie (BVB) ; Geist / Bewusstsein / Kognition (BVB) ; Gehirn / Bewusstsein / Erkenntnis (BVB) ; Bewusstsein / Physiologische Psychologie (BVB) ; Bewusstsein / Gehirn (BVB)
BK: 77.50 / Psychophysiologie ; 77.31 / Kognition ; 08.32 / Erkenntnistheorie
RVK: CZ 1000 Psychologie / Grenzgebiete der Psychologie / Physiologische Psychologie ; CC 4400 ; DF 4500