Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Wakeling, S. ; Spezi, V. ; Fry, J. ; Creaser, C. ; Pinfield, S. ; Willett, P.: Academic communities : the role of journals and open-access mega-journals in scholarly communication.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.1, S.120-139.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into publication practices from the perspective of academics working within four disciplinary communities: biosciences, astronomy/physics, education and history. The paper explores the ways in which these multiple overlapping communities intersect with the journal landscape and the implications for the adoption and use of new players in the scholarly communication system, particularly open-access mega-journals (OAMJs). OAMJs (e.g. PLOS ONE and Scientific Reports) are large, broad scope, open-access journals that base editorial decisions solely on the technical/scientific soundness of the article. Design/methodology/approach Focus groups with active researchers in these fields were held in five UK Higher Education Institutions across Great Britain, and were complemented by interviews with pro-vice-chancellors for research at each institution. Findings A strong finding to emerge from the data is the notion of researchers belonging to multiple overlapping communities, with some inherent tensions in meeting the requirements for these different audiences. Researcher perceptions of evaluation mechanisms were found to play a major role in attitudes towards OAMJs, and interviews with the pro-vice-chancellors for research indicate that there is a difference between researchers' perceptions and the values embedded in institutional frameworks. Originality/value This is the first purely qualitative study relating to researcher perspectives on OAMJs. The findings of the paper will be of interest to publishers, policy-makers, research managers and academics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2018-0067.
Themenfeld: Elektronisches Publizieren
2Spezi, V. ; Wakeling, S. ; Pinfield, S. ; Creaser, C. ; Fry, J. ; Willett, P.: Open-access mega-journals : the future of scholarly communication or academic dumping ground? a review.
In: Journal of documentation. 73(2017) no.2, S.263-283.
Abstract: Purpose Open-access mega-journals (OAMJs) represent an increasingly important part of the scholarly communication landscape. OAMJs, such as PLOS ONE, are large scale, broad scope journals that operate an open access business model (normally based on article-processing charges), and which employ a novel form of peer review, focussing on scientific "soundness" and eschewing judgement of novelty or importance. The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses relating to OAMJs, and their place within scholarly publishing, and considers attitudes towards mega-journals within the academic community. Design/methodology/approach This paper presents a review of the literature of OAMJs structured around four defining characteristics: scale, disciplinary scope, peer review policy, and economic model. The existing scholarly literature was augmented by searches of more informal outputs, such as blogs and e-mail discussion lists, to capture the debate in its entirety. Findings While the academic literature relating specifically to OAMJs is relatively sparse, discussion in other fora is detailed and animated, with debates ranging from the sustainability and ethics of the mega-journal model, to the impact of soundness-only peer review on article quality and discoverability, and the potential for OAMJs to represent a paradigm-shifting development in scholarly publishing. Originality/value This paper represents the first comprehensive review of the mega-journal phenomenon, drawing not only on the published academic literature, but also grey, professional and informal sources. The paper advances a number of ways in which the role of OAMJs in the scholarly communication environment can be conceptualised.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-06-2016-0082.
Themenfeld: Elektronisches Publizieren
3Li, X. ; Cox, A. ; Ford, N. ; Creaser, C. ; Fry, J. ; Willett, P.: Knowledge construction by users : a content analysis framework and a knowledge construction process model for virtual product user communities.
In: Journal of documentation. 73(2017) no.2, S.284-304.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a content analysis framework and from that derive a process model of knowledge construction in the context of virtual product user communities, organization sponsored online forums where product users collaboratively construct knowledge to solve their technical problems. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on a deductive and qualitative content analysis of discussion threads about solving technical problems selected from a series of virtual product user communities. Data are complemented with thematic analysis of interviews with forum members. Findings The research develops a content analysis framework for knowledge construction. It is based on a combination of existing codes derived from frameworks developed for computer-supported collaborative learning and new categories identified from the data. Analysis using this framework allows the authors to propose a knowledge construction process model showing how these elements are organized around a typical "trial and error" knowledge construction strategy. Practical implications The research makes suggestions about organizations' management of knowledge activities in virtual product user communities, including moderators' roles in facilitation. Originality/value The paper outlines a new framework for analysing knowledge activities where there is a low level of critical thinking and a model of knowledge construction by trial and error. The new framework and model can be applied in other similar contexts.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2016-0060.
4Li, J. ; Willett, P.: ArticleRank : a PageRank-based alternative to numbers of citations for analysing citation networks.
In: Aslib proceedings. 61(2009) no.6, S.605-618.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to suggest an alternative to the widely used Times Cited criterion for analysing citation networks. The approach involves taking account of the natures of the papers that cite a given paper, so as to differentiate between papers that attract the same number of citations. Design/methodology/approach - ArticleRank is an algorithm that has been derived from Google's PageRank algorithm to measure the influence of journal articles. ArticleRank is applied to two datasets - a citation network based on an early paper on webometrics, and a self-citation network based on the 19 most cited papers in the Journal of Documentation - using citation data taken from the Web of Knowledge database. Findings - ArticleRank values provide a different ranking of a set of papers from that provided by the corresponding Times Cited values, and overcomes the inability of the latter to differentiate between papers with the same numbers of citations. The difference in rankings between Times Cited and ArticleRank is greatest for the most heavily cited articles in a dataset. Originality/value - This is a novel application of the PageRank algorithm.
Themenfeld: Retrievalalgorithmen ; Informetrie
Objekt: ArticleRank ; PageRank
5Willett, P.: From chemical documentation to chemoinformatics : 50 years of chemical information science.
In: Information science in transition, Ed.: A. Gilchrist. London : Facet Publ., 2009. S.129-168.
Abstract: This paper summarizes the historical development of the discipline that is now called 'chemoinformatics'. It shows how this has evolved, principally as a result of technological developments in chemistry and biology during the past decade, from long-established techniques for the modelling and searching of chemical molecules. A total of 30 papers, the earliest dating back to 1957, are briefly summarized to highlight some of the key publications and to show the development of the discipline.
7Artymiuk, P.J. ; Spriggs, R.V. ; Willett, P.: Graph theoretic methods for the analysis of structural relationships in biological macromolecules.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.5, S.518-528.
Abstract: Subgraph isomorphism and maximum common subgraph isomorphism algorithms from graph theory provide an effective and an efficient way of identifying structural relationships between biological macromolecules. They thus provide a natural complement to the pattern matching algorithms that are used in bioinformatics to identify sequence relationships. Examples are provided of the use of graph theory to analyze proteins for which three-dimensional crystallographic or NMR structures are available, focusing on the use of the Bron-Kerbosch clique detection algorithm to identify common folding motifs and of the Ullmann subgraph isomorphism algorithm to identify patterns of amino acid residues. Our methods are also applicable to other types of biological macromolecule, such as carbohydrate and nucleic acid structures.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem special issue on bioinformatics
9Robertson, A.M. ; Willett, P.: Applications of n-grams in textual information systems.
In: Journal of documentation. 54(1998) no.1, S.48-69.
Abstract: Provides an introduction to the use of n-grams in textual information systems, where an n-gram is a string of n, usually adjacent, characters, extracted from a section of continuous text. Applications that can be implemented efficiently and effectively using sets of n-grams include spelling errors detection and correction, query expansion, information retrieval with serial, inverted and signature files, dictionary look up, text compression, and language identification
Inhalt: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/EUM0000000007161.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval
10Clarke, S.J. ; Willett, P.: Estimating the recall performance of Web search engines.
In: Aslib proceedings. 49(1997) no.7, S.184-189.
Abstract: Reports a comparison of the retrieval effectiveness of the AltaVista, Excite and Lycos Web search engines. Describes a method for comparing the recall of the 3 sets of searches, despite the fact that they are carried out on non identical sets of Web pages. It is thus possible, unlike previous comparative studies of Web search engines, to consider both recall and precision when evaluating the effectiveness of search engines
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Retrievalstudien
Objekt: AltaVista ; Lycos ; Excite
11Ellis, D. ; Furner, J. ; Willett, P.: On the creation of hypertext links in full-text documents : measurement of retrieval effectiveness.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 47(1996) no.4, S.287-300.
Abstract: An important stage in the process or retrieval of objects from a hypertext database is the creation of a set of internodal links that are intended to represent the relationships existing between objects; this operation is often undertaken manually, just as index terms are often manually assigned to documents in a conventional retrieval system. In an earlier article (1994), the results were published of a study in which several different sets of links were inserted, each by a different person, between the paragraphs of each of a number of full-text documents. These results showed little similarity between the link-sets, a finding that was comparable with those of studies of inter-indexer consistency, which suggest that there is generally only a low level of agreement between the sets of index terms assigned to a document by different indexers. In this article, a description is provided of an investigation into the nature of the relationship existing between (i) the levels of inter-linker consistency obtaining among the group of hypertext databases used in our earlier experiments, and (ii) the levels of effectiveness of a number of searches carried out in those databases. An account is given of the implementation of the searches and of the methods used in the calculation of numerical values expressing their effectiveness. Analysis of the results of a comparison between recorded levels of consistency and those of effectiveness does not allow us to draw conclusions about the consistency - effectiveness relationship that are equivalent to those drawn in comparable studies of inter-indexer consistency
Themenfeld: Volltextretrieval ; Indexierungsstudien
12Robertson, M. ; Willett, P.: ¬An upperbound to the performance of ranked output searching : optimal weighting of query terms using a genetic algorithms.
In: Journal of documentation. 52(1996) no.4, S.405-420.
Abstract: Describes the development of a genetic algorithm (GA) for the assignment of weights to query terms in a ranked output document retrieval system. The GA involves a fitness function that is based on full relevance information, and the rankings resulting from the use of these weights are compared with the Robertson-Sparck Jones F4 retrospective relevance weight
13Furner, J. ; Willett, P.: ¬A survey of hypertext-based public-access point-of-information systems in UK libraries.
In: Journal of information science. 21(1995) no.4, S.243-255.
Abstract: We have recently completed a survey of the operational use of hypertext-based information systems in academic, public and special libraries in the UK. A literatur search, questionnaire and both telephone and face-to-face interviews demonstrate that the principle application of hypertext systems is for the implementation of public-access point-of-information systems, which provide guidance to the users of local information resources. In this paper, we describe the principle issuse relating to the design and usage of these systems that were raised in the interviews and that we experienced when using the systems for ourselves. We then present a set of technical recommendations with the intention of helping the developers of future systems, with special attention being given to the need to develop effective methods for system evaluation
Themenfeld: Hypertext ; Informationsdienstleistungen ; OPAC
14Robertson, A.M. ; Willett, P.: Use of genetic algorithms in information retrieval.
London : British Library Research and Development Department, 1995. 63 S.
(BLRD report; 6201)
Abstract: Reviews the basic techniques involving genetic algorithms and their application to 2 problems in information retrieval: the generation of equifrequent groups of index terms; and the identification of optimal query and term weights. The algorithm developed for the generation of equifrequent groupings proved to be effective in operation, achieving results comparable with those obtained using a good deterministic algorithm. The algorithm developed for the identification of optimal query and term weighting involves fitness function that is based on full relevance information
15Ingwersen, P. ; Willett, P.: ¬An introduction to algorithmic and cognitive approaches for information retrieval.
In: Libri. 45(1995) nos.3/4, S.160-177.
Abstract: This paper provides an over-view of 2, complementary approaches to the design and implementation of information retrieval systems. The first approach focuses on the algorithms and data structures that are needed to maximise the effectiveness and the efficiency of the searches that can be carried out on text databases, while the second adopts a cognitive approach that focuses on the role of the user and of the knowledge sources involved in information retrieval. The paper argues for an holistic view of information retrieval that is capable of encompassing both of these approaches
16Jones, G. ; Robertson, A.M. ; Willett, P.: ¬An introduction to genetic algorithms and to their use in information retrieval.
In: Online and CD-ROM review. 18(1994) no.1, S.3-12.
Abstract: This paper provides an introduction to genetic algorithms, a new approach to the investigation of computationally-intensive problems that may be insoluble using conventional, deterministic approaches. A genetic algorithm takes an initial set of possible starting solutions and then iteratively improves theses solutions using operators that are analogous to those involved in Darwinian evolution. The approach is illusrated by reference to several problems in information retrieval
17Ellis, D. ; Furner-Hines, J. ; Willett, P.: On the creation of hypertext links in full-text documents : measurement of inter-linker consistency.
In: Journal of documentation. 50(1994) no.2, S.67-98.
Abstract: In important stage in the process of retrieval of objects from a hypertext database is the creation of a set of inter-nodal links that are intended to represent the relationships existing between objects; this operation is often undertaken manually, just as index terms are often manually assigned to documents in a conventional retrieval system. Studies of conventional systems have suggested that a degree of consistency in the terms assigned to documents by indexers is positively associated with retrieval effectiveness. It is thus of interest to investigate the consistency of assignment of links in separate hypertext versions of the same full-text document, since a measure of agreement may be related to the subsequent utility of the resulting hypertext databases. The calculation of values indicating the degree of similarity between objects is a technique that has been widely used in the fields of textual and chemical information retrieval; in this paper we describe the application of arithmetic coefficients and topological indices to the measurement of the degree of similarity between the sets of inter-nodal links in hypertext databases. We publish the results of a study in which several different of links are inserted, by different people, between the paragraphs of each of a number of full-text documents. Our results show little similary between the sets of links identified by different people; this finding is comparable with those of studies of inter-indexer consistency, where it has been found that there is generally only a low level of agreement between the sets of idenx terms assigned to a document by different indexers
18Robertson, A.M. ; Willett, P.: Generation of equifrequent groups of words using a genetic algorithm.
In: Journal of documentation. 50(1994) no.3, S.213-232.
Abstract: Genetic algorithms are a class of non-deterministic algorithms that derive from Darwinian evolution and that provide good, though not necessarily optimal, solutions to combinatorial problems. We describe their application to the identification of characteristics that occur approximately equifrequently in a database, using two different methods for the creation of the chromosome data structures that lie at the heart of a genetic algortihm. Experiments with files of English and Turkish text suggest that the genetic algorithm developed here can produce results superior to those produced by existing non-deterministic algorithms; however, the results are inferior to those produced by an existing deterministic algorithm
19Robertson, A.M. ; Willett, P.: Identification of word-variants in historical text databases : report for the period October 1990 to September 1992.
London : British Library, 1994. 112 S.
(BLRD report; 6146)
Abstract: Databases of historical texts are increasingly becoming available for end user searching via online or CD-ROM databases. Many of the words in these databases are spelt differently from today with resultant loss of retrieval. The project evaluated a range of techniques that can suggest historical variants of modern language query words, the work deriving from earlier work on spelling correction
Anmerkung: Auch ein Beitrag zu den Problemen des Freitext-Retrieval
20Ellis, D. ; Furner-Hines, J. ; Willett, P.: Measuring the consistency of assignment of hypertext links in full-text documents.
In: Information retrieval: new systems and current research. Proceedings of the 15th Research Colloquium of the British Computer Society Information Retrieval Specialist Group, Glasgow 1993. Ed.: Ruben Leon. London : Taylor Graham, 1994. S.67-80.
Abstract: Studies of document retrieval systems have suggested that the degree of consistency in the terms assigned to documents by indexers is positively associated with retrieval effectiveness. The study investigated the consistency of assignment of links in separate hypertext versions of the same full text database assuming that a measure of agreement may be related to the subsequent utility of the resulting hypertext document. Describes the calculations involved in measuring the degree of similarity between pairs of structured objetcs of a certain type (Those that may be represented in graph theoretic form). Initial results show little similarity between the sets of links identified by different people and this finding is comparable with those of studies of inter indexer consistency, where it has been found that there is generally only alow level of agreement between the sets of indexing terms assigned to a document of different indexers