Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Lewandowski, D. ; Kerkmann, F. ; Rümmele, S. ; Sünkler, S.: ¬An empirical investigation on search engine ad disclosure.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.3, S.420-437.
Abstract: This representative study of German search engine users (N?=?1,000) focuses on the ability of users to distinguish between organic results and advertisements on Google results pages. We combine questions about Google's business with task-based studies in which users were asked to distinguish between ads and organic results in screenshots of results pages. We find that only a small percentage of users can reliably distinguish between ads and organic results, and that user knowledge of Google's business model is very limited. We conclude that ads are insufficiently labelled as such, and that many users may click on ads assuming that they are selecting organic results.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23963/full.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
2Lian, T. ; Chen, Z. ; Lin, Y. ; Ma, J.: Temporal patterns of the online video viewing behavior of smart TV viewers.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.5, S.647-659.
Abstract: In recent years, millions of households have shifted from traditional TVs to smart TVs for viewing online videos on TV screens. In this article, we perform extensive analyses on a large-scale online video viewing log on smart TVs. Because time influences almost every aspect of our lives, our aim is to understand temporal patterns of the online video viewing behavior of smart TV viewers at the crowd level. First, we measure the amount of time per hour spent in watching online videos on smart TV by each household on each day. By applying clustering techniques, we identify eight daily patterns whose peak hours occur in different segments of the day. The differences among households can be characterized by three types of temporal habits. We also uncover five periodic weekly patterns. There seems to be a circadian rhythm at the crow level. Further analysis confirms that there exists a holiday effect in the online video viewing behavior on smart TVs. Finally, we investigate the popularity variations of different video categories over the day. The obtained insights shed light on how we can partition a day to improve the performance of time-aware video recommendations for smart TV viewers.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.23992.
Behandelte Form: Videos
3Zhou, X. ; Sun, X. ; Wang, Q. ; Sharples, S.: ¬A context-based study of serendipity in information research among Chinese scholars.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.3, S.526-551.
Abstract: Purpose The current understanding of serendipity is based primarily on studies employing westerners as the participants, and it remains uncertain whether or not this understanding would be pervasive under different cultures, such as in China. In addition, there is not a sufficient systematic investigation of context during the occurrence of serendipity in current studies. The purpose of this paper is to examine the above issues by conducting a follow-up empirical study with a group of Chinese scholars. Design/methodology/approach The social media application "WeChat" was employed as a research tool. A diary-based study was conducted and 16 participants were required to send to the researchers any cases of serendipity they encountered during a period of two weeks, and this was followed by a post-interview. Findings Chinese scholars experienced serendipity in line with the three main processes of: encountering unexpectedness, connection-making and recognising the value. An updated context-based serendipity model was constructed, where the role of context during each episode of experiencing serendipity was identified, including the external context (e.g. time, location and status), the social context and the internal context (e.g. precipitating conditions, sagacity/perceptiveness and emotion). Originality/value The updated context model provides a further understanding of the role played by context during the different processes of serendipity. The framework for experiencing serendipity has been expanded, and this may be used to classify the categories of serendipity.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-05-2017-0079.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
4Madden, A.D. ; Webber, S. ; Ford, N. ; Crowder, M.: ¬The relationship between students' subject preferences and their information behaviour.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.4, S.692-721.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between preferred choice of school subject and student information behaviour (IB). Design/methodology/approach Mixed methods were employed. In all, 152 students, teachers and librarians participated in interviews or focus groups. In total, 1,375 students, key stage 3 (11-14 years) to postgraduate, responded to a questionnaire. The research population was drawn from eight schools, two further education colleges and three universities. Insights from the literature review and the qualitative research phase led to a hypothesis which was investigated using the questionnaire: that students studying hard subjects are less likely to engage in deep IB than students studying soft subjects. Findings Results support the hypothesis that preferences for subjects at school affect choice of university degree. The hypothesis that a preference for hard or soft subjects affects IB is supported by results of an analysis in which like or dislike of maths/ICT is correlated with responses to the survey. Interviewees' comments led to the proposal that academic subjects can be classified according to whether a subject helps students to acquire a "tool of the Mind" or to apply such a tool. A model suggesting how IB may differ depending on whether intellectual tools are being acquired or applied is proposed. Practical implications The "inner logic" of certain subjects and their pedagogies appears closely linked to IB. This should be considered when developing teaching programmes. Originality/value The findings offer a new perspective on subject classification and its association with IB, and a new model of the association between IB and tool acquisition or application is proposed, incorporating the perspectives of both teacher and student.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-07-2017-0097.
5Cleverley, P.H. ; Burnett, S. ; Muir, L.: Exploratory information searching in the enterprise : a study of user satisfaction and task performance.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.62-76.
Abstract: No prior research has been identified that investigates the causal factors for workplace exploratory search task performance. The impact of user, task, and environmental factors on user satisfaction and task performance was investigated through a mixed methods study with 26 experienced information professionals using enterprise search in an oil and gas enterprise. Some participants found 75% of high-value items, others found none, with an average of 27%. No association was found between self-reported search expertise and task performance, with a tendency for many participants to overestimate their search expertise. Successful searchers may have more accurate mental models of both search systems and the information space. Organizations may not have effective exploratory search task performance feedback loops, a lack of learning. This may be caused by management bias towards technology, not capability, a lack of systems thinking. Furthermore, organizations may not "know" they "don't know" their true level of search expertise, a lack of knowing. A metamodel is presented identifying the causal factors for workplace exploratory search task performance. Semistructured qualitative interviews with search staff from the defense, pharmaceutical, and aerospace sectors indicates the potential transferability of the finding that organizations may not know their search expertise levels.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23595/full.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Informationsdienstleistungen
6Zhitomirsky-Geffet, M. ; Bar-Ilan, J. ; Levene, M.: Analysis of change in users' assessment of search results over time.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.5, S.1137-1148.
Abstract: We present the first systematic study of the influence of time on user judgements for rankings and relevance grades of web search engine results. The goal of this study is to evaluate the change in user assessment of search results and explore how users' judgements change. To this end, we conducted a large-scale user study with 86 participants who evaluated 2 different queries and 4 diverse result sets twice with an interval of 2 months. To analyze the results we investigate whether 2 types of patterns of user behavior from the theory of categorical thinking hold for the case of evaluation of search results: (a) coarseness and (b) locality. To quantify these patterns we devised 2 new measures of change in user judgements and distinguish between local (when users swap between close ranks and relevance values) and nonlocal changes. Two types of judgements were considered in this study: (a) relevance on a 4-point scale, and (b) ranking on a 10-point scale without ties. We found that users tend to change their judgements of the results over time in about 50% of cases for relevance and in 85% of cases for ranking. However, the majority of these changes were local.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23745/full.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
7Unkel, J. ; Haas, A.: ¬The effects of credibility cues on the selection of search engine results.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.8, S.1850-1862.
Abstract: Web search engines act as gatekeepers when people search for information online. Research has shown that search engine users seem to trust the search engines' ranking uncritically and mostly select top-ranked results. This study further examines search engine users' selection behavior. Drawing from the credibility and information research literature, we test whether the presence or absence of certain credibility cues influences the selection probability of search engine results. In an observational study, participants (N?=?247) completed two information research tasks on preset search engine results pages, on which three credibility cues (source reputation, message neutrality, and social recommendations) as well as the search result ranking were systematically varied. The results of our study confirm the significance of the ranking. Of the three credibility cues, only reputation had an additional effect on selection probabilities. Personal characteristics (prior knowledge about the researched issues, search engine usage patterns, etc.) did not influence the preference for search results linked with certain credibility cues. These findings are discussed in light of situational and contextual characteristics (e.g., involvement, low-cost scenarios).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23820/full.
Anmerkung: This research was supported by the LMUexcellent Junior Researcher Fund. The authors would like to thank Nora Denner, Lena Storck, and especially Ramona Berger for their assistance with experiment supervision and coding, and the reviewers for their valuable suggestions.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
8Beaudoin, J.E.: Content-based image retrieval methods and professional image users.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.2, S.350-365.
Abstract: This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study that examined professional image users' knowledge of, and interest in using, content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems in an attempt to clarify when and where CBIR methods might be applied. The research sought to determine the differences in the perceived usefulness of CBIR technologies among image user groups from several domains and explicate the reasons given regarding the utility of CBIR systems for their professional tasks. Twenty participants (archaeologists, architects, art historians, and artists), individuals who rely on images of cultural materials in the performance of their work, took part in the study. The findings of the study reveal that interest in CBIR methods varied among the different professional user communities. Individuals who showed an interest in these systems were primarily those concerned with the formal characteristics (i.e., color, shape, composition, and texture) of the images being sought. In contrast, those participants who expressed a strong interest in images of known items, images illustrating themes, and/or items from specific locations believe concept-based searches to be the most direct route. These image users did not see a practical application for CBIR systems in their current work routines.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23387/abstract.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
9Berget, G. ; Sandnes, F.E.: Do autocomplete functions reduce the impact of dyslexia on information-searching behavior? : the case of Google.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.10, S.2320-2328.
Abstract: Dyslexic users often do not exhibit spelling and reading skills at a level required to perform effective search. To explore whether autocomplete functions reduce the impact of dyslexia on information searching, 20 participants with dyslexia and 20 controls solved 10 predefined tasks in the search engine Google. Eye-tracking and screen-capture documented the searches. There were no significant differences between the dyslexic students and the controls in time usage, number of queries, query lengths, or the use of the autocomplete function. However, participants with dyslexia made more misspellings and looked less at the screen and the autocomplete suggestions lists while entering the queries. The results indicate that although the autocomplete function supported the participants in the search process, a more extensive use of the autocomplete function would have reduced misspellings. Further, the high tolerance for spelling errors considerably reduced the effect of dyslexia, and may be as important as the autocomplete function.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23572/full.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
10Tenopir, C. ; Levine, K. ; Allard, S. ; Christian, L. ; Volentine, R. ; Boehm, R. ; Nichols, F. ; Nicholas, D. ; Jamali, H.R. ; Herman, E. ; Watkinson, A.: Trustworthiness and authority of scholarly information in a digital age : results of an international questionnaire.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.10, S.2344-2361.
Abstract: An international survey of over 3,600 researchers examined how trustworthiness and quality are determined for making decisions on scholarly reading, citing, and publishing and how scholars perceive changes in trust with new forms of scholarly communication. Although differences in determining trustworthiness and authority of scholarly resources exist among age groups and fields of study, traditional methods and criteria remain important across the board. Peer review is considered the most important factor for determining the quality and trustworthiness of research. Researchers continue to read abstracts, check content for sound arguments and credible data, and rely on journal rankings when deciding whether to trust scholarly resources in reading, citing, or publishing. Social media outlets and open access publications are still often not trusted, although many researchers believe that open access has positive implications for research, especially if the open access journals are peer reviewed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23598/full.
11Kim, J. ; Thomas, P. ; Sankaranarayana, R. ; Gedeon, T. ; Yoon, H.-J.: Eye-tracking analysis of user behavior and performance in web search on large and small screens.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.3, S.526-544.
Abstract: In recent years, searching the web on mobile devices has become enormously popular. Because mobile devices have relatively small screens and show fewer search results, search behavior with mobile devices may be different from that with desktops or laptops. Therefore, examining these differences may suggest better, more efficient designs for mobile search engines. In this experiment, we use eye tracking to explore user behavior and performance. We analyze web searches with 2 task types on 2 differently sized screens: one for a desktop and the other for a mobile device. In addition, we examine the relationships between search performance and several search behaviors to allow further investigation of the differences engendered by the screens. We found that users have more difficulty extracting information from search results pages on the smaller screens, although they exhibit less eye movement as a result of an infrequent use of the scroll function. However, in terms of search performance, our findings suggest that there is no significant difference between the 2 screens in time spent on search results pages and the accuracy of finding answers. This suggests several possible ideas for the presentation design of search results pages on small devices.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23187/abstract.
Themenfeld: Benutzerstudien ; Suchtaktik
12Williams, P. ; Hennig, C.: Effect of web page menu orientation on retrieving information by people with learning disabilities.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.4, S.674-683.
Abstract: The Internet facilitates the provision of accessible information to people with learning disabilities. However, problems with navigation and retrieval represent a barrier for this cohort. This article addresses one aspect of page design, testing whether a horizontal or vertical contents arrangement facilitates faster access to content for people with learning disabilities. Participants were timed as they looked for one-word "dummy" menu entries appearing in various locations along a horizontal or vertical grid. The words corresponded to images shown at random in a word-search type activity. Results were analyzed using mixed effects models. Results showed that mean search times increased as the position shifted from left to right and from top to bottom. Thus, participants undertook the test as if it were a reading exercise, despite the images appearing in the center of the page and the words appearing at random positions. The research also suggests that a horizontal menu may be more effective than a vertical one, with the most important links placed on the left. The propensity to imbibe information "serially" (word-for-word) rather than to skim or look "globally" has important website design implications.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23214/abstract.
13Niu, X. ; Hemminger, B.: Analyzing the interaction patterns in a faceted search interface.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.5, S.1030-1047.
Abstract: Since the adoption of faceted search in a small number of academic libraries in 2006, faceted search interfaces have gained popularity in academic and public libraries. This article clarifies whether faceted search improves the interactions between searchers and library catalogs and sheds light on ways that facets are used during a library search. To study searchers' behaviors in natural situations, we collected from the servers a data set with more than 1.5 million useful search logs. Logs were parsed, statistically analyzed, and manually studied using visualization tools to gain a general understanding of how facets are used in the search process. A user experiment with 24 subjects was conducted to further understand contextual information, such as the searchers' motivations and perceptions. The results indicate that most searchers were able to understand the concept of facets naturally and easily. The faceted search was not able to shorten the search time but was able to improve the search accuracy. Facets were used more for open-ended tasks and difficult tasks that require more effort to learn, investigate, and explore. Overall, the results weaved a detailed "story" about the ways that people use facets and the ways that facets help people use library catalogs.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23227/abstract.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
14Wilson, V.: Catalog users "in the wild" : the potential of an ethnographic approach to studies of library catalogs and their users.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 53(2015) no.2, S.190-213.
Abstract: An increasing number of library user studies are employing ethnographic techniques as an alternative to more traditional qualitative methods such as surveys. Such techniques, however, are only beginning to see significant application to catalog user studies. Beginning with a discussion of the applied ethnographic method and its current usage within the field of Library and Information Science research, this article will assess methods that have traditionally been applied to studies of catalog users and present the case for the potential of an ethnographic approach for future catalog evaluation and design.
Themenfeld: Katalogfragen allgemein ; Benutzerstudien ; OPAC
15Smith, C.L.: Domain-independent search expertise : a description of procedural knowledge gained during guided instruction.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.7, S.1388-1405.
Abstract: This longitudinal study examined the search behavior of 10 students as they completed assigned exercises for an online professional course in expert searching. The research objective was to identify, describe, and hypothesize about features of the behavior that are indicative of procedural knowledge gained during guided instruction. Log-data of search interaction were coded using a conceptual framework focused on components of search practice hypothesized to organize an expert searcher's attention during search. The coded data were analyzed using a measure of pointwise mutual information and state-transition analysis. Results of the study provide important insight for future investigation of domain-independent search expertise and for the design of systems that assist searchers in gaining expertise.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23272/abstract.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
16Cole, C. ; Beheshti, J. ; Abuhimed, D. ; Lamoureux, I.: ¬The end game in Kuhlthau's ISP Model : knowledge construction for grade 8 students researching an inquiry-based history project.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.11, S.2249-2266.
Abstract: This article reports on a field study of the information behavior of Grade 8 students researching an inquiry-based class history project. Kuhlthau's 7-stage Information Search Process (ISP) model forms the conceptual framework for the study. The aim of the study was to define an end game for the ISP model by answering the following question: How do the student participants' feelings, thoughts, and information behavior lead to the construction of new knowledge? Study findings tentatively indicate that knowledge construction results from an iterative process between the student and information, which can be divided into 3 phases. In the first phase, the students formulate questions from their previous knowledge to start knowledge construction; in the second phase, newly found topic information causes students to ask questions; and in the third phase, the students answer the questions asked by this newly found topic information. Based on these results and Kuhlthau's own ISP stage 7 assessment definition of the ISP model end game, we propose a model of knowledge construction inserted as an extra row in the ISP model framework.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23300/abstract.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
17Monchaux, S. ; Amadieu, F. ; Chevalier, A. ; Mariné, C.: Query strategies during information searching : effects of prior domain knowledge and complexity of the information problems to be solved.
In: Information processing and management. 51(2015) no.5, S.557-569.
Abstract: This study addresses the impact of domain expertise (i.e. of prior knowledge of the domain) on the performance and query strategies used by users while searching for information. Twenty-four experts (psychology students) and 24 non-experts (students from other disciplines) had to search for psychology information from the Universalis website in order to perform six information problems of varying complexity: two simple problems (the keywords required to complete the task were provided in the problem statement), two more difficult problems (the keywords required had to be inferred) and two impossible problems (no answer was provided by the website). The results showed that participants with prior knowledge in the domain (experts in psychology) performed better (i.e. reached more correct answers after shorter search times) than non-experts. This difference was stronger as the complexity of the problems increased. This study also showed that experts and non-experts displayed different query strategies. Experts reformulated the impossible problems more often than non-experts, because they produced new queries with psychology-related keywords. The participants rarely used thematic category tool and when they did so this did not enhance their performance.
Inhalt: Vgl.: doi: 10.1016/j.ipm.2015.05.004.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Benutzerstudien
18Griesbaum, J. ; Mahrholz, N. ; Kiedrowski, K. von Löwe ; Rittberger, M.: Knowledge generation in online forums : a case study in the German educational domain.
In: Aslib journal of information management. 67(2015) no.1, S.2-26.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to get a first approximation of the usefulness of online forums with regard to information seeking and knowledge generation. Design/methodology/approach - This study captures the characteristics of knowledge generation by examining the pragmatics and types of information needs of posted questions and by investigating knowledge related characteristics of discussion posts as well as the success of communication. Three online forums were examined. The data set consists of 55 threads, containing 533 posts which were categorized manually by two researchers. Findings - Results show that questioners often ask for personal estimations. Information needs often aim for actionable insights or uncertainty reduction. With regard to answers, factual information is the dominant content type and has the highest knowledge value as it is the strongest predictor with regard to the generation of new knowledge. Opinions are also relevant, but in a rather subsequent and complementary way. Emotional aspects are scarcely observed. Overall, results indicate that knowledge creation predominantly follows a socio-cultural paradigm of knowledge exchange. Research limitations/implications - Although the investigation captures important aspects of knowledge building processes, the measurement of the forums' knowledge value is still rather limited. Success is only partly measurable with the current scheme. The central coding category "new topical knowledge" is only of nominal value and therefore not able to compare different kinds of knowledge gains in the course of discussion. Originality/value - The investigation reaches out beyond studies that do not consider that the role and relevance of posts is dependent on the state of the discussion. Furthermore, the paper integrates two perspectives of knowledge value: the success of the questioner with regard to the expressed information need and the knowledge building value for communicants and readers.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-09-2014-0112.
Themenfeld: Internet ; Benutzerstudien
19Aloteibi, S. ; Sanderson, M.: Analyzing geographic query reformulation : an exploratory study.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.1, S.13-24.
Abstract: Search engine users typically engage in multiquery sessions in their quest to fulfill their information needs. Despite a plethora of research findings suggesting that a significant group of users look for information within a specific geographical scope, existing reformulation studies lack a focused analysis of how users reformulate geographic queries. This study comprehensively investigates the ways in which users reformulate such needs in an attempt to fill this gap in the literature. Reformulated sessions were sampled from a query log of a major search engine to extract 2,400 entries that were manually inspected to filter geo sessions. This filter identified 471 search sessions that included geographical intent, and these sessions were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The results revealed that one in five of the users who reformulated their queries were looking for geographically related information. They reformulated their queries by changing the content of the query rather than the structure. Users were not following a unified sequence of modifications and instead performed a single reformulation action. However, in some cases it was possible to anticipate their next move. A number of tasks in geo modifications were identified, including standard, multi-needs, multi-places, and hybrid approaches. The research concludes that it is important to specialize query reformulation studies to focus on particular query types rather than generically analyzing them, as it is apparent that geographic queries have their special reformulation characteristics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.22961/abstract.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Suchmaschinen ; Benutzerstudien
20Watson, C.: ¬An exploratory study of secondary students' judgments of the relevance and reliability of information.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.7, S.1385-1408.
Abstract: This qualitative investigation is situated in the field of information seeking and use, and decision-making theory provided a framework for the study. In a naturalistic setting and across a range of curriculum areas, it investigated the behavior of secondary school students undertaking information search tasks. Research questions focused on students' criteria for assessing the relevance and reliability of information. Thirty-seven students between 14 and 17 years of age from a southeastern Australian school participated. The study collected data from journals; interviews, including video-stimulated recall interviews; think-aloud reports; video screen captures; and questionnaires. Data analysis culminated in grounded theory. Initial judgments of an item's relevance were based on comprehensibility, completeness of source, whether the item needed to be purchased, whether video sources were suitable, and whether factual or opinionative material met students' needs. Participants preferred information that provided topic overviews, information that linked to prior knowledge, and sources that treated topics in acceptable depth and were structured to facilitate accessibility. Students derived clues about reliability from URLs and considered the reputation of sources. The ability of an item to corroborate prior knowledge, its graphic design, its style of writing, and the perceived authority of its creators influenced participants' decisions about reliability.