Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 23. Dezember 2017)
1Tavakolizadeh-Ravari, M.: Analysis of the long term dynamics in thesaurus developments and its consequences.
In: http://edoc.hu-berlin.de/docviews/abstract.php?id=28144. Berlin : Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin / Institut für Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft, 20017. 128 S.
Abstract: Die Arbeit analysiert die dynamische Entwicklung und den Gebrauch von Thesaurusbegriffen. Zusätzlich konzentriert sie sich auf die Faktoren, die die Zahl von Indexbegriffen pro Dokument oder Zeitschrift beeinflussen. Als Untersuchungsobjekt dienten der MeSH und die entsprechende Datenbank "MEDLINE". Die wichtigsten Konsequenzen sind: 1. Der MeSH-Thesaurus hat sich durch drei unterschiedliche Phasen jeweils logarithmisch entwickelt. Solch einen Thesaurus sollte folgenden Gleichung folgen: "T = 3.076,6 Ln (d) - 22.695 + 0,0039d" (T = Begriffe, Ln = natürlicher Logarithmus und d = Dokumente). Um solch einen Thesaurus zu konstruieren, muss man demnach etwa 1.600 Dokumente von unterschiedlichen Themen des Bereiches des Thesaurus haben. Die dynamische Entwicklung von Thesauri wie MeSH erfordert die Einführung eines neuen Begriffs pro Indexierung von 256 neuen Dokumenten. 2. Die Verteilung der Thesaurusbegriffe erbrachte drei Kategorien: starke, normale und selten verwendete Headings. Die letzte Gruppe ist in einer Testphase, während in der ersten und zweiten Kategorie die neu hinzukommenden Deskriptoren zu einem Thesauruswachstum führen. 3. Es gibt ein logarithmisches Verhältnis zwischen der Zahl von Index-Begriffen pro Aufsatz und dessen Seitenzahl für die Artikeln zwischen einer und einundzwanzig Seiten. 4. Zeitschriftenaufsätze, die in MEDLINE mit Abstracts erscheinen erhalten fast zwei Deskriptoren mehr. 5. Die Findablity der nicht-englisch sprachigen Dokumente in MEDLINE ist geringer als die englische Dokumente. 6. Aufsätze der Zeitschriften mit einem Impact Factor 0 bis fünfzehn erhalten nicht mehr Indexbegriffe als die der anderen von MEDINE erfassten Zeitschriften. 7. In einem Indexierungssystem haben unterschiedliche Zeitschriften mehr oder weniger Gewicht in ihrem Findability. Die Verteilung der Indexbegriffe pro Seite hat gezeigt, dass es bei MEDLINE drei Kategorien der Publikationen gibt. Außerdem gibt es wenige stark bevorzugten Zeitschriften."
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.ibi.hu-berlin.de/de/archiv/forschung/prom_habil/dissertationen/Tavakolizadeh-Ravari2007. Vgl. auch: http://mravari.blogfa.com/post-20.aspxgl.
Anmerkung: Dissertation, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin - Institut für Bibliotheks- und Informationswissenschaft.
Themenfeld: Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus ; Informetrie ; Automatisches Indexieren
Objekt: MEDLINE ; MeSH
2Haley, M.R. ; McGee, M.K.: ¬A parametric "parent metric" approach for comparing maximum-normalized journal ranking metrics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.1, S.172-176.
Abstract: This article proposes a parametric approach for facilitating inter-metric and inter-field comparisons of citation-based journal ranking metrics. The mechanism is simple to apply and adjusts for metric magnitude differentials and distributional asymmetries in the rank-score curves. The method is demonstrated using h-index, AWCR-index, g-index, and e-index data from journals in Accounting, Economics, and Finance.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23908/full.
3Zhao, M. ; Yan, E. ; Li, K.: Data set mentions and citations : a content analysis of full-text publications.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.1, S.32-46.
Abstract: This study provides evidence of data set mentions and citations in multiple disciplines based on a content analysis of 600 publications in PLoS One. We find that data set mentions and citations varied greatly among disciplines in terms of how data sets were collected, referenced, and curated. While a majority of articles provided free access to data, formal ways of data attribution such as DOIs and data citations were used in a limited number of articles. In addition, data reuse took place in less than 30% of the publications that used data, suggesting that researchers are still inclined to create and use their own data sets, rather than reusing previously curated data. This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of how data sets are used in science and helps institutions and publishers make useful data policies.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23919/full.
Objekt: PLoS One
4Zhang, C. ; Bu, Y. ; Ding, Y. ; Xu, J.: Understanding scientific collaboration : homophily, transitivity, and preferential attachment.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.1, S.72-86.
Abstract: Scientific collaboration is essential in solving problems and breeding innovation. Coauthor network analysis has been utilized to study scholars' collaborations for a long time, but these studies have not simultaneously taken different collaboration features into consideration. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to analyze the differences in possibilities that two authors will cooperate as seen from the effects of homophily, transitivity, and preferential attachment. Exponential random graph models (ERGMs) are applied in this research. We find that different types of publications one author has written play diverse roles in his/her collaborations. An author's tendency to form new collaborations with her/his coauthors' collaborators is strong, where the more coauthors one author had before, the more new collaborators he/she will attract. We demonstrate that considering the authors' attributes and homophily effects as well as the transitivity and preferential attachment effects of the coauthorship network in which they are embedded helps us gain a comprehensive understanding of scientific collaboration.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23916/full.
5Bu, Y. ; Ding, Y. ; Xu, J. ; Liang, X. ; Gao, G. ; Zhao, Y.: Understanding success through the diversity of collaborators and the milestone of career.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.1, S.87-97.
Abstract: Scientific collaboration is vital to many fields, and it is common to see scholars seek out experienced researchers or experts in a domain with whom they can share knowledge, experience, and resources. To explore the diversity of research collaborations, this article performs a temporal analysis on the scientific careers of researchers in the field of computer science. Specifically, we analyze collaborators using 2 indicators: the research topic diversity, measured by the Author-Conference-Topic model and cosine, and the impact diversity, measured by the normalized standard deviation of h-indices. We find that the collaborators of high-impact researchers tend to study diverse research topics and have diverse h-indices. Moreover, by setting PhD graduation as an important milestone in researchers' careers, we examine several indicators related to scientific collaboration and their effects on a career. The results show that collaborating with authoritative authors plays an important role prior to a researcher's PhD graduation, but working with non-authoritative authors carries more weight after PhD graduation.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23911/full.
6Maflahi, N. ; Thelwall, M.: How quickly do publications get read? : the evolution of mendeley reader counts for new articles.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.1, S.158-167.
Abstract: Within science, citation counts are widely used to estimate research impact but publication delays mean that they are not useful for recent research. This gap can be filled by Mendeley reader counts, which are valuable early impact indicators for academic articles because they appear before citations and correlate strongly with them. Nevertheless, it is not known how Mendeley readership counts accumulate within the year of publication, and so it is unclear how soon they can be used. In response, this paper reports a longitudinal weekly study of the Mendeley readers of articles in 6 library and information science journals from 2016. The results suggest that Mendeley readers accrue from when articles are first available online and continue to steadily build. For journals with large publication delays, articles can already have substantial numbers of readers by their publication date. Thus, Mendeley reader counts may even be useful as early impact indicators for articles before they have been officially published in a journal issue. If field normalized indicators are needed, then these can be generated when journal issues are published using the online first date.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23909/full.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Elektronisches Publizieren
7Riechert, M. ; Schmitz, J.: Qualitätssicherung von Forschungsinformationen durch visuelle Repräsentation : das Fallbeispiel des "Informationssystems Promotionsnoten".
In: Theorie, Semantik und Organisation von Wissen: Proceedings der 13. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) und dem 13. Internationalen Symposium der Informationswissenschaft der Higher Education Association for Information Science (HI) Potsdam (19.-20.03.2013): 'Theory, Information and Organization of Knowledge' / Proceedings der 14. Tagung der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) und Natural Language & Information Systems (NLDB) Passau (16.06.2015): 'Lexical Resources for Knowledge Organization' / Proceedings des Workshops der Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) auf der SEMANTICS Leipzig (1.09.2014): 'Knowledge Organization and Semantic Web' / Proceedings des Workshops der Polnischen und Deutschen Sektion der Internationalen Gesellschaft für Wissensorganisation (ISKO) Cottbus (29.-30.09.2011): 'Economics of Knowledge Production and Organization'. Hrsg. von W. Babik, H.P. Ohly u. K. Weber. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2017. S.411-422.
(Fortschritte in der Wissensorganisation; Bd.13)
8Kousha, K. ; Thelwall, M.: Patent citation analysis with Google.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.48-61.
Abstract: Citations from patents to scientific publications provide useful evidence about the commercial impact of academic research, but automatically searchable databases are needed to exploit this connection for large-scale patent citation evaluations. Google covers multiple different international patent office databases but does not index patent citations or allow automatic searches. In response, this article introduces a semiautomatic indirect method via Bing to extract and filter patent citations from Google to academic papers with an overall precision of 98%. The method was evaluated with 322,192 science and engineering Scopus articles from every second year for the period 1996-2012. Although manual Google Patent searches give more results, especially for articles with many patent citations, the difference is not large enough to be a major problem. Within Biomedical Engineering, Biotechnology, and Pharmacology & Pharmaceutics, 7% to 10% of Scopus articles had at least one patent citation but other fields had far fewer, so patent citation analysis is only relevant for a minority of publications. Low but positive correlations between Google Patent citations and Scopus citations across all fields suggest that traditional citation counts cannot substitute for patent citations when evaluating research.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23608/full.
9Rotolo, D. ; Rafols, I. ; Hopkins, M.M. ; Leydesdorff, L.: Strategic intelligence on emerging technologies : scientometric overlay mapping.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.214-233.
Abstract: This paper examines the use of scientometric overlay mapping as a tool of "strategic intelligence" to aid the governing of emerging technologies. We develop an integrative synthesis of different overlay mapping techniques and associated perspectives on technological emergence across geographical, social, and cognitive spaces. To do so, we longitudinally analyze (with publication and patent data) three case studies of emerging technologies in the medical domain. These are RNA interference (RNAi), human papillomavirus (HPV) testing technologies for cervical cancer, and thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) genetic testing. Given the flexibility (i.e., adaptability to different sources of data) and granularity (i.e., applicability across multiple levels of data aggregation) of overlay mapping techniques, we argue that these techniques can favor the integration and comparison of results from different contexts and cases, thus potentially functioning as a platform for "distributed" strategic intelligence for analysts and decision makers.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23631/full.
10Leydesdorff, L. ; Nooy, W. de: Can "hot spots" in the sciences be mapped using the dynamics of aggregated journal-journal citation relations.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.197-213.
Abstract: Using 3 years of the Journal Citation Reports (2011, 2012, and 2013), indicators of transitions in 2012 (between 2011 and 2013) were studied using methodologies based on entropy statistics. Changes can be indicated at the level of journals using the margin totals of entropy production along the row or column vectors, but also at the level of links among journals by importing the transition matrices into network analysis and visualization programs (and using community-finding algorithms). Seventy-four journals were flagged in terms of discontinuous changes in their citations, but 3,114 journals were involved in "hot" links. Most of these links are embedded in a main component; 78 clusters (containing 172 journals) were flagged as potential "hot spots" emerging at the network level. An additional finding was that PLoS ONE introduced a new communication dynamic into the database. The limitations of the methodology were elaborated using an example. The results of the study indicate where developments in the citation dynamics can be considered as significantly unexpected. This can be used as heuristic information, but what a "hot spot" in terms of the entropy statistics of aggregated citation relations means substantively can be expected to vary from case to case.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23634/full.
11Vinkler, P.: Core indicators and professional recognition of scientometricians.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.234-242.
Abstract: The publication performance of 30 scientometricians is studied. The individuals are classified into 3 cohorts according to their manifested professional recognition, as Price medalists (Pm), members of the editorial board of Scientometrics and the Journal of Informetrics (Rw), and session chairs (Sc) at an International Society of Scientometrics and Informetrics (ISSI) conference. Several core impact indicators are calculated: h, g, p, citation distribution score (CDS), percentage rank position (PRP), and weight of influence of papers (WIP10). The indices significantly correlate with each other. The mean value of the indices of the cohorts decreases parallel with the decrease in professional recognition: Pm?>?Rw?>?Sc. The 30 scientometricians studied were clustered according to the core impact indices. The members in the clusters so obtained overlap only partly with the members in the cohorts made by professional recognition. The Total Overlap is calculated by dividing the sum of the diagonal elements in the cohorts-clusters matrix with the total number of elements, times 100. The highest overlap (76.6%) was obtained with the g-index. Accordingly, the g-index seems to have the greatest discriminative power in the system studied. The cohorts-clusters method may be used for validating scientometric indicators.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23589/full.
12Guerci Sidone, O.J. ; Haddad, E.A. ; Mena-Chalco, J.P.: Scholarly publication and collaboration in Brazil : the role of geography.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.243-258.
Abstract: Brazilian scholarly output has rapidly increased, accompanied by the expansion of domestic collaborations. In this paper, we identify spatial patterns of collaboration in Brazil and measure the role of geographic proximity in determining the interaction among researchers. Using a database comprising more than one million researchers and seven million publications, we consolidated information on interregional research collaboration in terms of scientific coauthorship networks among 4,615 municipalities during the period between 1992 and 2009, which allowed us to analyze a range of data unprecedented in the literature. The effects of geographic distance on collaboration were measured for different areas by estimating spatial interaction models. The main results provide strong evidence of geographic deconcentration of collaboration in recent years, with increased participation of authors in scientifically less traditional regions, such as south and northeast Brazil. Distance remains a significant factor in determining the intensity of knowledge flow in collaboration networks in Brazil, as an increase of 100?km between two researchers reduces the probability of collaboration by an average of 16%, and there is no evidence that the effect of distance has diminished over time, although the magnitude of such effects varies among networks of different areas.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23635/full.
13Gooch, D. ; Vasalou, A. ; Benton, L.: Impact in interdisciplinary and cross-sector research : opportunities and challenges.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.2, S.378-391.
Abstract: Impact is embedded in today's research culture, with increasing importance being placed on the value of research to society. In interdisciplinary and cross-sector projects, team members may hold distinct views on the types of impact they want to create. Set in the context of an interdisciplinary, cross-sector project comprised of partners from academia, industry, and the nonprofit sector, our paper unpacks how these diverse project members understand impact. Our analysis shows that interdisciplinary projects offer a unique opportunity to create impact on a number of different levels. Moreover, it demonstrates that a lack of accountable design and collaboration practices can potentially hinder pathways to impact. Finally, we find that the interdisciplinary perspectives that such projects introduce encourage a rich gamut of sustainable outcomes that go beyond commercialization. Our findings support researchers working in these complex contexts to appreciate the opportunities and challenges involved in interdisciplinary cross-sector research contexts while imparting them with strategies for overcoming these challenges.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23658/full.
14Thelwall, M. ; Kousha, K.: ResearchGate articles : age, discipline, audience size, and impact.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.2, S.468-479.
Abstract: The large multidisciplinary academic social website ResearchGate aims to help academics to connect with each other and to publicize their work. Despite its popularity, little is known about the age and discipline of the articles uploaded and viewed in the site and whether publication statistics from the site could be useful impact indicators. In response, this article assesses samples of ResearchGate articles uploaded at specific dates, comparing their views in the site to their Mendeley readers and Scopus-indexed citations. This analysis shows that ResearchGate is dominated by recent articles, which attract about three times as many views as older articles. ResearchGate has uneven coverage of scholarship, with the arts and humanities, health professions, and decision sciences poorly represented and some fields receiving twice as many views per article as others. View counts for uploaded articles have low to moderate positive correlations with both Scopus citations and Mendeley readers, which is consistent with them tending to reflect a wider audience than Scopus-publishing scholars. Hence, for articles uploaded to the site, view counts may give a genuinely new audience indicator.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23675/full.
15Kurtz, M.J. ; Henneken, E.A.: Measuring metrics : a 40-year longitudinal cross-validation of citations, downloads, and peer review in astrophysics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.695-708.
Abstract: Citation measures, and newer altmetric measures such as downloads are now commonly used to inform personnel decisions. How well do or can these measures measure or predict the past, current, or future scholarly performance of an individual? Using data from the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System we analyze the publication, citation, download, and distinction histories of a cohort of 922 individuals who received a U.S. PhD in astronomy in the period 1972-1976. By examining the same and different measures at the same and different times for the same individuals we are able to show the capabilities and limitations of each measure. Because the distributions are lognormal, measurement uncertainties are multiplicative; we show that in order to state with 95% confidence that one person's citations and downloads are significantly higher than another person's, the log difference in the ratio of counts must be at least 0.3dex, which corresponds to a multiplicative factor of 2.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23689/full.
16Bornmann, L. ; Haunschild, R.: ¬An empirical look at the nature index.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.653-659.
Abstract: In November 2014, the Nature Index (NI) was introduced (see http://www.natureindex.com) by the Nature Publishing Group (NPG). The NI comprises the primary research articles published in the past 12 months in a selection of reputable journals. Starting from two short comments on the NI (Haunschild & Bornmann, 2015a, 2015b), we undertake an empirical analysis of the NI using comprehensive country data. We investigate whether the huge efforts of computing the NI are justified and whether the size-dependent NI indicators should be complemented by size-independent variants. The analysis uses data from the Max Planck Digital Library in-house database (which is based on Web of Science data) and from the NPG. In the first step of the analysis, we correlate the NI with other metrics that are simpler to generate than the NI. The resulting large correlation coefficients point out that the NI produces similar results as simpler solutions. In the second step of the analysis, relative and size-independent variants of the NI are generated that should be additionally presented by the NPG. The size-dependent NI indicators favor large countries (or institutions) and the top-performing small countries (or institutions) do not come into the picture.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23682/full.
17Schneider, J.W. ; Costas, R.: Identifying potential "breakthrough" publications using refined citation analyses : three related explorative approaches.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.709-723.
Abstract: The article presents three advanced citation-based methods used to detect potential breakthrough articles among very highly cited articles. We approach the detection of such articles from three different perspectives in order to provide different typologies of breakthrough articles. In all three cases we use the hierarchical classification of scientific publications developed at CWTS based on direct citation relationships. We assume that such contextualized articles focus on similar research interests. We utilize the characteristics scores and scales (CSS) approach to partition citation distributions and implement a specific filtering algorithm to sort out potential highly-cited "followers," articles not considered breakthroughs. After invoking thresholds and filtering, three methods are explored: A very exclusive one where only the highest cited article in a micro-cluster is considered as a potential breakthrough article (M1); as well as two conceptually different methods, one that detects potential breakthrough articles among the 2% highest cited articles according to CSS (M2a), and finally a more restrictive version where, in addition to the CSS 2% filter, knowledge diffusion is also considered (M2b). The advance citation-based methods are explored and evaluated using validated publication sets linked to different Danish funding instruments including centers of excellence.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23695/full.
18Kousha, K. ; Thelwall, M.: Are wikipedia citations important evidence of the impact of scholarly articles and books?.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.762-779.
Abstract: Individual academics and research evaluators often need to assess the value of published research. Although citation counts are a recognized indicator of scholarly impact, alternative data is needed to provide evidence of other types of impact, including within education and wider society. Wikipedia is a logical choice for both of these because the role of a general encyclopaedia is to be an understandable repository of facts about a diverse array of topics and hence it may cite research to support its claims. To test whether Wikipedia could provide new evidence about the impact of scholarly research, this article counted citations to 302,328 articles and 18,735 monographs in English indexed by Scopus in the period 2005 to 2012. The results show that citations from Wikipedia to articles are too rare for most research evaluation purposes, with only 5% of articles being cited in all fields. In contrast, a third of monographs have at least one citation from Wikipedia, with the most in the arts and humanities. Hence, Wikipedia citations can provide extra impact evidence for academic monographs. Nevertheless, the results may be relatively easily manipulated and so Wikipedia is not recommended for evaluations affecting stakeholder interests.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23694/full.
19Shi, D. ; Rousseau, R. ; Yang, L. ; Li, J.: ¬A journal's impact factor is influenced by changes in publication delays of citing journals.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.780-789.
Abstract: In this article we describe another problem with journal impact factors by showing that one journal's impact factor is dependent on other journals' publication delays. The proposed theoretical model predicts a monotonically decreasing function of the impact factor as a function of publication delay, on condition that the citation curve of the journal is monotone increasing during the publication window used in the calculation of the journal impact factor; otherwise, this function has a reversed U shape. Our findings based on simulations are verified by examining three journals in the information sciences: the Journal of Informetrics, Scientometrics, and the Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23706/full.
20Tang, L. ; Hu, G. ; Liu, W.: Funding acknowledgment analysis : queries and caveats.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.790-794.
Abstract: Thomson Reuters's Web of Science (WoS) began systematically collecting acknowledgment information in August 2008. Since then, bibliometric analysis of funding acknowledgment (FA) has been growing and has aroused intense interest and attention from both academia and policy makers. Examining the distribution of FA by citation index database, by language, and by acknowledgment type, we noted coverage limitations and potential biases in each analysis. We argue that despite its great value, bibliometric analysis of FA should be used with caution.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23713/full.