Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 16. Dezember 2019)
1Wolfe, EW.: a case study in automated metadata enhancement : Natural Language Processing in the humanities.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 46(2019), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: The Black Book Interactive Project at the University of Kansas (KU) is developing an expanded corpus of novels by African American authors, with an emphasis on lesser known writers and a goal of expanding research in this field. Using a custom metadata schema with an emphasis on race-related elements, each novel is analyzed for a variety of elements such as literary style, targeted content analysis, historical context, and other areas. Librarians at KU have worked to develop a variety of computational text analysis processes designed to assist with specific aspects of this metadata collection, including text mining and natural language processing, automated subject extraction based on word sense disambiguation, harvesting data from Wikidata, and other actions.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://journal.code4lib.org/articles/14834.
Themenfeld: Metadaten ; Automatisches Indexieren
2Wartburg, K. von ; Sibille, C. ; Aliverti, C.: Metadata collaboration between the Swiss National Library and research institutions in the field of Swiss historiography.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 57(2019) no.1, S.24-36.
Abstract: This article presents examples of metadata collaborations between the Swiss National Library (NL) and research institutions in the field of Swiss historiography. The NL publishes the Bibliography on Swiss History (BSH). In order to meet the demands of its research community, the NL has improved the accessibility and interoperability of the BSH database. Moreover, the BSH takes part in metadata projects such as Metagrid, a web service linking different historical databases. Other metadata collaborations with partners in the historical field such as the Law Sources Foundation (LSF) will position the BSH as an indispensable literature hub for publications on Swiss history.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2018.1547998.
Anmerkung: Beitrag in einem Themenheft: 'The Role and Function of National Bibliographies for Research'.
Themenfeld: Bibliographie ; Metadaten
3Chou, C.: Purpose-driven assessment of cataloging and metadata services : transforming broken links into linked data.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 57(2019) no.2/3, S.135-165.
Abstract: Many primary school classrooms have book collections. Most teachers organize and maintain these collections by themselves, although some involve students in the processes. This qualitative study considers a third approach, parent-involved categorization, to understand how people without library or education training categorize books. We observed and interviewed parents and a teacher who worked together to categorize books in a kindergarten classroom. They employed multiple orthogonal organizing principles, felt that working collaboratively made the task less overwhelming, solved difficult problems pragmatically, organized books primarily to facilitate retrieval by the teacher, and left lumping and splitting decisions to the teacher.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2019.1571553.
4Bogaard, T. ; Hollink, L. ; Wielemaker, J. ; Ossenbruggen, J. van ; Hardman, L.: Metadata categorization for identifying search patterns in a digital library.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.2, S.270-286.
Abstract: Purpose For digital libraries, it is useful to understand how users search in a collection. Investigating search patterns can help them to improve the user interface, collection management and search algorithms. However, search patterns may vary widely in different parts of a collection. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how to identify these search patterns within a well-curated historical newspaper collection using the existing metadata. Design/methodology/approach The authors analyzed search logs combined with metadata records describing the content of the collection, using this metadata to create subsets in the logs corresponding to different parts of the collection. Findings The study shows that faceted search is more prevalent than non-faceted search in terms of number of unique queries, time spent, clicks and downloads. Distinct search patterns are observed in different parts of the collection, corresponding to historical periods, geographical regions or subject matter. Originality/value First, this study provides deeper insights into search behavior at a fine granularity in a historical newspaper collection, by the inclusion of the metadata in the analysis. Second, it demonstrates how to use metadata categorization as a way to analyze distinct search patterns in a collection.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-06-2018-0087.
Behandelte Form: Zeitungen
5Montenegro, M.: Subverting the universality of metadata standards.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2019) no.4, S.731-749.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the underlying meanings, effects and cultural patterns of metadata standards, focusing on Dublin Core (DC), and explore the ways in which anticolonial metadata tools can be applied to exercise and promote Indigenous data sovereignty. Design/methodology/approach Applying an anticolonial approach, this paper examines the assumptions underpinning the stated roles of two of DC's metadata elements, rights and creator. Based on that examination, the paper considers the limitations of DC for appropriately documenting Indigenous traditional knowledge (TK). Introduction of the TK labels and their implementation are put forward as an alternative method to such limitations in metadata standards. Findings The analysis of the rights and creator elements revealed that DC's universality and supposed neutrality threaten the rightful attribution, specificity and dynamism of TK, undermining Indigenous data sovereignty. The paper advocates for alternative descriptive methods grounded within tribal sovereignty values while recognizing the difficulties of dealing with issues of interoperability by means of metadata standards given potentially innate tendencies to customization within communities. Originality/value This is the first paper to directly examine the implications of DC's rights and creator elements for documenting TK. The paper identifies ethical practices and culturally appropriate tools that unsettle the universality claims of metadata standards. By introducing the TK labels, the paper contributes to the efforts of Indigenous communities to regain control and ownership of their cultural and intellectual property.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-08-2018-0124.
Objekt: Dublin Core
6Biesenbender, S. ; Tobias, R.: Rolle und Aufgaben von Bibliotheken im Umfeld des Kerndatensatz Forschung.
In: ABI-Technik. 39(2019) H.2, S.104-111.
Abstract: In diesem Artikel wird die Frage aufgegriffen, welche Auswirkungen der Kerndatensatz Forschung (KDSF) auf die aktuelle bibliothekarische Praxis haben kann. Dabei wird eine Bestandsaufnahme der (möglichen) Betätigungsfelder von Bibliotheken rund um den KDSF und die Einführung von Forschungsinformationssystemen (FIS) gezogen. Es sollen die Herausforderungen und das Potenzial des KDSF für die tägliche bibliothekarische Praxis im Rahmen einer modernen und integrierten Forschungsberichterstattung beleuchtet und Impulse für in der Zukunft erforderliche Anpassungsprozesse gegeben werden. Der Artikel stellt Aufbau und Konzept des KDSF vor. Der Fokus liegt dabei auf dem Kerndatensatz-Bereich "Publikationen". Bisherige Erfahrungen und Rückmeldungen an den "Helpdesk für die Einführung des Kerndatensatz Forschung" werden aus bibliothekarischer Sicht erörtert. Ein weiterer Teil zeigt beispielhafte Aktivitäten und Herangehensweisen, die sich für Bibliotheken im Umfeld der Einführung von FIS ergeben.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://doi.org/10.1515/abitech-2019-2003.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Metadaten
7Johansson, S. ; Golub, K.: LibraryThing for libraries : how tag moderation and size limitations affect tag clouds.
In: Knowledge organization. 46(2019) no.4, S.245-259.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyse differences between tags on LibraryThing's web page and tag clouds in their "Library-Thing for Libraries" service, and assess if, and how, the Library-Thing tag moderation and limitations to the size of the tag cloud in the library catalogue affect the description of the information resource. An e-mail survey was conducted with personnel at LibraryThing, and the results were compared against tags for twenty different fiction books, collected from two different library catalogues with disparate tag cloud sizes, and Library-Thing's web page. The data were analysed using a modified version of Golder and Huberman's tag categories (2006). The results show that while LibraryThing claims to only remove the inherently personal tags, several other types of tags are found to have been discarded as well. Occasionally a certain type of tag is in-cluded in one book, and excluded in another. The comparison between the two tag cloud sizes suggests that the larger tag clouds provide a more pronounced picture regarding the contents of the book but at the cost of an increase in the number of tags with synonymous or redundant information.
Themenfeld: Folksonomies ; Metadaten
8Suranofsky, M. ; McColl, L.: a Google sheets add-on that uses the WorldCat search API : MatchMarc.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 46(2019), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: Lehigh University Libraries has developed a new tool for querying WorldCat using the WorldCat Search API. The tool is a Google Sheet Add-on and is available now via the Google Sheets Add-ons menu under the name "MatchMarc." The add-on is easily customizable, with no knowledge of coding needed. The tool will return a single "best" OCLC record number, and its bibliographic information for a given ISBN or LCCN, allowing the user to set up and define "best." Because all of the information, the input, the criteria, and the results exist in the Google Sheets environment, efficient workflows can be developed from this flexible starting point. This article will discuss the development of the add-on, how it works, and future plans for development.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://journal.code4lib.org/articles/14813.
Objekt: Google ; MARC ; WorldCat ; MatchMarc
9Farney, T.: using Google Tag Manager to share code : Designing shareable tags.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 46(2019), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://journal.code4lib.org/articles/14853.
Objekt: Google Tag Manager
10Hodges, D.W. ; Schlottmann, K.: better archival migration outcomes with Python and the Google Sheets API : Reporting from the archives.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 46(2019), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: Columbia University Libraries recently embarked on a multi-phase project to migrate nearly 4,000 records describing over 70,000 linear feet of archival material from disparate sources and formats into ArchivesSpace. This paper discusses tools and methods brought to bear in Phase 2 of this project, which required us to look closely at how to integrate a large number of legacy finding aids into the new system and merge descriptive data that had diverged in myriad ways. Using Python, XSLT, and a widely available if underappreciated resource-the Google Sheets API-archival and technical library staff devised ways to efficiently report data from different sources, and present it in an accessible, user-friendly way,. Responses were then fed back into automated data remediation processes to keep the migration project on track and minimize manual intervention. The scripts and processes developed proved very effective, and moreover, show promise well beyond the ArchivesSpace migration. This paper describes the Python/XSLT/Sheets API processes developed and how they opened a path to move beyond CSV-based reporting with flexible, ad-hoc data interfaces easily adaptable to meet a variety of purposes.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://journal.code4lib.org/articles/14871.
Objekt: Google Sheets API ; Python
11Panskus, E.J.: Metadaten zur Identifizierung von Falschmeldungen im digitalen Raum : eine praktische Annäherung.
In: Password Online. Nr.666 vom 22.11.2019, [https://www.password-online.de/?wysija-page=1&controller=email&action=view&email_id=823&wysijap=subscriptions&user_id=1045].
(Zukunft der Informationswissenschaft / Hat die Informationswissenschaft eine Zukunft?)
Abstract: In vielen Ländern erstarken populistische und rassistische Kräfte. Mit Polen und Ungarn schwächen selbst Mitglieder der Europäischen Union rechtsstaatliche Institutionen. Die Türkei wendet sich immer stärker von der EU ab und driftet an den Rand einer Diktatur. In Österreich konnte ein Rechtspopulist nur knapp als Bundespräsident verhindert werden. All diese Ereignisse finden oder fanden auch wegen Missmut und Misstrauen gegenüber staatlichen und etablierten Institutionen wie klassischen Medien, Regierungen und der Wirtschaft statt.
12Gursoy, A. ; Wickett, K. ; Feinberg, M.: Understanding tag functions in a moderated, user-generated metadata ecosystem.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.3, S.490-508.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate tag use in a metadata ecosystem that supports a fan work repository to identify functions of tags and explore the system as a co-constructed communicative context. Design/methodology/approach Using modified techniques from grounded theory (Charmaz, 2007), this paper integrates humanistic and social science methods to identify kinds of tag use in a rich setting. Findings Three primary roles of tags emerge out of detailed study of the metadata ecosystem: tags can identify elements in the fan work, tags can reflect on how those elements are used or adapted in the fan work, and finally, tags can express the fan author's sense of her role in the discursive context of the fan work repository. Attending to each of the tag roles shifts focus away from just what tags say to include how they say it. Practical implications Instead of building metadata systems designed solely for retrieval or description, this research suggests that it may be fruitful to build systems that recognize various metadata functions and allow for expressivity. This research also suggests that attending to metadata previously considered unusable in systems may reflect the participants' sense of the system and their role within it. Originality/value In addition to accommodating a wider range of tag functions, this research implies consideration of metadata ecosystems, where different kinds of tags do different things and work together to create a multifaceted artifact.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-09-2017-0134.
13Mayernik, M.S. ; Acker, A.: Tracing the traces : the critical role of metadata within networked communications.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.1, S.177-180.
Abstract: The information sciences have traditionally been at the center of metadata-focused research. The US National Security Agency (NSA) intelligence documents revealed by Edward Snowden in June of 2013 brought the term "metadata" into the public consciousness. Surprisingly little discussion in the information sciences has since occurred on the nature and importance of metadata within networked communication systems. The collection of digital metadata impacts the ways that people experience social and technical communication. Without such metadata, networked communication cannot exist. The NSA leaks, and numerous recent hacks of corporate and government communications, point to metadata as objects of new scholarly inquiry. If we are to engage in meaningful discussions about our digital traces, or make informed decisions about new policies and technologies, it is essential to develop theoretical and empirical frameworks that account for digital metadata. This opinion paper presents 5 key sociotechnical characteristics of metadata within digital networks that would benefit from stronger engagement by the information sciences.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23927/full.
14Li, C. ; Sugimoto, S.: Provenance description of metadata application profiles for long-term maintenance of metadata schemas : Luciano Floridi's philosophy of information as the foundation for library and information science.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.1, S.36-61.
Abstract: Purpose Provenance information is crucial for consistent maintenance of metadata schemas over time. The purpose of this paper is to propose a provenance model named DSP-PROV to keep track of structural changes of metadata schemas. Design/methodology/approach The DSP-PROV model is developed through applying the general provenance description standard PROV of the World Wide Web Consortium to the Dublin Core Application Profile. Metadata Application Profile of Digital Public Library of America is selected as a case study to apply the DSP-PROV model. Finally, this paper evaluates the proposed model by comparison between formal provenance description in DSP-PROV and semi-formal change log description in English. Findings Formal provenance description in the DSP-PROV model has advantages over semi-formal provenance description in English to keep metadata schemas consistent over time. Research limitations/implications The DSP-PROV model is applicable to keep track of the structural changes of metadata schema over time. Provenance description of other features of metadata schema such as vocabulary and encoding syntax are not covered. Originality/value This study proposes a simple model for provenance description of structural features of metadata schemas based on a few standards widely accepted on the Web and shows the advantage of the proposed model to conventional semi-formal provenance description.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-03-2017-0042.
15Haynes, D.: Metadata for information management and retrieval : understanding metadata and its use.2nd ed.
London : Facet Publishing, 2018. XIV, 267 S.
Abstract: This new and updated second edition of a classic text provides a thought-provoking introduction to metadata for all library and information students and professionals. Metadata for Information Management and Retrieval has been fully revised by David Haynes to bring it up to date with new technology and standards. The new edition, containing new chapters on Metadata Standards and Encoding Schemes, assesses the current theory and practice of metadata and examines key developments in terms of both policy and technology. Coverage includes: an introduction to the concept of metadata a description of the main components of metadata systems and standards an overview of the scope of metadata and its applications a description of typical information retrieval issues in corporate and research environments a demonstration of ways in which metadata is used to improve retrieval a look at ways in which metadata is used to manage information consideration of the role of metadata in information governance.
RSWK: Informationsmanagement / Information Retrieval / Metadatenmodell
RVK: AN 95000 ; ST 270
16Gracy, K.F.: Enriching and enhancing moving images with Linked Data : an exploration in the alignment of metadata models.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.2, S.354-371.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to examine the current state of Linked Data (LD) in archival moving image description, and propose ways in which current metadata records can be enriched and enhanced by interlinking such metadata with relevant information found in other data sets. Design/methodology/approach Several possible metadata models for moving image production and archiving are considered, including models from records management, digital curation, and the recent BIBFRAME AV Modeling Study. This research also explores how mappings between archival moving image records and relevant external data sources might be drawn, and what gaps exist between current vocabularies and what is needed to record and make accessible the full lifecycle of archiving through production, use, and reuse. Findings The author notes several major impediments to implementation of LD for archival moving images. The various pieces of information about creators, places, and events found in moving image records are not easily connected to relevant information in other sources because they are often not semantically defined within the record and can be hidden in unstructured fields. Libraries, archives, and museums must work on aligning the various vocabularies and schemas of potential value for archival moving image description to enable interlinking between vocabularies currently in use and those which are used by external data sets. Alignment of vocabularies is often complicated by mismatches in granularity between vocabularies. Research limitations/implications The focus is on how these models inform functional requirements for access and other archival activities, and how the field might benefit from having a common metadata model for critical archival descriptive activities. Practical implications By having a shared model, archivists may more easily align current vocabularies and develop new vocabularies and schemas to address the needs of moving image data creators and scholars. Originality/value Moving image archives, like other cultural institutions with significant heritage holdings, can benefit tremendously from investing in the semantic definition of information found in their information databases. While commercial entities such as search engines and data providers have already embraced the opportunities that semantic search provides for resource discovery, most non-commercial entities are just beginning to do so. Thus, this research addresses the benefits and challenges of enriching and enhancing archival moving image records with semantically defined information via LD.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-07-2017-0106.
Themenfeld: Metadaten ; Semantische Interoperabilität
17Cho, H. ; Donovan, A. ; Lee, J.H.: Art in an algorithm : a taxonomy for describing video game visual styles.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.5, S.633-646.
Abstract: The discovery and retrieval of video games in library and information systems is, by and large, dependent on a limited set of descriptive metadata. Noticeably missing from this metadata are classifications of visual style-despite the overwhelmingly visual nature of most video games and the interest in visual style among video game users. One explanation for this paucity is the difficulty in eliciting consistent judgements about visual style, likely due to subjective interpretations of terminology and a lack of demonstrable testing for coinciding judgements. This study presents a taxonomy of video game visual styles constructed from the findings of a 22-participant cataloging user study of visual styles. A detailed description of the study, and its value and shortcomings, are presented along with reflections about the challenges of cultivating consensus about visual style in video games. The high degree of overall agreement in the user study demonstrates the potential value of a descriptor like visual style and the use of a cataloging study in developing visual style taxonomies. The resulting visual style taxonomy, the methods and analysis described herein may help improve the organization and retrieval of video games and possibly other visual materials like graphic designs, illustrations, and animations.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.23988.
Behandelte Form: Spiele
18Çelebi, A. ; Özgür, A.: Segmenting hashtags and analyzing their grammatical structure.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.5, S.675-686.
Abstract: Originated as a label to mark specific tweets, hashtags are increasingly used to convey messages that people like to see in the trending hashtags list. Complex noun phrases and even sentences can be turned into a hashtag. Breaking hashtags into their words is a challenging task due to the irregular and compact nature of the language used in Twitter. In this study, we investigate feature-based machine learning and language model (LM)-based approaches for hashtag segmentation. Our results show that LM alone is not successful at segmenting nontrivial hashtags. However, when the N-best LM-based segmentations are incorporated as features into the feature-based approach, along with context-based features proposed in this study, state-of-the-art results in hashtag segmentation are achieved. In addition, we provide an analysis of over two million distinct hashtags, autosegmented by using our best configuration. The analysis reveals that half of all 60 million hashtag occurrences contain multiple words and 80% of sentiment is trapped inside multiword hashtags, justifying the need for hashtag segmentation. Furthermore, we analyze the grammatical structure of hashtags by parsing them and observe that 77% of the hashtags are noun-based, whereas 11.9% are verb-based.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.23989.
Themenfeld: Metadaten ; Computerlinguistik
19Tallerås, C. ; Dahl, J.H.B. ; Pharo, N.: User conceptualizations of derivative relationships in the bibliographic universe.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.4, S.894-916.
Abstract: Purpose Considerable effort is devoted to developing new models for organizing bibliographic metadata. However, such models have been repeatedly criticized for their lack of proper user testing. The purpose of this paper is to present a study on how non-experts in bibliographic systems map the bibliographic universe and, in particular, how they conceptualize relationships between independent but strongly related entities. Design/methodology/approach The study is based on an open concept-mapping task performed to externalize the conceptualizations of 98 novice students. The conceptualizations of the resulting concept maps are identified and analyzed statistically. Findings The study shows that the participants' conceptualizations have great variety, differing in detail and granularity. These conceptualizations can be categorized into two main groups according to derivative relationships: those that apply a single-entity model directly relating document entities and those (the majority) that apply a multi-entity model relating documents through a high-level collocating node. These high-level nodes seem to be most adequately interpreted either as superwork devices collocating documents belonging to the same bibliographic family or as devices collocating documents belonging to a shared fictional world. Originality/value The findings can guide the work to develop bibliographic standards. Based on the diversity of the conceptualizations, the findings also emphasize the need for more user testing of both conceptual models and the bibliographic end-user systems implementing those models.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-10-2017-0139.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Metadaten
20Maron, D. ; Feinberg, M.: What does it mean to adopt a metadata standard? : a case study of Omeka and the Dublin Core.
In: Journal of documentation. 74(2018) no.4, S.674-691.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to employ a case study of the Omeka content management system to demonstrate how the adoption and implementation of a metadata standard (in this case, Dublin Core) can result in contrasting rhetorical arguments regarding metadata utility, quality, and reliability. In the Omeka example, the author illustrate a conceptual disconnect in how two metadata stakeholders - standards creators and standards users - operationalize metadata quality. For standards creators such as the Dublin Core community, metadata quality involves implementing a standard properly, according to established usage principles; in contrast, for standards users like Omeka, metadata quality involves mere adoption of the standard, with little consideration of proper usage and accompanying principles. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses an approach based on rhetorical criticism. The paper aims to establish whether Omeka's given ends (the position that Omeka claims to take regarding Dublin Core) align with Omeka's guiding ends (Omeka's actual argument regarding Dublin Core). To make this assessment, the paper examines both textual evidence (what Omeka says) and material-discursive evidence (what Omeka does). Findings The evidence shows that, while Omeka appears to argue that adopting the Dublin Core is an integral part of Omeka's mission, the platform's lack of support for Dublin Core implementation makes an opposing argument. Ultimately, Omeka argues that the appearance of adopting a standard is more important than its careful implementation. Originality/value This study contributes to our understanding of how metadata standards are understood and used in practice. The misalignment between Omeka's position and the goals of the Dublin Core community suggests that Omeka, and some portion of its users, do not value metadata interoperability and aggregation in the same way that the Dublin Core community does. This indicates that, although certain values regarding standards adoption may be pervasive in the metadata community, these values are not equally shared amongst all stakeholders in a digital library ecosystem. The way that standards creators (Dublin Core) understand what it means to "adopt a standard" is different from the way that standards users (Omeka) understand what it means to "adopt a standard."
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-06-2017-0095.
Objekt: Dublin Core ; Omeka