Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 03. März 2020)
1MacFarlane, A. ; Missaoui, S. ; Frankowska-Takhari, S.: On machine learning and knowledge organization in multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 47(2020) no.1, S.45-55.
Abstract: Recent technological developments have increased the use of machine learning to solve many problems, including many in information retrieval. Multimedia information retrieval as a problem represents a significant challenge to machine learning as a technological solution, but some problems can still be addressed by using appropriate AI techniques. We review the technological developments and provide a perspective on the use of machine learning in conjunction with knowledge organization to address multimedia IR needs. The semantic gap in multimedia IR remains a significant problem in the field, and solutions to them are many years off. However, new technological developments allow the use of knowledge organization and machine learning in multimedia search systems and services. Specifically, we argue that, the improvement of detection of some classes of lowlevel features in images music and video can be used in conjunction with knowledge organization to tag or label multimedia content for better retrieval performance. We provide an overview of the use of knowledge organization schemes in machine learning and make recommendations to information professionals on the use of this technology with knowledge organization techniques to solve multimedia IR problems. We introduce a five-step process model that extracts features from multimedia objects (Step 1) from both knowledge organization (Step 1a) and machine learning (Step 1b), merging them together (Step 2) to create an index of those multimedia objects (Step 3). We also overview further steps in creating an application to utilize the multimedia objects (Step 4) and maintaining and updating the database of features on those objects (Step 5).
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Multimedia
2Branch, F. ; Arias, T. ; Kennah, J. ; Phillips, R. ; Windleharth, T. ; Lee, J.H.: Representing transmedia fictional worlds through ontology.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.12, S.2771-2782.
Abstract: Currently, there is no structured data standard for representing elements commonly found in transmedia fictional worlds. Although there are websites dedicated to individual universes, the information found on these sites separate out the various formats, concentrate on only the bibliographic aspects of the material, and are only searchable with full text. We have created an ontological model that will allow various user groups interested in transmedia to search for and retrieve the information contained in these worlds based upon their structure. We conducted a domain analysis and user studies based on the contents of Harry Potter, Lord of the Rings, the Marvel Universe, and Star Wars in order to build a new model using Ontology Web Language (OWL) and an artificial intelligence-reasoning engine. This model can infer connections between transmedia properties such as characters, elements of power, items, places, events, and so on. This model will facilitate better search and retrieval of the information contained within these vast story universes for all users interested in them. The result of this project is an OWL ontology reflecting real user needs based upon user research, which is intuitive for users and can be used by artificial intelligence systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23886/full.
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Wissensrepräsentation
3Chaudhury, S. ; Mallik, A. ; Ghosh, H.: Multimedia ontology : representation and applications.
Boca Raton, Florida : CRC Press, 2016. xxvii, 259 S.
Abstract: The book covers multimedia ontology in heritage preservation with intellectual explorations of various themes of Indian cultural heritage. The result of more than 15 years of collective research, Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the nature of media data and the principles involved in its interpretation. The book presents a unified approach to recent advances in multimedia and explains how a multimedia ontology can fill the semantic gap between concepts and the media world. It relays real-life examples of implementations in different domains to illustrate how this gap can be filled. The book contains information that helps with building semantic, content-based search and retrieval engines and also with developing vertical application-specific search applications. It guides you in designing multimedia tools that aid in logical and conceptual organization of large amounts of multimedia data. As a practical demonstration, it showcases multimedia applications in cultural heritage preservation efforts and the creation of virtual museums. The book describes the limitations of existing ontology techniques in semantic multimedia data processing, as well as some open problems in the representations and applications of multimedia ontology. As an antidote, it introduces new ontology representation and reasoning schemes that overcome these limitations. The long, compiled efforts reflected in Multimedia Ontology: Representation and Applications are a signpost for new achievements and developments in efficiency and accessibility in the field.
Anmerkung: Rez. in: Annals of Library and Information Studies 62(2015) no.4, S.299-300 (A.K. Das)
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
LCSH: Multimedia systems ; Semantic Web ; Metadata ; Information storage and retrieval systems
DDC: 006.35 ; 006.7
LCC: Z673 .C384 2015
4MacFarlane, A.: Knowledge organisation and its role in multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 43(2016) no.3, S.180-183.
Abstract: Various kinds of knowledge organisation, such as thesauri, are routinely used to label or tag multimedia content such as images and music and to support information retrieval, i.e. user search for such content. In this paper, we outline why this is the case, in particular focusing on the semantic gap between content and concept based multimedia retrieval. We survey some indexing vocabularies used for multimedia retrieval, and argue that techniques such as thesauri will be needed for the foreseeable future in order to support users in their need for multimedia content. In particular, we argue that artificial intelligence techniques are not mature enough to solve the problem of indexing multimedia conceptually and will not be able to replace human indexers for the foreseeable future.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Special issue: The Great Debate: "This House Believes that the Traditional Thesaurus has no Place in Modern Information Retrieval." [19 February 2015, 14:00-17:30 preceded by ISKO UK AGM and followed by networking, wine and nibbles; vgl.: http://www.iskouk.org/content/great-debate].
Themenfeld: Konzeption und Anwendung des Prinzips Thesaurus ; Multimedia
5Eble, M. ; Kirch, S.: Wissenstransfer und Medienerschließung : Werkzeuge für die Integration von Multimedia-Inhalten in das Wissensmanagement.
In: Open journal of knowledge management. 2013, Ausgabe VII = http://www.community-of-knowledge.de/beitrag/wissenstransfer-und-medienerschliessung-werkzeuge-fuer-die-integration-von-multimedia-inhalten-in-d/.
Abstract: Für Speicherung und Transfer von Wissen setzen Unternehmen neben Textdaten verstärkt auch audio-visuelle Daten ein. Beispiele dafür sind Schulungsvideos für Produktionsanlagen oder Podcasts zu Forschungsthemen. Damit stellt sich die Frage, welche Werkzeuge sich für die Integration von Multimedia-Inhalten in Systeme des Wissensmanagements eignen und wie solche Inhalte in Enterprise-Suchmaschinen eingebunden werden können. Der Beitrag skizziert diesen Ausgangspunkt und gibt eine Übersicht über Anbieter und Werkzeuge zur Erschließung von Bilddaten (z. B. aus Digitalisierungs-Projekten) sowie von audio-visuellen Daten. Er konzentriert sich auf Werkzeuge, die als Software as a Service genutzt werden können und listet Kriterien zur technischen Evaluation solcher Lösungen auf. Der Beitrag basiert auf Beratungs- und Entwicklungsprojekten zu automatischer Medienerschließung, Multimedia Indexing und Enterprise Search.
6Raieli, R.: ¬The semantic hole : enthusiasm and caution around multimedia information retrieval.
In: Knowledge organization. 39(2012) no.1, S.13-22.
Abstract: This paper centres on the tools for the management of new digital documents, which are not only textual, but also visual-video, audio or multimedia in the full sense. Among the aims is to demonstrate that operating within the terms of generic Information Retrieval through textual language only is limiting, and it is instead necessary to consider ampler criteria, such as those of MultiMedia Information Retrieval, according to which, every type of digital document can be analyzed and searched by the proper elements of language for its proper nature. MMIR is presented as the organic complex of the systems of Text Retrieval, Visual Retrieval, Video Retrieval, and Audio Retrieval, each of which has an approach to information management that handles the concrete textual, visual, audio, or video content of the documents directly, here defined as content-based. In conclusion, the limits of this content-based objective access to documents is underlined. The discrepancy known as the semantic gap is that which occurs between semantic-interpretive access and content-based access. Finally, the integration of these conceptions is explained, gathering and composing the merits and the advantages of each of the approaches and of the systems to access to information.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko_39_2012_1_b.pdf.
Anmerkung: Bezugnahme auf: Enser, P.G.B.: Visual image retrieval. In: Annual review of information science and technology. 42(2008), S.3-42.
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Inhaltsanalyse
7Villa, R. ; Jose, J.M.: ¬A study of awareness in multimedia search.
In: Information processing and management. 48(2012) no.1, S.32-46.
Abstract: Awareness of another's activity is an important aspect of facilitating collaboration between users, enabling an "understanding of the activities of others" (Dourish & Bellotti, 1992). In this paper we investigate the role of awareness and its effect on search performance and behaviour in collaborative multimedia retrieval. We focus on the scenario where two users are searching at the same time on the same task, and via an interface, can see the activity of the other user. The main research question asks: does awareness of another searcher aid a user when carrying out a multimedia search session? To encourage awareness, an experimental study was designed where two users were asked to compete to find as many relevant video shots as possible under different awareness conditions. These were individual search (no awareness), Mutual awareness (where both users could see the other's search screen), and unbalanced awareness (where one user is able to see the other's screen, but not vice-versa). Twelve pairs of users were recruited, and the four worst performing TRECVID 2006 search topics were used as search tasks, under four different awareness conditions. We present the results of this study, followed by a discussion of the implications for multimedia information retrieval systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: doi:10.1016/j.ipm.2011.03.005.
8Flores-Herr, N. ; Sack, H. ; Bossert, K.: Suche in Multimediaarchiven von Kultureinrichtungen.
In: Handbuch Internet-Suchmaschinen, 2: Neue Entwicklungen in der Web-Suche. Hrsg.: D. Lewandowski. Heidelberg : Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft AKA, 2011. S.113-140.
Abstract: In diesem Kapitel werden Vorschläge für neue Suchparadigmen nach multimedialen Inhalten in Archiven von Kultureinrichtungen vorgestellt. Um die Notwendigkeit für eine Integration dieser neuen Technologien zu zeigen, werden zunächst Einschränkungen der klassischen katalogbasierten Bibliothekssuche im Zeitalter von immer weiter wachsenden Multimediasammlungen beschrieben. Im Anschluss werden die Vor- und Nachteile zweier Suchparadigmen dargestellt, mit deren Hilfe in Zukunft für Wissenschaftler und Kulturschaffende die Suche nach multimedialen Inhalten erleichtert werden könnte. Zunächst werden die Perspektiven einer semantischen Suche auf Basis von Semantic-Web-Technologien in Bibliotheken beschrieben. Im Anschluss werden Suchmöglichkeiten für Multimediainhalte auf Basis von automatischer inhaltsbasierter Medienanalyse gezeigt. Das Kapitel endet mit einem Ausblick auf eine mögliche Vereinigung der beiden neuen Ansätze mit katalogbasierter Bibliothekssuche.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Multimedia ; Semantic Web
Anwendungsfeld: Museen ; Archive
9Hwang, S.-Y. ; Yang, W.-S. ; Ting, K.-D.: Automatic index construction for multimedia digital libraries.
In: Information processing and management. 46(2010) no.3, S.295-307.
Abstract: Indexing remains one of the most popular tools provided by digital libraries to help users identify and understand the characteristics of the information they need. Despite extensive studies of the problem of automatic index construction for text-based digital libraries, the construction of multimedia digital libraries continues to represent a challenge, because multimedia objects usually lack sufficient text information to ensure reliable index learning. This research attempts to tackle the problem of automatic index construction for multimedia objects by employing Web usage logs and limited keywords pertaining to multimedia objects. The tests of two proposed algorithms use two different data sets with different amounts of textual information. Web usage logs offer precious information for building indexes of multimedia digital libraries with limited textual information. The proposed methods generally yield better indexes, especially for the artwork data set.
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Internet
10Christel, M.G.: Automated metadata in multimedia information systems : creation, refinement, use in surrogates, and evaluation.
San Rafael, Calif. : Morgan and Claypool, 2009. 74 S.
(Synthesis lectures on information concepts, retrieval & services)
Abstract: Improvements in network bandwidth along with dramatic drops in digital storage and processing costs have resulted in the explosive growth of multimedia (combinations of text, image, audio, and video) resources on the Internet and in digital repositories. A suite of computer technologies delivering speech, image, and natural language understanding can automatically derive descriptive metadata for such resources. Difficulties for end users ensue, however, with the tremendous volume and varying quality of automated metadata for multimedia information systems. This lecture surveys automatic metadata creation methods for dealing with multimedia information resources, using broadcast news, documentaries, and oral histories as examples. Strategies for improving the utility of such metadata are discussed, including computationally intensive approaches, leveraging multimodal redundancy, folding in context, and leaving precision-recall tradeoffs under user control. Interfaces building from automatically generated metadata are presented, illustrating the use of video surrogates in multimedia information systems. Traditional information retrieval evaluation is discussed through the annual National Institute of Standards and Technology TRECVID forum, with experiments on exploratory search extending the discussion beyond fact-finding to broader, longer term search activities of learning, analysis, synthesis, and discovery.
Inhalt: Table of Contents: Evolution of Multimedia Information Systems: 1990-2008 / Survey of Automatic Metadata Creation Methods / Refinement of Automatic Metadata / Multimedia Surrogates / End-User Utility for Metadata and Surrogates: Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Satisfaction
Themenfeld: Metadaten ; Multimedia
11Tjondronegoro, D. ; Spink, A. ; Jansen, B.J.: ¬A study and comparison of multimedia Web searching : 1997-2006.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2009) no.9, S.1756-1768.
Abstract: Searching for multimedia is an important activity for users of Web search engines. Studying user's interactions with Web search engine multimedia buttons, including image, audio, and video, is important for the development of multimedia Web search systems. This article provides results from a Weblog analysis study of multimedia Web searching by Dogpile users in 2006. The study analyzes the (a) duration, size, and structure of Web search queries and sessions; (b) user demographics; (c) most popular multimedia Web searching terms; and (d) use of advanced Web search techniques including Boolean and natural language. The current study findings are compared with results from previous multimedia Web searching studies. The key findings are: (a) Since 1997, image search consistently is the dominant media type searched followed by audio and video; (b) multimedia search duration is still short (>50% of searching episodes are <1 min), using few search terms; (c) many multimedia searches are for information about people, especially in audio search; and (d) multimedia search has begun to shift from entertainment to other categories such as medical, sports, and technology (based on the most repeated terms). Implications for design of Web multimedia search engines are discussed.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Multimedia
12Tjondronegoro, D. ; Spink, A.: Web search engine multimedia functionality.
In: Information processing and management. 44(2008) no.1, S.340-357.
Abstract: Web search engines are beginning to offer access to multimedia searching, including audio, video and image searching. In this paper we report findings from a study examining the state of multimedia search functionality on major general and specialized Web search engines. We investigated 102 Web search engines to examine: (1) how many Web search engines offer multimedia searching, (2) the type of multimedia search functionality and methods offered, such as "query by example", and (3) the supports for personalization or customization which are accessible as advanced search. Findings include: (1) few major Web search engines offer multimedia searching and (2) multimedia Web search functionality is generally limited. Our findings show that despite the increasing level of interest in multimedia Web search, those few Web search engines offering multimedia Web search, provide limited multimedia search functionality. Keywords are still the only means of multimedia retrieval, while other methods such as "query by example" are offered by less than 1% of Web search engines examined.
Themenfeld: Suchmaschinen ; Multimedia
14Rising III, H.K. ; Jörgensen, C.: Semantic description in MPEG-7 : the rich recursion of ripeness.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1338-1345.
Abstract: Metadata describing multimedia can address a wide variety of purposes, from the purely physical characteristics of an item, to the circumstances surrounding its production, to attributes that cannot necessarily be determined by examining the item itself directly. These latter attributes, often dealing with "meaning" or interpretation of an item's content, are frequently deemed too difficult to determine and subject to individual and cultural variability. At the same time, however, research has shown that these abstract, interpretive attributes, which carry meaning, are frequently the ones for which people search. To describe an item fully, therefore, means to describe it at both the "syntactic" and the "semantic" levels. This article discusses the development of the semantic description schemes within the MPEG-7 standard from both a historical and an intellectual perspective, as well as the difficulties inherent in creating a descriptive schema that can fully capture the complexity of "narrative worlds."
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
Themenfeld: Multimedia ; Metadaten
15Jörgensen, C.: ¬The MPEG-7 standard : multimedia description in theory and application.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1323-1328.
Abstract: Allowing the description of the structure of documents has been one of the key factors for the success of the hypertext markup language (HTML) family of markup languages. This capability has motivated the phenomenon that has become known as the World Wide Web (the "Web"). The next generation of the Web, known as the Semantic Web (Berners-Lee, Hendler. & Lassila, 2001), aims at describing the meaning rather than the structure of data, adding more intelligent search, retrieval, and other agent functionalities to the Web, and tools that make the implementation of this Semantic Web possible are greatly needed. The increasing availability of multimedia on the World Wide Web makes metadata description efforts for multimedia a pressing need, yet with the volume of content being created, often only a rudimentary description of the multimedia content is available. In addition, the digital mode entails a host of other descriptive needs, such as the format, factors such as compression and transmission, and issues such as copyright restrictions and terns for usage. Thus, new and efficient ways of describing multimedia content and meaning are needed as well as a structure that is capable of carrying such descriptions. Several attempts have been made to grapple with this issue using descriptive metadata, one of the earliest of which was the revision of the Dublin Core to ascertain essential features necessary to resource discovery of visual items in a networked environment (Weibel & Miller, 1997). Other metadata schemes, such as the Visual Resources Association Core Categories (http://www.vraweb.org/vracore3.htm), also include format information necessary to the use and display of digital images.
Anmerkung: Einführender Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
16Fatemi, N.: MPEG-7 in practice : analysis of a television news retrieval application.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1364-1366.
Abstract: This article provides an overview of our experiments in using MPEG-7 in a television news retrieval application. Our study is based on a survey of professional users in the Television Suisse Romande (TSR) television news production environment. We present here two main issues. First, we describe the way the generic and voluminous MPEG-7 Schema can be exploited in the context of a specific application domain. Second, we discuss the problem of how to search MPEG-7 descriptions, which are detailed and complex by nature, via a high-level user-oriented retrieval model.
Inhalt: Short articles: applications
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
17Salembier, P. ; Benitez, A.B.: Structure description tools.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1329-1337.
Abstract: This article provides an overview of the tools specified by the MPEG-7 standard for describing the structure of multimedia content. In particular, it focuses on tools that represent segments resulting from a spatial and/or temporal partitioning of multimedia content. The segments are described in terms of their decomposition and the general relations among them as well as attributes or features of segments. Decomposition efficiently represents segment hierarchies and can be used to create tables of contents or indexes. More general graph representations are handled by the various standard spatial and temporal relations. A segment can be described by a large number of features ranging from those targeting the life cycle of the content (e.g., creation and usage) to those addressing signal characteristics such as audio, color, shape, or motion properties.
Inhalt: In-depth articles: intellectual foundations and descriptions of MPEG-7 tools for multimedia description
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
18Evain, J.-P. ; Martinez, J.M.: TV-Anytime Phase 1 and MPEG-7.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1367-1373.
Abstract: Personal video recorders have the capability to change the media delivery industry fundamentally, and in this context, many believe the real international age of personal digital recorders (PDRs) will arrive with the use of "open" systems. The world reached an important milestone with the publication of the TV-Anytime Phase 1 specifications for unidirectional broadcast and metadata services over bidirectional networks. TV-Anytime is a worldwide pre-standardization body; this article gives an overview of the main features of TV-Anytime's metadata specification and its relationship to MPEG-7 and provides insight into ways two organizations concerned with standards work together. Phase 2 has since been completed and TV-Anytime has been adopted by various international standards organizations dealing with telecommunications and is now in the implementation phase.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
19Lim, J. ; Kang, S. ; Kim, M.: Automatic user preference learning for personalized electronic program guide applications.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1346-1356.
Abstract: In this article, we introduce a user preference model contained in the User Interaction Tools Clause of the MPEG-7 Multimedia Description Schemes, which is described by a UserPreferences description scheme (DS) and a UsageHistory description scheme (DS). Then we propose a user preference learning algorithm by using a Bayesian network to which weighted usage history data on multimedia consumption is taken as input. Our user preference learning algorithm adopts a dynamic learning method for learning real-time changes in a user's preferences from content consumption history data by weighting these choices in time. Finally, we address a user preference-based television program recommendation system on the basis of the user preference learning algorithm and show experimental results for a large set of realistic usage-history data of watched television programs. The experimental results suggest that our automatic user reference learning method is well suited for a personalized electronic program guide (EPG) application.
Inhalt: In-depth articles: Applications of MPEG-7 tools
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
20Agnew, G. ; Kniesner, D. ; Weber, M.B.: Integrating MPEG-7 into the moving image collections portal.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58(2007) no.9, S.1357-1363.
Abstract: This article discusses the implementation of MPEG-7 within the Moving Image Collections (MIC) portal. MIC is a union catalog of the world's moving images, as well as a portal to information on the care, management, and use of moving images. The MIC Union Catalog utilizes a core registry schema that is designed to map readily to any metadata schema used to describe moving images. The MIC development team was particularly interested in supporting MPEG-7 for future nontextual digital video indexing applications. An MPEG-7 application profile and Microsoft Access cataloging utility were developed in order to test MPEG-7 within the MIC Union Catalog; 400 science digital videos in the ResearchChannel collection were cataloged in MPEG-7. The MPEG-7 records were mapped to MIC and ingested. Draft MPEG-7 to MIC and MIC to MPEG-7 maps were developed and are available at the MIC Web site. MPEG-7 records are available for viewing for any record in the MIC database via a collections explore search within the Archivists' portal. The MPEG-7 cataloging utility may be downloaded from the MIC project Web site (Moving Image Collections. MIC Cataloging Utility. http://gondolin.rutgers.edu/MIC/text/ how/cataloging_utility.htm). This article also discusses issues with MPEG-7 as a descriptive metadata schema, as well as mapping and implementation issues identified in the project.
Anmerkung: Beitrag eines Themenschwerpunktes
Behandelte Form: Filme ; Videos
Objekt: MPEG-7 ; Moving Image Collections Portal