Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
322Berners-Lee, T. ; Hendler, J. ; Lassila, O.: Mein Computer versteht mich.
In: Spektrum der Wissenschaft. 2001, H.8, S.42-49.
Abstract: Was wäre, wenn der Computer den Inhalt einer Seite aus dem World Wide Web nicht nur anzeigen, sondern auch seine Bedeutung erfassen würde? Er könnte ungeahnte Dinge für seinen Benutzer tun - und das vielleicht schon bald, wenn das semantische Netz etabliert ist
Anmerkung: Dt. Übersetzung von: The Semantic Web: a new form of Web content that is meaningful to computers will unleash a revolution of new possibilities. In: Scientific American. 284(2001) no.5, S.34-43.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Vision ; Internet
323Studer, R. ; Studer, H.-P. ; Studer, A.: Semantisches Knowledge Retrieval.
(Ontoprise "Semantics for the Web" - Whitepaper series)
Abstract: Dieses Whitepaper befasst sich mit der Integration semantischer Technologien in bestehende Ansätze des Information Retrieval und die damit verbundenen weitreichenden Auswirkungen auf Effizienz und Effektivität von Suche und Navigation in Dokumenten. Nach einer Einbettung in die Problematik des Wissensmanagement aus Sicht der Informationstechnik folgt ein Überblick zu den Methoden des Information Retrieval. Anschließend werden die semantischen Technologien "Wissen modellieren - Ontologie" und "Neues Wissen ableiten - Inferenz" vorgestellt. Ein Integrationsansatz wird im Folgenden diskutiert und die entstehenden Mehrwerte präsentiert. Insbesondere ergeben sich Erweiterungen hinsichtlich einer verfeinerten Suchunterstützung und einer kontextbezogenen Navigation sowie die Möglichkeiten der Auswertung von regelbasierten Zusammenhängen und einfache Integration von strukturierten Informationsquellen. Das Whitepaper schließt mit einem Ausblick auf die zukünftige Entwicklung des WWW hin zu einem Semantic Web und die damit verbundenen Implikationen für semantische Technologien.
Inhalt: Inhalt: 1. Einführung - 2. Wissensmanagement - 3. Information Retrieval - 3.1. Methoden und Techniken - 3.2. Information Retrieval in der Anwendung - 4. Semantische Ansätze - 4.1. Wissen modellieren - Ontologie - 4.2. Neues Wissen inferieren - 5. Knowledge Retrieval in der Anwendung - 6. Zukunftsaussichten - 7. Fazit
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
324Berners-Lee, T.: ¬Das Web ist noch nicht vollendet.
In: Internet World. 2000, H.1, S.54-56.
Abstract: Tim Berners-Lee ist der Erfinder des WWW. Der Brite, der 1989 den ersten Browser entwickelt hat, schildert im Interview seine Vision von der Zukunft des Web
Themenfeld: Internet ; Biographische Darstellungen ; Semantic Web
325Heflin, J. ; Hendler, J.: Semantic interoperability on the Web.
Abstract: XML will have a profound impact on the way data is exchanged on the Internet. An important feature of this language is the separation of content from presentation, which makes it easier to select and/or reformat the data. However, due to the likelihood of numerous industry and domain specific DTDs, those who wish to integrate information will still be faced with the problem of semantic interoperability. In this paper we discuss why this problem is not solved by XML, and then discuss why the Resource Description Framework is only a partial solution. We then present the SHOE language, which we feel has many of the features necessary to enable a semantic web, and describe an existing set of tools that make it easy to use the language.
Themenfeld: Semantische Interoperabilität ; Semantic Web
326Miller, E. ; Schloss. B. ; Lassila, O. ; Swick, R.R.: Resource Description Framework (RDF) : model and syntax.
Abstract: RDF - the Resource Description Framework - is a foundation for processing metadata; it provides interoperability between applications that exchange machine-understandable information on the Web. RDF emphasizes facilities to enable automated processing of Web resources. RDF metadata can be used in a variety of application areas; for example: in resource discovery to provide better search engine capabilities; in cataloging for describing the content and content relationships available at a particular Web site, page, or digital library; by intelligent software agents to facilitate knowledge sharing and exchange; in content rating; in describing collections of pages that represent a single logical "document"; for describing intellectual property rights of Web pages, and in many others. RDF with digital signatures will be key to building the "Web of Trust" for electronic commerce, collaboration, and other applications. Metadata is "data about data" or specifically in the context of RDF "data describing web resources." The distinction between "data" and "metadata" is not an absolute one; it is a distinction created primarily by a particular application. Many times the same resource will be interpreted in both ways simultaneously. RDF encourages this view by using XML as the encoding syntax for the metadata. The resources being described by RDF are, in general, anything that can be named via a URI. The broad goal of RDF is to define a mechanism for describing resources that makes no assumptions about a particular application domain, nor defines the semantics of any application domain. The definition of the mechanism should be domain neutral, yet the mechanism should be suitable for describing information about any domain. This document introduces a model for representing RDF metadata and one syntax for expressing and transporting this metadata in a manner that maximizes the interoperability of independently developed web servers and clients. The syntax described in this document is best considered as a "serialization syntax" for the underlying RDF representation model. The serialization syntax is XML, XML being the W3C's work-in-progress to define a richer Web syntax for a variety of applications. RDF and XML are complementary; there will be alternate ways to represent the same RDF data model, some more suitable for direct human authoring. Future work may lead to including such alternatives in this document.
Inhalt: RDF Data Model At the core of RDF is a model for representing named properties and their values. These properties serve both to represent attributes of resources (and in this sense correspond to usual attribute-value-pairs) and to represent relationships between resources. The RDF data model is a syntax-independent way of representing RDF statements. RDF statements that are syntactically very different could mean the same thing. This concept of equivalence in meaning is very important when performing queries, aggregation and a number of other tasks at which RDF is aimed. The equivalence is defined in a clean machine understandable way. Two pieces of RDF are equivalent if and only if their corresponding data model representations are the same. Table of contents 1. Introduction 2. RDF Data Model 3. RDF Grammar 4. Signed RDF 5. Examples 6. Appendix A: Brief Explanation of XML Namespaces
Anmerkung: Spätere Versionen unter: http://www.w3.org/Metadata/RDF/Group/WD-rdf-syntax
Themenfeld: Auszeichnungssprachen ; Semantische Interoperabilität ; Semantic Web
327Soergel, D.: SemWeb: proposal for an open, multifunctional, multilingual system for integrated access to knowledge about concepts and terminology.
In: Knowledge organization and change: Proceedings of the Fourth International ISKO Conference, 15-18 July 1996, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Ed.: R. Green. Frankfurt : INDEKS, 1996. S.165-173.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.5)
Abstract: Presents a proposal for the long-range development of an open, multifunctional, multilingual system for integrated access to many kinds of knowledge about concepts and terminology. The system would draw on existing knowledge bases that are accessible through the Internet or on CD-ROM and on a common integrated distributed knowledge base that would grow incrementally over time. Existing knowledge bases would be accessed througha common interface that would search several knowledge bases, collate the data into a common format, and present them to the user. The common integrated distributed knowldge base would provide an environment in which many contributors could carry out classification and terminological projects more efficiently, with the results available in a common format. Over time, data from other knowledge bases could be incorporated into the common knowledge base, either by actual transfer (provided the knowledge base producers are willing) or by reference through a link. Either way, such incorporation requires intellectual work but allows for tighter integration than common interface access to multiple knowledge bases. Each piece of information in the common knowledge base will have all its sources attached, providing an acknowledgment mechanism that gives due credit to all contributors. The whole system would be designed to be usable by many levels of users for improved information exchange.
Themenfeld: Multilinguale Probleme ; Semantic Web ; Wissensrepräsentation
328Soergel, D.: SemWeb: Proposal for an Open, multifunctional, multilingual system for integrated access to knowledge about concepts and terminology : exploration and development of the concept.
Abstract: This paper presents a proposal for the long-range development of an open, multifunctional, multilingual system for integrated access to many kinds of knowledge about concepts and terminology. The system would draw on existing knowledge bases that are accessible through the Internet or on CD-ROM an on a common integrated distributed knowledge base that would grow incrementally over time. Existing knowledge bases would be accessed through a common interface that would search several knowledge bases, collate the data into a common format, and present them to the user. The common integrated distributed knowledge base would provide an environment in which many contributors could carry out classification and terminological projects more efficiently, with the results available in a common format. Over time, data from other knowledge bases could be incorporated into the common knowledge base, either by actual transfer (provided the knowledge base producers are willing) or by reference through a link. Either way, such incorporation requires intellectual work but allows for tighter integration than common interface access to multiple knowledge bases. Each piece of information in the common knowledge base will have all its sources attached, providing an acknowledgment mechanism that gives due credit to all contributors. The whole system woul be designed to be usable by many levels of users for improved information exchange.
Inhalt: Expanded version of a paper published in Advances in Knowledge Organization v.5 (1996): 165-173 (4th Annual ISKO Conference, Washington, D.C., 1996 July 15-18): SemWeb: proposal for an open, multifunctional, multilingual system for integrated access to knowledge about concepts and terminology.
Themenfeld: Semantic Web ; Multilinguale Probleme ; Wissensrepräsentation
329Veltman, K.H.: Towards a Semantic Web for culture.
In: Journal of digital information. 4(2004), no.4.
Abstract: Today's semantic web deals with meaning in a very restricted sense and offers static solutions. This is adequate for many scientific, technical purposes and for business transactions requiring machine-to-machine communication, but does not answer the needs of culture. Science, technology and business are concerned primarily with the latest findings, the state of the art, i.e. the paradigm or dominant world-view of the day. In this context, history is considered non-essential because it deals with things that are out of date. By contrast, culture faces a much larger challenge, namely, to re-present changes in ways of knowing; changing meanings in different places at a given time (synchronically) and over time (diachronically). Culture is about both objects and the commentaries on them; about a cumulative body of knowledge; about collective memory and heritage. Here, history plays a central role and older does not mean less important or less relevant. Hence, a Leonardo painting that is 400 years old, or a Greek statue that is 2500 years old, typically have richer commentaries and are often more valuable than their contemporary equivalents. In this context, the science of meaning (semantics) is necessarily much more complex than semantic primitives. A semantic web in the cultural domain must enable us to trace how meaning and knowledge organisation have evolved historically in different cultures. This paper examines five issues to address this challenge: 1) different world-views (i.e. a shift from substance to function and from ontology to multiple ontologies); 2) developments in definitions and meaning; 3) distinctions between words and concepts; 4) new classes of relations; and 5) dynamic models of knowledge organisation. These issues reveal that historical dimensions of cultural diversity in knowledge organisation are also central to classification of biological diversity. New ways are proposed of visualizing knowledge using a time/space horizon to distinguish between universals and particulars. It is suggested that new visualization methods make possible a history of questions as well as of answers, thus enabling dynamic access to cultural and historical dimensions of knowledge. Unlike earlier media, which were limited to recording factual dimensions of collective memory, digital media enable us to explore theories, ways of perceiving, ways of knowing; to enter into other mindsets and world-views and thus to attain novel insights and new levels of tolerance. Some practical consequences are outlined.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://journals.tdl.org/jodi/article/viewArticle/113.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web
330Mayfield, J. ; Finin, T.: Information retrieval on the Semantic Web : integrating inference and retrieval.
Abstract: One vision of the Semantic Web is that it will be much like the Web we know today, except that documents will be enriched by annotations in machine understandable markup. These annotations will provide metadata about the documents as well as machine interpretable statements capturing some of the meaning of document content. We discuss how the information retrieval paradigm might be recast in such an environment. We suggest that retrieval can be tightly bound to inference. Doing so makes today's Web search engines useful to Semantic Web inference engines, and causes improvements in either retrieval or inference to lead directly to improvements in the other.
Inhalt: Vgl. auch: http://www.cs.umbc.edu/~finin/papers/pox.pdf.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Semantic Web