Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 21. Januar 2019)
1Greyson, D.: Information triangulation : a complex and agentic everyday information practice.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.7, S.869-878.
Abstract: In contemporary urban settings, information seekers may face challenges assessing and making use of the large quantity of information to which they have access. Such challenges may be particularly acute when laypeople are considering specialized or technical information pertaining to topics over which knowledge is contested. Within a constructivist grounded theory study of the health information practices of 39 young parents in urban Canada, a complex practice of information triangulation was observed. Triangulation comprised an iterative process of seeking, assessment, and sense-making, and typically resulted in a decision or action. This paper examines the emergent concept of information triangulation in everyday life, using data from the young parent study. Triangulation processes in this study could be classified as one of four types, and functioned as an exercise of agency in the face of structures of expertise and exclusion. Although triangulation has long been described and discussed as a practice among scientific researchers wishing to validate and enrich their data, it has rarely been identified as an everyday practice in information behavior research. Future investigations should consider the use of information triangulation for other types of information, including by other populations and in other areas of contested knowledge.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/asi.24012.
2Wu, I.-C. ; Vakkari, P.: Effects of subject-oriented visualization tools on search by novices and intermediates.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 69(2018) no.12, S.1428-1445.
Abstract: This study explores how user subject knowledge influences search task processes and outcomes, as well as how search behavior is influenced by subject-oriented information visualization (IV) tools. To enable integrated searches, the proposed WikiMap + integrates search functions and IV tools (i.e., a topic network and hierarchical topic tree) and gathers information from Wikipedia pages and Google Search results. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed interfaces, we design subject-oriented tasks and adopt extended evaluation measures. We recruited 48 novices and 48 knowledgeable users, that is, intermediates, for the evaluation. Our results show that novices using the proposed interface demonstrate better search performance than intermediates using Wikipedia. We therefore conclude that our tools help close the gap between novices and intermediates in information searches. The results also show that intermediates can take advantage of the search tool by leveraging the IV tools to browse subtopics, and formulate better queries with less effort. We conclude that embedding the IV and the search tools in the interface can result in different search behavior but improved task performance. We provide implications to design search systems to include IV features adapted to user levels of subject knowledge to help them achieve better task performance.
Themenfeld: Visualisierung ; Suchtaktik
3Tamine, L. ; Chouquet, C.: On the impact of domain expertise on query formulation, relevance assessment and retrieval performance in clinical settings.
In: Information processing and management. 53(2017) no.2, S.332-350.
Abstract: The large volumes of medical information available on the web may provide answers for a wide range of users attempting to solve health-related problems. While experts generally utilize reliable resources for diagnosis search and professional development, novices utilize different (social) web resources to obtain information that helps them manage their health or the health of people who they care for. A diverse number of related search topics address clinical diagnosis, advice searching, information sharing, connecting with experts, etc. This paper focuses on the extent to which expertise can impact clinical query formulation, document relevance assessment and retrieval performance in the context of tailoring retrieval models and systems to experts vs. non-experts. The results show that medical domain expertise 1) plays an important role in the lexical representations of information needs; 2) significantly influences the perception of relevance even among users with similar levels of expertise and 3) reinforces the idea that a single ground truth does not exist, thereby leading to the variability of system rankings with respect to the level of user's expertise. The findings of this study presents opportunities for the design of personalized health-related IR systems, but also for providing insights about the evaluation of such systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030645731630303X [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2016.11.004].
4Sanchiza, M. ; Chinb, J. ; Chevaliera, A. ; Fuc, W.T. ; Amadieua, F. ; Hed, J.: Searching for information on the web : impact of cognitive aging, prior domain knowledge and complexity of the search problems.
In: Information processing and management. 53(2017) no.1, S.281-294.
Abstract: This study focuses on the impact of age, prior domain knowledge and cognitive abilities on performance, query production and navigation strategies during information searching. Twenty older adults and nineteen young adults had to answer 12 information search problems of varying nature within two domain knowledge: health and manga. In each domain, participants had to perform two simple fact-finding problems (keywords provided and answer directly accessible on the search engine results page), two difficult fact-finding problems (keywords had to be inferred) and two open-ended information search problems (multiple answers possible and navigation necessary). Results showed that prior domain knowledge helped older adults improve navigation (i.e. reduced the number of webpages visited and thus decreased the feeling of disorientation), query production and reformulation (i.e. they formulated semantically more specific queries, and they inferred a greater number of new keywords).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306457316301923 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2016.09.003].
Themenfeld: Internet ; Suchtaktik
5Ren, P. ; Chen, Z. ; Ma, J. ; Zhang, Z. ; Si, L. ; Wang, S.: Detecting temporal patterns of user queries.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.113-128.
Abstract: Query classification is an important part of exploring the characteristics of web queries. Existing studies are mainly based on Broder's classification scheme and classify user queries into navigational, informational, and transactional categories according to users' information needs. In this article, we present a novel classification scheme from the perspective of queries' temporal patterns. Queries' temporal patterns are inherent time series patterns of the search volumes of queries that reflect the evolution of the popularity of a query over time. By analyzing the temporal patterns of queries, search engines can more deeply understand the users' search intents and thus improve performance. Furthermore, we extract three groups of features based on the queries' search volume time series and use a support vector machine (SVM) to automatically detect the temporal patterns of user queries. Extensive experiments on the Million Query Track data sets of the Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23578/full.
6Rowley, J. ; Johnson, F. ; Sbaffi, L.: Gender as an influencer of online health information-seeking and evaluation behavior.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.36-47.
Abstract: This article contributes to the growing body of research that explores the significance of context in health information behavior. Specifically, through the lens of trust judgments, it demonstrates that gender is a determinant of the information evaluation process. A questionnaire-based survey collected data from adults regarding the factors that influence their judgment of the trustworthiness of online health information. Both men and women identified credibility, recommendation, ease of use, and brand as being of importance in their trust judgments. However, women also take into account style, while men eschew this for familiarity. In addition, men appear to be more concerned with the comprehensiveness and accuracy of the information, the ease with which they can access it, and its familiarity, whereas women demonstrate greater interest in cognition, such as the ease with which they can read and understand the information. These gender differences are consistent with the demographic data, which suggest that: women consult more types of sources than men; men are more likely to be searching with respect to a long-standing health complaint; and, women are more likely than men to use tablets in their health information seeking. Recommendations for further research to better inform practice are offered.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23597/full.
7Pontis, S. ; Blandford, A. ; Greifeneder, E. ; Attalla, H. ; Neal, D.: Keeping up to date : an academic researcher's information journey.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.1, S.22-35.
Abstract: Keeping up to date with research developments is a central activity of academic researchers, but researchers face difficulties in managing the rapid growth of available scientific information. This study examined how researchers stay up to date, using the information journey model as a framework for analysis and investigating which dimensions influence information behaviors. We designed a 2-round study involving semistructured interviews and prototype testing with 61 researchers with 3 levels of seniority (PhD student to professor). Data were analyzed following a semistructured qualitative approach. Five key dimensions that influence information behaviors were identified: level of seniority, information sources, state of the project, level of familiarity, and how well defined the relevant community is. These dimensions are interrelated and their values determine the flow of the information journey. Across all levels of professional expertise, researchers used similar hard (formal) sources to access content, while soft (interpersonal) sources were used to filter information. An important "pain point" that future information tools should address is helping researchers filter information at the point of need.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23623/full.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Informationsdienstleistungen
8Liu, Z. ; Jansen, B.J.: ASK: A taxonomy of accuracy, social, and knowledge information seeking posts in social question and answering.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.2, S.333-347.
Abstract: Many people turn to their social networks to find information through the practice of question and answering. We believe it is necessary to use different answering strategies based on the type of questions to accommodate the different information needs. In this research, we propose the ASK taxonomy that categorizes questions posted on social networking sites into three types according to the nature of the questioner's inquiry of accuracy, social, or knowledge. To automatically decide which answering strategy to use, we develop a predictive model based on ASK question types using question features from the perspectives of lexical, topical, contextual, and syntactic as well as answer features. By applying the classifier on an annotated data set, we present a comprehensive analysis to compare questions in terms of their word usage, topical interests, temporal and spatial restrictions, syntactic structure, and response characteristics. Our research results show that the three types of questions exhibited different characteristics in the way they are asked. Our automatic classification algorithm achieves an 83% correct labeling result, showing the value of the ASK taxonomy for the design of social question and answering systems.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23655/full.
9Barrio, P. ; Gravano, L.: Sampling strategies for information extraction over the deep web.
In: Information processing and management. 53(2017) no.2, S.309-331.
Abstract: Information extraction systems discover structured information in natural language text. Having information in structured form enables much richer querying and data mining than possible over the natural language text. However, information extraction is a computationally expensive task, and hence improving the efficiency of the extraction process over large text collections is of critical interest. In this paper, we focus on an especially valuable family of text collections, namely, the so-called deep-web text collections, whose contents are not crawlable and are only available via querying. Important steps for efficient information extraction over deep-web text collections (e.g., selecting the collections on which to focus the extraction effort, based on their contents; or learning which documents within these collections-and in which order-to process, based on their words and phrases) require having a representative document sample from each collection. These document samples have to be collected by querying the deep-web text collections, an expensive process that renders impractical the existing sampling approaches developed for other data scenarios. In this paper, we systematically study the space of query-based document sampling techniques for information extraction over the deep web. Specifically, we consider (i) alternative query execution schedules, which vary on how they account for the query effectiveness, and (ii) alternative document retrieval and processing schedules, which vary on how they distribute the extraction effort over documents. We report the results of the first large-scale experimental evaluation of sampling techniques for information extraction over the deep web. Our results show the merits and limitations of the alternative query execution and document retrieval and processing strategies, and provide a roadmap for addressing this critically important building block for efficient, scalable information extraction.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306457316306318 [http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ipm.2016.11.006].
Themenfeld: Internet ; Suchtaktik
10St. Jean, B.: Factors motivating, demotivating, or impeding information seeking and use by people with type 2 diabetes : a call to work toward preventing, identifying, and addressing incognizance.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.2, S.309-320.
Abstract: Type 2 diabetes has grown increasingly prevalent over recent decades, now affecting nearly 400 million people worldwide; however, nearly half of these individuals have no idea they have it. Consumer health information behavior (CHIB), which encompasses people's health-related information needs as well as the ways in which they interact (or do not interact) with health-related information, plays an important role in people's ability to prevent, cope with, and successfully manage a serious chronic disease across time. In this mixed-method longitudinal study, the CHIB of 34 people with type 2 diabetes is explored with the goal of identifying the factors that motivate, demotivate, or impede their diabetes-related information seeking and use. The findings reveal that while these processes can be motivated by many different factors and can lead to important benefits, there are significant barriers (such as "incognizance," defined herein as having an information need that one is not aware of) that may demotivate or impede their information seeking and use. The implications of these findings are discussed, focusing on how we might work toward preventing, identifying, and addressing incognizance among this population, ensuring they have the information they need when it can be of the most use to them.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23652/full.
11Walhout, J. ; Oomen, P. ; Jarodzka, H. ; Brand-Gruwel, S.: Effects of task complexity on online search behavior of adolescents.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.6, S.1449-1461.
Abstract: Evaluation of information during information problem-solving processes already starts when trying to select the appropriate search result on a search engine results page (SERP). Up to now, research has mainly focused on the evaluation of webpages, while the evaluation of SERPs received less attention. Furthermore, task complexity is often not taken into account. A within-subjects design was used to study the influence of task complexity on search query formulation, evaluation of search results, and task performance. Three search tasks were used: a fact-finding, cause-effect, and a controversial topic task. To measure perceptual search processes, we used a combination of log files, eye-tracking data, answer forms, and think-aloud protocols. The results reveal that an increase in task complexity results in more search queries and used keywords, more time to formulate search queries, and more considered search results on the SERPs. Furthermore, higher ranked search results were considered more often than lower ranked results. However, not all the results for the most complex task were in line with expectations. These conflicting results can be explained by a lack of prior knowledge and the possible interference of prior attitudes.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23782/full.
12Saastamoinen, M. ; Järvelin, K.: Search task features in work tasks of varying types and complexity.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.5, S.1111-1123.
Abstract: Information searching in practice seldom is an end in itself. In work, work task (WT) performance forms the context, which information searching should serve. Therefore, information retrieval (IR) systems development/evaluation should take the WT context into account. The present paper analyzes how WT features: task complexity and task types, affect information searching in authentic work: the types of information needs, search processes, and search media. We collected data on 22 information professionals in authentic work situations in three organization types: city administration, universities, and companies. The data comprise 286 WTs and 420 search tasks (STs). The data include transaction logs, video recordings, daily questionnaires, interviews. and observation. The data were analyzed quantitatively. Even if the participants used a range of search media, most STs were simple throughout the data, and up to 42% of WTs did not include searching. WT's effects on STs are not straightforward: different WT types react differently to WT complexity. Due to the simplicity of authentic searching, the WT/ST types in interactive IR experiments should be reconsidered.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23766/full.
13Xie, I. ; Joo, S. ; Bennett-Kapusniak, R.: User involvement and system support in applying search tactics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.5, S.1165-1185.
Abstract: Both user involvement and system support play important roles in applying search tactics. To apply search tactics in the information retrieval (IR) processes, users make decisions and take actions in the search process, while IR systems assist them by providing different system features. After analyzing 61 participants' information searching diaries and questionnaires we identified various types of user involvement and system support in applying different types of search tactics. Based on quantitative analysis, search tactics were classified into 3 groups: user-dominated, system-dominated, and balanced tactics. We further explored types of user involvement and types of system support in applying search tactics from the 3 groups. The findings show that users and systems play major roles in applying user-dominated and system-dominated tactics, respectively. When applying balanced tactics, users and systems must collaborate closely with each other. In this article, we propose a model that illustrates user involvement and system support as they occur in user-dominated tactics, system-dominated tactics, and balanced tactics. Most important, IR system design implications are discussed to facilitate effective and efficient applications of the 3 groups of search tactics.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23765/full.
14He, W. ; Tian, X.: ¬A longitudinal study of user queries and browsing requests in a case-based reasoning retrieval system.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.5, S.1124-1136.
Abstract: This article reports on a longitudinal analysis of query logs of a web-based case library system during an 8-year period (from 2005 to 2012). The analysis studies 3 different information-seeking approaches: keyword searching, browsing, and case-based reasoning (CBR) searching provided by the system by examining the query logs that stretch over 8 years. The longitudinal dimension of this study offers unique possibilities to see how users used the 3 different approaches over time. Various user information-seeking patterns and trends are identified through the query usage pattern analysis and session analysis. The study identified different user groups and found that a majority of the users tend to stick to their favorite information-seeking approach to meet their immediate information needs and do not seem to care whether alternative search options will offer greater benefits. The study also found that return users used CBR searching much more frequently than 1-time users and tend to use more query terms to look for information than 1-time users.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23738/full.
Themenfeld: Suchtaktik ; Case Based Reasoning
15Smith, C.L.: Domain-independent search expertise : gaining knowledge in query formulation through guided practice.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.6, S.1462-1479.
Abstract: Although modern search systems require minimal skill for meeting simple information needs, most systems provide weak support for gaining advanced skill; hence, the goal of designing systems that guide searchers in developing expertise. Essential to developing such systems are a description of expert search behavior and an understanding of how it may be acquired. The present study contributes a detailed analysis of the query behavior of 10 students as they completed assigned exercises during a semester-long course on expert search. Detailed query logs were coded for three dimensions of query expression: the information structure searched, the type of query term used, and intent of the query with respect to specificity. Patterns of query formulation were found to evidence a progression of instruction, suggesting that the students gained knowledge of fundamental system-independent constructs that underlie expert search, and that domain-independent search expertise may be defined as the ability to use these constructs. Implications for system design are addressed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23776/full.
16Lu, K. ; Joo, S. ; Lee, T. ; Hu, R.: Factors that influence query reformulations and search performance in health information retrieval : a multilevel modeling approach.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.8, S.1886-1898.
Abstract: Query reformulations can occur multiple times in a session, and queries observed in the same session tend to be related to each other. Due to the interdependent nature of queries in a session, it has been challenging to analyze query reformulation data while controlling for possible dependencies among queries. This study proposes a multilevel modeling approach in an attempt to analyze the effects of contextual factors and system features on types of query reformulation, as well as the relationship between types of query reformulation and search performance within a single research model. The results revealed that system features and users' educational background significantly influence users' query reformulation behaviors. Also, types of query reformulation had a significant impact on search performance. The main contribution of this study lies in that it adopted the multilevel modeling method to analyze query reformulation behavior while considering the nested structure of search session data. Multilevel analysis enables us to design an extensible research model to include both session-level and action-level factors, which provides a more extended understanding of the relationships among factors that influence query reformulation behavior and search performance. The multilevel modeling used in this study has practical implications for future query reformulation studies.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23872/full.
17Teixera Lopes, C. ; Paiva, D. ; Ribeiro, C.: Effects of language and terminology of query suggestions on medical accuracy considering different user characteristics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.9, S.2063-2075.
Abstract: Searching for health information is one of the most popular activities on the web. In this domain, users often misspell or lack knowledge of the proper medical terms to use in queries. To overcome these difficulties and attempt to retrieve higher-quality content, we developed a query suggestion system that provides alternative queries combining the Portuguese or English language with lay or medico-scientific terminology. Here we evaluate this system's impact on the medical accuracy of the knowledge acquired during the search. Evaluation shows that simply providing these suggestions contributes to reduce the quantity of incorrect content. This indicates that even when suggestions are not clicked, they are useful either for subsequent queries' formulation or for interpreting search results. Clicking on suggestions, regardless of type, leads to answers with more correct content. An analysis by type of suggestion and user characteristics showed that the benefits of certain languages and terminologies are more perceptible in users with certain levels of English proficiency and health literacy. This suggests a personalization of this suggestion system toward these characteristics. Overall, the effect of language is more preponderant than the effect of terminology. Clicks on English suggestions are clearly preferable to clicks on Portuguese ones.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23874/full.
18Sanfilippo, M. ; Yang, S. ; Fichman, P.: Trolling here, there, and everywhere : perceptions of trolling behaviors in context.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.10, S.2313-2327.
Abstract: Online trolling has become increasingly prevalent and visible in online communities. Perceptions of and reactions to trolling behaviors varies significantly from one community to another, as trolling behaviors are contextual and vary across platforms and communities. Through an examination of seven trolling scenarios, this article intends to answer the following questions: how do trolling behaviors differ across contexts; how do perceptions of trolling differ from case to case; and what aspects of context of trolling are perceived to be important by the public? Based on focus groups and interview data, we discuss the ways in which community norms and demographics, technological features of platforms, and community boundaries are perceived to impact trolling behaviors. Two major contributions of the study include a codebook to support future analysis of trolling and formal concept analysis surrounding contextual perceptions of trolling.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23902/full.
Themenfeld: Semantisches Umfeld in Indexierung u. Retrieval ; Suchtaktik
19Karanam, S. ; Oostendorp, H. van ; Sanchiz, M. ; Chin, J. ; Fu, W.-T.: Cognitive modeling of age-related differences in information search behavior.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.10, S.2328-2337.
Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the ability of computational cognitive models of web-navigation like CoLiDeS and CoLiDeS+ to model i) user interactions with search engines and ii) individual differences in search behavior due to variations in cognitive factors such as aging. CoLiDeS and CoLiDeS+ were extended to predict user clicks on search engine result pages. Their performance was evaluated using actual behavioral data from an experiment in which 2 types of information search tasks (simple vs. difficult), were presented to younger and older participants. The results showed that the model predictions matched significantly better with the actual user behavior on difficult tasks compared to simple tasks and with younger participants compared to older participants, especially for difficult tasks. Also, the matches were significantly better with CoLiDeS+ compared to CoLiDeS, especially for difficult tasks. We conclude that the advanced capabilities of CoLiDeS+, such as incorporating contextual information and implementing backtracking strategies enable it to predict user behavior significantly better than CoLiDeS, especially on difficult tasks. The usefulness of these modeling outcomes for the design of support systems for older adults is discussed.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23893/full.
20Savolainen, R.: Heuristics elements of information-seeking strategies and tactics : a conceptual analysis.
In: Journal of documentation. 73(2017) no.6, S.1322-1342.
Abstract: Purpose The purpose of this paper is to elaborate the picture of strategies and tactics for information seeking and searching by focusing on the heuristic elements of such strategies and tactics. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual analysis of a sample of 31 pertinent investigations was conducted to find out how researchers have approached heuristics in the above context since the 1970s. To achieve this, the study draws on the ideas produced within the research programmes on Heuristics and Biases, and Fast and Frugal Heuristics. Findings Researchers have approached the heuristic elements in three major ways. First, these elements are defined as general level constituents of browsing strategies in particular. Second, heuristics are approached as search tips. Third, there are examples of conceptualizations of individual heuristics. Familiarity heuristic suggests that people tend to prefer sources that have worked well in similar situations in the past. Recognition heuristic draws on an all-or-none distinction of the information objects, based on cues such as information scent. Finally, representativeness heuristic is based on recalling similar instances of events or objects and judging their typicality in terms of genres, for example. Research limitations/implications As the study focuses on three heuristics only, the findings cannot be generalized to describe the use of all heuristic elements of strategies and tactics for information seeking and searching. Originality/value The study pioneers by providing an in-depth analysis of the ways in which the heuristic elements are conceptualized in the context of information seeking and searching. The findings contribute to the elaboration of the conceptual issues of information behavior research.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-11-2016-0144.