Diese Datenbank enthält ca. 39.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 19. Oktober 2016)
1Lamb, I. ; Larson, C.: Shining a light on scientific data : building a data catalog to foster data sharing and reuse.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 32(2016), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: The scientific community's growing eagerness to make research data available to the public provides libraries - with our expertise in metadata and discovery - an interesting new opportunity. This paper details the in-house creation of a "data catalog" which describes datasets ranging from population-level studies like the US Census to small, specialized datasets created by researchers at our own institution. Based on Symfony2 and Solr, the data catalog provides a powerful search interface to help researchers locate the data that can help them, and an administrative interface so librarians can add, edit, and manage metadata elements at will. This paper will outline the successes, failures, and total redos that culminated in the current manifestation of our data catalog.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/11421.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Visualisierung
2Platis, N. et al.: Visualization of uncertainty in tag clouds.
In: Semantic keyword-based search on structured data sources: First COST Action IC1302 International KEYSTONE Conference, IKC 2015, Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-9, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. Eds.: J. Cardoso et al. Basel : Springer International Publishing, 2016. S.127-132.
(Lecture notes in computer science ; 9398)
3Mercun, T. ; Zumer, M. ; Aalberg, T.: Presenting bibliographic families : Designing an FRBR-based prototype using information visualization.
In: Journal of documentation. 72(2016) no.3, S.490-526.
Abstract: Purpose - Despite the importance of bibliographic information systems for discovering and exploring library resources, some of the core functionality that should be provided to support users in their information seeking process is still missing. Investigating these issues, the purpose of this paper is to design a solution that would fulfil the missing objectives. Design/methodology/approach - Building on the concepts of a work family, functional requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR) and information visualization, the paper proposes a model and user interface design that could support a more efficient and user-friendly presentation and navigation in bibliographic information systems. Findings - The proposed design brings together all versions of a work, related works, and other works by and about the author and shows how the model was implemented into a FrbrVis prototype system using hierarchical visualization layout. Research limitations/implications - Although issues related to discovery and exploration apply to various material types, the research first focused on works of fiction and was also limited by the selected sample of records. Practical implications - The model for presenting and interacting with FRBR-based data can serve as a good starting point for future developments and implementations. Originality/value - With FRBR concepts being gradually integrated into cataloguing rules, formats, and various bibliographic services, one of the important questions that has not really been investigated and studied is how the new type of data would be presented to users in a way that would exploit the true potential of the changes.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2015-0001.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Visualisierung
4Oh, K.E. ; Halpern, D. ; Tremaine, M. ; Chiang, J. ; Silver, D. ; Bemis, K.: Blocked: when the information is hidden by the visualization.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.5, S.1033-1051.
Abstract: This study investigated how people comprehend three-dimensional (3D) visualizations and what properties of such visualizations affect comprehension. Participants were asked to draw the face of a 3D visualization after it was cut in half. We videotaped the participants as they drew, erased, verbalized their thoughts, gestured, and moved about a two-dimensional paper presentation of the 3D visualization. The videorecords were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to generate hypotheses related to comprehension difficulties and visualization properties. Our analysis of the results uncovered three properties that made problem solving more difficult for participants. These were: (a) cuts that were at an angle in relation to at least one plane of reference, (b) nonplanar properties of the features contained in the 3D visualizations including curved layers and v-shaped layers, and (c) mixed combinations of layers. In contrast, (a) cutting planes that were perpendicular or parallel to the 3D visualization diagram's planes of reference, (b) internal features that were flat/planar, and (c) homogeneous layers were easier to comprehend. This research has direct implications for the generation and use of 3D information visualizations in that it suggests design features to include and avoid.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23479/abstract.
5Huang, S.-C. ; Bias, R.G. ; Schnyer, D.: How are icons processed by the brain? : Neuroimaging measures of four types of visual stimuli used in information systems.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.4, S.702-720.
Abstract: We sought to understand how users interpret meanings of symbols commonly used in information systems, especially how icons are processed by the brain. We investigated Chinese and English speakers' processing of 4 types of visual stimuli: icons, pictures, Chinese characters, and English words. The goal was to examine, via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, the hypothesis that people cognitively process icons as logographic words and to provide neurological evidence related to human-computer interaction (HCI), which has been rare in traditional information system studies. According to the neuroimaging data of 19 participants, we conclude that icons are not cognitively processed as logographical words like Chinese characters, although they both stimulate the semantic system in the brain that is needed for language processing. Instead, more similar to images and pictures, icons are not as efficient as words in conveying meanings, and brains (people) make more effort to process icons than words. We use this study to demonstrate that it is practicable to test information system constructs such as elements of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with neuroscience data and that, with such data, we can better understand individual or group differences related to system usage and user-computer interactions.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23210/abstract.
6Albertson, D.: Visual information seeking.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.6, S.1091-1105.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: The present study reports on the information seeking processes in a visual context, referred to throughout as visual information seeking. This study synthesizes research throughout different, yet complementary, areas, each capable of contributing findings and understanding to visual information seeking. Methods previously applied for examining the visual information seeking process are reviewed, including interactive experiments, surveys, and various qualitative approaches. The methods and resulting findings are presented and structured according to generalized phases of existing information seeking models, which include the needs, actions, and assessments of users. A review of visual information needs focuses on need and thus query formulation; user actions, as reviewed, centers on search and browse behaviors and the observed trends, concluded by a survey of users' assessments of visual information as part of the interactive process. This separate examination, specific to a visual context, is significant; visual information can influence outcomes in an interactive process and presents variations in the types of needs, tasks, considerations, and decisions of users, as compared to information seeking in other contexts.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23244/abstract.
8Sahib, N.G. ; Tombros, A. ; Stockman, T.: Evaluating a search interface for visually impaired searchers.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.11, S.2235-2248.
Abstract: Understanding the information-seeking behavior of visually impaired users is essential to designing search interfaces that support them during their search tasks. In a previous article, we reported the information-seeking behavior of visually impaired users when performing complex search tasks on the web, and we examined the difficulties encountered when interacting with search interfaces via speech-based screen readers. In this article, we use our previous findings to inform the design of a search interface to support visually impaired users for complex information seeking. We particularly focus on implementing TrailNote, a tool to support visually impaired searchers in managing the search process, and we also redesign the spelling-support mechanism using nonspeech sounds to address previously observed difficulties in interacting with this feature. To enhance the user experience, we have designed interface features to be technically accessible as well as usable with speech-based screen readers. We have evaluated the proposed interface with 12 visually impaired users and studied how they interacted with the interface components. Our findings show that the search interface was effective in supporting participants for complex information seeking and that the proposed interface features were accessible and usable with speech-based screen readers.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23325/abstract.
9Seeliger, F.: ¬A tool for systematic visualization of controlled descriptors and their relation to others as a rich context for a discovery system..
Abstract: The discovery service (a search engine and service called WILBERT) used at our library at the Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau (TUAS Wildau) is comprised of more than 8 million items. If we were to record all licensed publications in this tool to a higher level of articles, including their bibliographic records and full texts, we would have a holding estimated at a hundred million documents. A lot of features, such as ranking, autocompletion, multi-faceted classification, refining opportunities reduce the number of hits. However, it is not enough to give intuitive support for a systematic overview of topics related to documents in the library. John Naisbitt once said: "We are drowning in information, but starving for knowledge." This quote is still very true today. Two years ago, we started to develop micro thesauri for MINT topics in order to develop an advanced indexing of the library stock. We use iQvoc as a vocabulary management system to create the thesaurus. It provides an easy-to-use browser interface that builds a SKOS thesaurus in the background. The purpose of this is to integrate the thesauri in WILBERT in order to offer a better subject-related search. This approach especially supports first-year students by giving them the possibility to browse through a hierarchical alignment of a subject, for instance, logistics or computer science, and thereby discover how the terms are related. It also supports the students with an insight into established abbreviations and alternative labels. Students at the TUAS Wildau were involved in the developmental process of the software regarding the interface and functionality of iQvoc. The first steps have been taken and involve the inclusion of 3000 terms in our discovery tool WILBERT.
Inhalt: Paper presented at: IFLA WLIC 2015 - Cape Town, South Africa in Session 141 - Science and Technology.
Themenfeld: Visualisierung ; OPAC
12Jäger-Dengler-Harles, I.: Informationsvisualisierung und Retrieval.
In: Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare. 68(2015) H.3/4, S.416-438.
Abstract: Ausgewählte Visualisierungsanwendungen der jüngeren Vergangenheit, die den Retrievalprozess betreffen, werden vorgestellt. Die Einsatzszenarien reichen von mobilen kleinformatigen Anwendungen bis zu großformatigen Darstellungen auf hochauflösenden Bildschirmen, von integrativen Arbeitsplätzen für den einzelnen Nutzer bis zur Nutzung interaktiver Oberflächen für das kollaborative Retrieval. Das Konzept der Blended Library wird erläutert. Perspektivische Überlegungen zu zukünftigen Entwicklungsschritten von Bibliothekskatalogen sowie zum Einfluss von Visualisierungsanwendungen auf die Informationspraxis werden angestellt.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://eprints.rclis.org/28725/. Der Artikel basiert auf meiner mit dem VFI-Förderungspreis 2014 prämierten Masterarbeit "Informationsvisualisierung und Retrieval im Fokus der Informationspraxis". Diese ist auf dem Publikationsserver des Instituts für Informationswissenschaft der Fachhochschule Köln unter "http://publiscologne.fh-koeln.de/frontdoor/index/index/id/334/docId/334" verfügbar.
13Braun, S.: Manifold: a custom analytics platform to visualize research impact.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 30(2015), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: The use of research impact metrics and analytics has become an integral component to many aspects of institutional assessment. Many platforms currently exist to provide such analytics, both proprietary and open source; however, the functionality of these systems may not always overlap to serve uniquely specific needs. In this paper, I describe a novel web-based platform, named Manifold, that I built to serve custom research impact assessment needs in the University of Minnesota Medical School. Built on a standard LAMP architecture, Manifold automatically pulls publication data for faculty from Scopus through APIs, calculates impact metrics through automated analytics, and dynamically generates report-like profiles that visualize those metrics. Work on this project has resulted in many lessons learned about challenges to sustainability and scalability in developing a system of such magnitude.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/10948.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Visualisierung
14Parsons, P. ; Sedig, K.: Adjustable properties of visual representations : improving the quality of human-information interaction.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 65(2014) no.3, S.455-482.
Abstract: Complex cognitive activities, such as analytical reasoning, problem solving, and sense making, are often performed through the mediation of interactive computational tools. Examples include visual analytics, decision support, and educational tools. Through interaction with visual representations of information at the visual interface of these tools, a joint, coordinated cognitive system is formed. This partnership results in a number of relational properties-those depending on both humans and tools-that researchers and designers must be aware of if such tools are to effectively support the performance of complex cognitive activities. This article presents 10 properties of interactive visual representations that are essential and relational and whose values can be adjusted through interaction. By adjusting the values of these properties, better coordination between humans and tools can be effected, leading to higher quality performance of complex cognitive activities. This article examines how the values of these properties affect cognitive processing and visual reasoning and demonstrates the necessity of making their values adjustable-all of which is situated within a broader theoretical framework concerned with human-information interaction in complex cognitive activities. This framework can facilitate systematic research, design, and evaluation in numerous fields including information visualization, health informatics, visual analytics, and educational technology.
15Batorowska, H. ; Kaminska-Czubala, B.: Information retrieval support : visualisation of the information space of a document.
In: Knowledge organization in the 21st century: between historical patterns and future prospects. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International ISKO Conference 19-22 May 2014, Kraków, Poland. Ed.: Wieslaw Babik. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2014. S.343-350.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol. 14)
Abstract: Acquiring knowledge in any field involves information retrieval, i.e. searching the available documents to identify answers to the queries concerning the selected objects. Knowing the keywords which are names of the objects will enable situating the user's query in the information space organized as a thesaurus or faceted classification. Objectives: Identification the areas in the information space which correspond to gaps in the user's personal knowledge or in the domain knowledge might become useful in theory or practice. The aim of this paper is to present a realistic information-space model of a self-authored full-text document on information culture, indexed by the author of this article. Methodology: Having established the relations between the terms, particular modules (sets of terms connected by relations used in facet classification) are situated on a plain, similarly to a communication map. Conclusions drawn from the "journey" on the map, which is a visualization of the knowledge contained in the analysed document, are the crucial part of this paper. Results: The direct result of the research is the created model of information space visualization of a given document (book, article, website). The proposed procedure can practically be used as a new form of representation in order to map the contents of academic books and articles, beside the traditional index form, especially as an e-book auxiliary tool. In teaching, visualization of the information space of a document can be used to help students understand the issues of: classification, categorization and representation of new knowledge emerging in human mind.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/aiko_vol_14_2014_47.pdf.
16Soylu, A. ; Giese, M. ; Jimenez-Ruiz, E. ; Kharlamov, E. ; Zheleznyakov, D. ; Horrocks, I.: Towards exploiting query history for adaptive ontology-based visual query formulation.
In: Metadata and semantics research: 8th Research Conference, MTSR 2014, Karlsruhe, Germany, November 27-29, 2014, Proceedings. Eds.: S. Closs et al. Cham : Springer, 2014. S.107-119.
(Communications in computer and information science; 478)
Abstract: Grounded on real industrial use cases, we recently proposed an ontology-based visual query system for SPARQL, named OptiqueVQS. Ontology-based visual query systems employ ontologies and visual representations to depict the domain of interest and queries, and are promising to enable end users without any technical background to access data on their own. However, even with considerably small ontologies, the number of ontology elements to choose from increases drastically, and hence hinders usability. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method using the log of past queries for ranking and suggesting query extensions as a user types a query, and identify emerging issues to be addressed.
17Stodola, J.T.: ¬The concept of information and questions of users with visual disabilities : an epistemological approach.
In: Journal of documentation. 70(2014) no.5, S.782-800.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the functionality of the particular epistemological schools with regard to the issues of users with visual impairment, to offer a theoretical answer to the question why these issues are not in the center of the interest of information science, and to try to find an epistemological approach that has ambitions to create the theoretical basis for the analysis of the relationship between information and visually impaired users. Design/methodology/approach - The methodological basis of the paper is determined by the selection of the epistemological approach. In order to think about the concept of information and to put it in relation to issues associated with users with visual impairment, a conceptual analysis is applied. Findings - Most of information science theories are based on empiricism and rationalism; this is the reason for their low interest in the questions of visually impaired users. Users with visual disabilities are out of the interest of rationalistic epistemology because it underestimates sensory perception; empiricism is not interested in them paradoxically because it overestimates sensory perception. Realism which fairly reflects such issues is an approach which allows the providing of information to persons with visual disabilities to be dealt with properly. Research limitations/implications - The paper has a speculative character. Its findings should be supported by empirical research in the future. Practical implications - Theoretical questions solved in the paper come from the practice of providing information to visually impaired users. Because practice has an influence on theory and vice versa, the author hopes that the findings included in the paper can serve to improve practice in the field. Social implications - The paper provides theoretical anchoring of the issues which are related to the inclusion of people with disabilities into society and its findings have a potential to support such efforts. Originality/value - This is first study linking questions of users with visual disabilities to highly abstract issues connected to the concept of information.
Themenfeld: Visualisierung ; Information
18Wu, I.-C. ; Vakkari, P.: Supporting navigation in Wikipedia by information visualization : extended evaluation measures.
In: Journal of documentation. 70(2014) no.3, S.392-424.
Abstract: Purpose - The authors introduce two semantics-based navigation applications that facilitate information-seeking activities in internal link-based web sites in Wikipedia. These applications aim to help users find concepts within a topic and related articles on a given topic quickly and then gain topical knowledge from internal link-based encyclopedia web sites. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The WNavis application consists of three information visualization (IV) tools which are a topic network, a hierarchy topic tree and summaries for topics. The WikiMap application consists of a topic network. The goal of the topic network and topic tree tools is to help users to find the major concepts of a topic and identify relationships between these major concepts easily. In addition, in order to locate specific information and enable users to explore and read topic-related articles quickly, the topic tree and summaries for topics tools support users to gain topical knowledge quickly. The authors then apply the k-clique of cohesive indicator to analyze the sub topics of the seed query and find out the best clustering results via the cosine measure. The authors utilize four metrics, which are correctness, time cost, usage behaviors, and satisfaction, to evaluate the three interfaces. These metrics measure both the outputs and outcomes of applications. As a baseline system for evaluation the authors used a traditional Wikipedia interface. For the evaluation, the authors used an experimental user study with 30 participants. ; Findings - The results indicate that both WikiMap and WNavis supported users to identify concepts and their relations better compared to the baseline. In topical tasks WNavis over performed both WikiMap and the baseline system. Although there were no time differences in finding concepts or answering topical questions, the test systems provided users with a greater gain per time unit. The users of WNavis leaned on the hierarchy tree instead of other tools, whereas WikiMap users used the topic map. Research limitations/implications - The findings have implications for the design of IR support tools in knowledge-intensive web sites that help users to explore topics and concepts. Originality/value - The authors explored to what extent the use of each IV support tool contributed to successful exploration of topics in search tasks. The authors propose extended task-based evaluation measures to understand how each application provides useful context for users to accomplish the tasks and attain the search goals. That is, the authors not only evaluate the output of the search results, e.g. the number of relevant items retrieved, but also the outcome provided by the system for assisting users to attain the search goal.
19Reiterer, H. ; Jetter, H.-C.: Informationsvisualisierung.
In: Grundlagen der praktischen Information und Dokumentation. Handbuch zur Einführung in die Informationswissenschaft und -praxis. 6., völlig neu gefaßte Ausgabe. Hrsg. von R. Kuhlen, W. Semar u. D. Strauch. Begründet von Klaus Laisiepen, Ernst Lutterbeck, Karl-Heinrich Meyer-Uhlenried. Berlin : DeGruyter-Saur, 2013. S.192-206.
20Brockelmann, M. ; Wolff, C.: 3D-Visualisierungen : Potenziale in Forschung und Lehre im Kontext von Informationswissenschaft und Medieninformatik.
In: Information - Wissenschaft und Praxis. 64(2013) H.4, S.209-213.
Abstract: Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit den Möglichkeiten der Informationsaufbereitung durch computergenerierte dreidimensionale Elemente. Visualisierungen durch 3DGrafiken und Animationen können im Vergleich zum Informationsgehalt andersartiger Darstellungen einen kommunikativen Mehrwert aufweisen, der den höheren Aufwand der Erzeugung rechtfertigt. Es wird die Frage aufgeworfen, in welchen Forschungsgebieten der Informationswissenschaft und Medieninformatik der Einsatz von räumlichen Repräsentationen angebracht ist und inwieweit sich die Fokussierung auf eine Informationsübermittlung durch eine virtuelle 3D-Umgebung mit den gesteigerten Anforderungen an das Kommunikationssystem in Einklang bringen lässt. Durch die menschliche Ausrichtung auf möglichst natürliche und realistische Erscheinungen bei der Informationsaufnahme ist die Verwendung der dritten Dimension im Kommunikationsprozess ausgenommen hilfreich, es bedarf zuvor allerdings einer Konzeption geeigneter Einsatzprinzipien, die der großflächigen Anwendung im Bedarfsfall gerecht werden.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/iwp.2013.64.issue-4/wp-2013-0031/wp-2013-0031.xml?format=INT.