Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 13. Juni 2017)
1Aletras, N. ; Baldwin, T. ; Lau, J.H. ; Stevenson, M.: Evaluating topic representations for exploring document collections.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2017) no.1, S.154-167.
Abstract: Topic models have been shown to be a useful way of representing the content of large document collections, for example, via visualization interfaces (topic browsers). These systems enable users to explore collections by way of latent topics. A standard way to represent a topic is using a term list; that is the top-n words with highest conditional probability within the topic. Other topic representations such as textual and image labels also have been proposed. However, there has been no comparison of these alternative representations. In this article, we compare 3 different topic representations in a document retrieval task. Participants were asked to retrieve relevant documents based on predefined queries within a fixed time limit, presenting topics in one of the following modalities: (a) lists of terms, (b) textual phrase labels, and (c) image labels. Results show that textual labels are easier for users to interpret than are term lists and image labels. Moreover, the precision of retrieved documents for textual and image labels is comparable to the precision achieved by representing topics using term lists, demonstrating that labeling methods are an effective alternative topic representation.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23574/full.
2Mercun, T. ; Zumer, M. ; Aalberg, T.: Presenting bibliographic families using information visualization : evaluation of FRBR-based prototype and hierarchical visualizations.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2017) no.2, S.392-411.
Abstract: Since their beginnings, bibliographic information systems have been displaying results in the form of long, textual lists. With the development of new data models and computer technologies, the need for new approaches to present and interact with bibliographic data has slowly been maturing. To investigate how this could be accomplished, a prototype system, FrbrVis1, was designed to present work families within a bibliographic information system using information visualization. This paper reports on two user studies, a controlled and an observational experiment, that have been carried out to assess the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)-based against an existing system as well as to test four different hierarchical visual layouts. The results clearly show that FrbrVis offers better performance and user experience compared to the baseline system. The differences between the four hierarchical visualizations (Indented tree, Radial tree, Circlepack, and Sunburst) were, on the other hand, not as pronounced, but the Indented tree and Sunburst design proved to be the most successful, both in performance as well as user perception. The paper therefore not only evaluates the application of a visual presentation of bibliographic work families, but also provides valuable results regarding the performance and user acceptance of individual hierarchical visualization techniques.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23659/full.
Anmerkung: FrbrVis prototype can, at this time, be viewed online at: http://dijon.idi.ntnu.no/exist/rest/db/frbrvis/index.html. This is not the exact version that was tested as there have been some minor changes and the prototype labels were translated from Slovenian to English language.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Visualisierung
Objekt: FRBR ; FrbrVis
3Zhu, Y. ; Yan, E. ; Song, I.-Y..: ¬The use of a graph-based system to improve bibliographic information retrieval : system design, implementation, and evaluation.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2017) no.2, S.480-490.
Abstract: In this article, we propose a graph-based interactive bibliographic information retrieval system-GIBIR. GIBIR provides an effective way to retrieve bibliographic information. The system represents bibliographic information as networks and provides a form-based query interface. Users can develop their queries interactively by referencing the system-generated graph queries. Complex queries such as "papers on information retrieval, which were cited by John's papers that had been presented in SIGIR" can be effectively answered by the system. We evaluate the proposed system by developing another relational database-based bibliographic information retrieval system with the same interface and functions. Experiment results show that the proposed system executes the same queries much faster than the relational database-based system, and on average, our system reduced the execution time by 72% (for 3-node query), 89% (for 4-node query), and 99% (for 5-node query).
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23677/full.
4Wen, B. ; Horlings, E. ; Zouwen, M. van der ; Besselaar, P. van den: Mapping science through bibliometric triangulation : an experimental approach applied to water research.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2017) no.3, S.724-738.
Abstract: The idea of constructing science maps based on bibliographic data has intrigued researchers for decades, and various techniques have been developed to map the structure of research disciplines. Most science mapping studies use a single method. However, as research fields have various properties, a valid map of a field should actually be composed of a set of maps derived from a series of investigations using different methods. That leads to the question of what can be learned from a combination-triangulation-of these different science maps. In this paper we propose a method for triangulation, using the example of water science. We combine three different mapping approaches: journal-journal citation relations (JJCR), shared author keywords (SAK), and title word-cited reference co-occurrence (TWRC). Our results demonstrate that triangulation of JJCR, SAK, and TWRC produces a more comprehensive picture than each method applied individually. The outcomes from the three different approaches can be associated with each other and systematically interpreted to provide insights into the complex multidisciplinary structure of the field of water research.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23696/full.
Themenfeld: Wissensrepräsentation ; Visualisierung
5Brantl, M. ; Ceynowa, K. ; Meiers, T. ; Wolf, T.: Visuelle Suche in historischen Werken.
In: Datenbank Spektrum. 17(2017) H.1, S.53-60.
Abstract: Die Bayerische Staatsbibliothek (BSB) zählt mit ihrem Bestand von knapp 11 Mio. Bänden zu den bedeutendsten Universalbibliotheken der Welt. Bereits 1,2 Mio. Werke sind digitalisiert, was die BSB zur größten digitalen Kulturinstitution in Deutschland macht. Dieser digitale Bestand umfasst vorwiegend urheberrechtsfreie Werke vom 8. bis ins 20. Jahrhundert, von der mittelalterlichen Bibelhandschrift bis zur Boulevardzeitung der 1920er-Jahre. Diese Vielfalt des zu digitalisierenden schriftlichen Kulturerbes und das hohe Tempo der Massendigitalisierung in den letzten Jahren haben ihren Preis - die inhaltliche Erschließung der Werke hinkt hinterher, insbesondere bei Werken, die nicht mittels Optical Character Recognition-Verfahren (OCR) automatisiert maschinenlesbar transformiert und zugänglich gemacht werden können. Dies gilt insbesondere für mittelalterliche Handschriften, Alte Druck- und Spezialbestände. Deshalb blieb auch der reichhaltige, in diesen Werken verborgene Bildbestand für den Nutzer weitestgehend verborgen und konnte lediglich durch das Durchblättern am Bildschirm entdeckt werden. Dies war Motivation für die Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, gemeinsam mit dem Fraunhofer Heinrich-Hertz-Institut in Berlin ein System zur ähnlichkeitsbasierten Bildsuche aufzubauen, welches sämtliche Bildinhalte aller 1,2 Mio. Digitalisate automatisch identifiziert. Hierbei werden mittels morphologischer Verfahren Bilder aus den Buchseiten extrahiert, die danach aufgrund von Farb- und Kantenmerkmalen klassifiziert werden. Bilder "ohne Informationswert" werden mit Hilfe von Methoden aus dem Bereich des maschinellen Lernens herausgefiltert. Damit konnten aus den digitalisierten Werken der BSB bislang mehr als 43 Mio. einzelne Bilder identifiziert werden, die mittels einer hochperformanten Suchmaschine über eine frei verfügbare Web-Applikation dem Anwender direkt zur Verfügung stehen. Dank der Vielfalt und Reichhaltigkeit der indexierten Bestände spricht dieses Angebot nicht nur Historiker und Buchwissenschaftler an, sondern Interessierte aus den unterschiedlichsten Fachrichtungen. Die Ähnlichkeitssuche stellt dabei unbekannte, ungewöhnliche und oftmals überraschende Bezüge zwischen unterschiedlichsten Werken her.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13222-017-0250-0.
Behandelte Form: Bilder
6Christoforidis, A. ; Heuwing, B. ; Mandl, T.: Visualising topics in document collections : an analysis of the interpretation process of historians.
In: Everything changes, everything stays the same? - Understanding information spaces : Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium of Information Science (ISI 2017), Berlin/Germany, 13th - 15th March 2017. Eds.: M. Gäde, V. Trkulja u. V. Petras. vwh-Verlag : Glückstadt, 2017. S.37-49.
(Schriften zur Informationswissenschaft; Bd. 70)
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.vwh-verlag.de/vwh/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/titelei_isi17.pdf.
7Yan, B. ; Luo, J.: Filtering patent maps for visualization of diversification paths of inventors and organizations.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2017) no.6, S.1551-1563.
Abstract: In the information science literature, recent studies have used patent databases and patent classification information to construct network maps of patent technology classes. In such a patent technology map, almost all pairs of technology classes are connected, whereas most of the connections between them are extremely weak. This observation suggests the possibility of filtering the patent network map by removing weak links. However, removing links may reduce the explanatory power of the network on inventor or organization diversification. The network links may explain the patent portfolio diversification paths of inventors and inventing organizations. We measure the diversification explanatory power of the patent network map, and present a method to objectively choose an optimal tradeoff between explanatory power and removing weak links. We show that this method can remove a degree of arbitrariness compared with previous filtering methods based on arbitrary thresholds, and also identify previous filtering methods that created filters outside the optimal tradeoff. The filtered map aims to aid in network visualization analyses of the technological diversification of inventors, organizations, and other innovation agents, and potential foresight analysis. Such applications to a prolific inventor (Leonard Forbes) and company (Google) are demonstrated.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23780/full.
8Platis, N. et al.: Visualization of uncertainty in tag clouds.
In: Semantic keyword-based search on structured data sources: First COST Action IC1302 International KEYSTONE Conference, IKC 2015, Coimbra, Portugal, September 8-9, 2015. Revised Selected Papers. Eds.: J. Cardoso et al. Basel : Springer International Publishing, 2016. S.127-132.
(Lecture notes in computer science ; 9398)
9Mercun, T. ; Zumer, M. ; Aalberg, T.: Presenting bibliographic families : Designing an FRBR-based prototype using information visualization.
In: Journal of documentation. 72(2016) no.3, S.490-526.
Abstract: Purpose - Despite the importance of bibliographic information systems for discovering and exploring library resources, some of the core functionality that should be provided to support users in their information seeking process is still missing. Investigating these issues, the purpose of this paper is to design a solution that would fulfil the missing objectives. Design/methodology/approach - Building on the concepts of a work family, functional requirements for bibliographic records (FRBR) and information visualization, the paper proposes a model and user interface design that could support a more efficient and user-friendly presentation and navigation in bibliographic information systems. Findings - The proposed design brings together all versions of a work, related works, and other works by and about the author and shows how the model was implemented into a FrbrVis prototype system using hierarchical visualization layout. Research limitations/implications - Although issues related to discovery and exploration apply to various material types, the research first focused on works of fiction and was also limited by the selected sample of records. Practical implications - The model for presenting and interacting with FRBR-based data can serve as a good starting point for future developments and implementations. Originality/value - With FRBR concepts being gradually integrated into cataloguing rules, formats, and various bibliographic services, one of the important questions that has not really been investigated and studied is how the new type of data would be presented to users in a way that would exploit the true potential of the changes.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JD-01-2015-0001.
Themenfeld: Formalerschließung ; Visualisierung
10Oh, K.E. ; Halpern, D. ; Tremaine, M. ; Chiang, J. ; Silver, D. ; Bemis, K.: Blocked: when the information is hidden by the visualization.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.5, S.1033-1051.
Abstract: This study investigated how people comprehend three-dimensional (3D) visualizations and what properties of such visualizations affect comprehension. Participants were asked to draw the face of a 3D visualization after it was cut in half. We videotaped the participants as they drew, erased, verbalized their thoughts, gestured, and moved about a two-dimensional paper presentation of the 3D visualization. The videorecords were analyzed using a grounded theory approach to generate hypotheses related to comprehension difficulties and visualization properties. Our analysis of the results uncovered three properties that made problem solving more difficult for participants. These were: (a) cuts that were at an angle in relation to at least one plane of reference, (b) nonplanar properties of the features contained in the 3D visualizations including curved layers and v-shaped layers, and (c) mixed combinations of layers. In contrast, (a) cutting planes that were perpendicular or parallel to the 3D visualization diagram's planes of reference, (b) internal features that were flat/planar, and (c) homogeneous layers were easier to comprehend. This research has direct implications for the generation and use of 3D information visualizations in that it suggests design features to include and avoid.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23479/abstract.
11Graphic details : a scientific study of the importance of diagrams to science.
In: Economist. 2016, Jun 18th.
Abstract: A PICTURE is said to be worth a thousand words. That metaphor might be expected to pertain a fortiori in the case of scientific papers, where a figure can brilliantly illuminate an idea that might otherwise be baffling. Papers with figures in them should thus be easier to grasp than those without. They should therefore reach larger audiences and, in turn, be more influential simply by virtue of being more widely read. But are they?
Inhalt: Bill Howe and his colleagues at the University of Washington, in Seattle, decided to find out. First, they trained a computer algorithm to distinguish between various sorts of figures-which they defined as diagrams, equations, photographs, plots (such as bar charts and scatter graphs) and tables. They exposed their algorithm to between 400 and 600 images of each of these types of figure until it could distinguish them with an accuracy greater than 90%. Then they set it loose on the more-than-650,000 papers (containing more than 10m figures) stored on PubMed Central, an online archive of biomedical-research articles. To measure each paper's influence, they calculated its article-level Eigenfactor score-a modified version of the PageRank algorithm Google uses to provide the most relevant results for internet searches. Eigenfactor scoring gives a better measure than simply noting the number of times a paper is cited elsewhere, because it weights citations by their influence. A citation in a paper that is itself highly cited is worth more than one in a paper that is not. ; As the team describe in a paper posted (http://arxiv.org/abs/1605.04951) on arXiv, they found that figures did indeed matter-but not all in the same way. An average paper in PubMed Central has about one diagram for every three pages and gets 1.67 citations. Papers with more diagrams per page and, to a lesser extent, plots per page tended to be more influential (on average, a paper accrued two more citations for every extra diagram per page, and one more for every extra plot per page). By contrast, including photographs and equations seemed to decrease the chances of a paper being cited by others. That agrees with a study from 2012, whose authors counted (by hand) the number of mathematical expressions in over 600 biology papers and found that each additional equation per page reduced the number of citations a paper received by 22%. This does not mean that researchers should rush to include more diagrams in their next paper. Dr Howe has not shown what is behind the effect, which may merely be one of correlation, rather than causation. It could, for example, be that papers with lots of diagrams tend to be those that illustrate new concepts, and thus start a whole new field of inquiry. Such papers will certainly be cited a lot. On the other hand, the presence of equations really might reduce citations. Biologists (as are most of those who write and read the papers in PubMed Central) are notoriously mathsaverse. If that is the case, looking in a physics archive would probably produce a different result. ; Dr Howe and his colleagues do, however, believe that the study of diagrams can result in new insights. A figure showing new metabolic pathways in a cell, for example, may summarise hundreds of experiments. Since illustrations can convey important scientific concepts in this way, they think that browsing through related figures from different papers may help researchers come up with new theories. As Dr Howe puts it, "the unit of scientific currency is closer to the figure than to the paper." With this thought in mind, the team have created a website (viziometrics.org (http://viziometrics.org/) ) where the millions of images sorted by their program can be searched using key words. Their next plan is to extract the information from particular types of scientific figure, to create comprehensive "super" figures: a giant network of all the known chemical processes in a cell for example, or the best-available tree of life. At just one such superfigure per paper, though, the citation records of articles containing such all-embracing diagrams may very well undermine the correlation that prompted their creation in the first place. Call it the ultimate marriage of chart and science.
Anmerkung: Vgl.: http://www.economist.com/news/science-and-technology/21700620-surprisingly-simple-test-check-research-papers-errors-come-again.
12Jaklitsch, M.: Informationsvisualisierung am Beispiel des Begriffs Informationskompetenz : eine szientometrische Untersuchung unter Verwendung von BibExcel und VOSviewer.
In: Young information scientists. 1(2016), S.31-43.
Abstract: Zielsetzung - Aufgrund der rasch wachsenden Anzahl an Publikationen zur Informationskompetenz ergibt sich eine zunehmende Notwendigkeit von Überblicksarbeiten. Dieser Betrag hat das Ziel, mittels Science Mapping einen Überblick über die wissenschaftliche Literatur zu schaffen. Forschungsmethoden - Unter Verwendung von BibExcel und VOSviewer wurden 1589 wissenschaftliche Artikel analysiert und drei verschiedene Visualisierungen erstellt. Ergebnisse - Es gibt ein relativ großes internationales Autorennetzwerk, in welchem die meisten Hauptakteure miteinander in Verbindung stehen. Die wichtigsten Schwerpunkte sind: Vermittlung von Informationskompetenz im Hochschulbereich, Prozessmodelle zum Informationssuchverhalten, Phänomenographie und Informationskompetenz im beruflichen Umfeld. Schlussfolgerungen - Viele der Schwerpunkte wurden schon vereinzelt in Review-Artikeln genannt, aber noch nie via Science Mapping zusammen visualisiert. Somit ermöglicht diese Arbeit erstmalig ein »big picture« der Produktionslandschaft. Künftige Arbeiten könnten die Literatur mit anderen Science Mapping Tools bzw. Visualisierungstechniken untersuchen.
Inhalt: Vgl.: https://yis.univie.ac.at/index.php/yis/article/view/1417/1251. Diesem Beitrag liegt folgende Abschlussarbeit zugrunde: Jaklitsch, Markus: Informationsvisualisierung am Beispiel des Begriffs Informationskompetenz: Eine szientometrische Untersuchung unter Verwendung von BibExcel und VOSviewer. Masterarbeit (MSc), Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, 2015. Volltext: http://resolver.obvsg.at/urn:nbn:at:at-ubg:1-90404.
13Wu, K.-C. ; Hsieh, T.-Y.: Affective choosing of clustering and categorization representations in e-book interfaces.
In: Aslib journal of information management. 68(2016) no.3, S.265-285.
Abstract: Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate user experiences with a touch-wall interface featuring both clustering and categorization representations of available e-books in a public library to understand human information interactions under work-focused and recreational contexts. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers collected questionnaires from 251 New Taipei City Library visitors who used the touch-wall interface to search for new titles. The authors applied structural equation modelling to examine relationships among hedonic/utilitarian needs, clustering and categorization representations, perceived ease of use (EU) and the extent to which users experienced anxiety and uncertainty (AU) while interacting with the interface. Findings - Utilitarian users who have an explicit idea of what they intend to find tend to prefer the categorization interface. A hedonic-oriented user tends to prefer clustering interfaces. Users reported EU regardless of which interface they engaged with. Results revealed that use of the clustering interface had a negative correlation with AU. Users that seek to satisfy utilitarian needs tended to emphasize the importance of perceived EU, whilst pleasure-seeking users were a little more tolerant of anxiety or uncertainty. Originality/value - The Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC) encourages library visitors to borrow digital books through the implementation of an information visualization system. This situation poses an opportunity to validate uses and gratification theory. People with hedonic/utilitarian needs displayed different risk-control attitudes and affected uncertainty using the interface. Knowledge about user interaction with such interfaces is vital when launching the development of a new OPAC.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/AJIM-12-2015-0191.
14Chen, R.H.-G. ; Chen, C.-M.: Visualizing the world's scientific publications.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.10, S.2477-2488.
Abstract: Automated methods for the analysis, modeling, and visualization of large-scale scientometric data provide measures that enable the depiction of the state of world scientific development. We aimed to integrate minimum span clustering (MSC) and minimum spanning tree methods to cluster and visualize the global pattern of scientific publications (PSP) by analyzing aggregated Science Citation Index (SCI) data from 1994 to 2011. We hypothesized that PSP clustering is mainly affected by countries' geographic location, ethnicity, and level of economic development, as indicated in previous studies. Our results showed that the 100 countries with the highest rates of publications were decomposed into 12 PSP groups and that countries within a group tended to be geographically proximal, ethnically similar, or comparable in terms of economic status. Hubs and bridging nodes in each knowledge production group were identified. The performance of each group was evaluated across 16 knowledge domains based on their specialization, volume of publications, and relative impact. Awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of each group in various knowledge domains may have useful applications for examining scientific policies, adjusting the allocation of resources, and promoting international collaboration for future developments.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23591/full.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Visualisierung
15Lamb, I. ; Larson, C.: Shining a light on scientific data : building a data catalog to foster data sharing and reuse.
In: Code4Lib journal. Issue 32(2016), [http://journal.code4lib.org].
Abstract: The scientific community's growing eagerness to make research data available to the public provides libraries - with our expertise in metadata and discovery - an interesting new opportunity. This paper details the in-house creation of a "data catalog" which describes datasets ranging from population-level studies like the US Census to small, specialized datasets created by researchers at our own institution. Based on Symfony2 and Solr, the data catalog provides a powerful search interface to help researchers locate the data that can help them, and an administrative interface so librarians can add, edit, and manage metadata elements at will. This paper will outline the successes, failures, and total redos that culminated in the current manifestation of our data catalog.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://journal.code4lib.org/articles/11421.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Visualisierung
16Kraker, P. ; Kittel, C, ; Enkhbayar, A.: Open Knowledge Maps : creating a visual interface to the world's scientific knowledge based on natural language processing.
In: 027.7 Zeitschrift für Bibliothekskultur. 4(2016), H.2.
Abstract: The goal of Open Knowledge Maps is to create a visual interface to the world's scientific knowledge. The base for this visual interface consists of so-called knowledge maps, which enable the exploration of existing knowledge and the discovery of new knowledge. Our open source knowledge mapping software applies a mixture of summarization techniques and similarity measures on article metadata, which are iteratively chained together. After processing, the representation is saved in a database for use in a web visualization. In the future, we want to create a space for collective knowledge mapping that brings together individuals and communities involved in exploration and discovery. We want to enable people to guide each other in their discovery by collaboratively annotating and modifying the automatically created maps.
Inhalt: Beitrag in einem Themenschwerpunkt 'Computerlinguistik und Bibliotheken'. Vgl.: http://0277.ch/ojs/index.php/cdrs_0277/article/view/157/355.
Themenfeld: Data Mining ; Visualisierung
17Bornmann, L. ; Haunschild, R.: Overlay maps based on Mendeley data : the use of altmetrics for readership networks.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.12, S.3064-3072.
Abstract: Visualization of scientific results using networks has become popular in scientometric research. We provide base maps for Mendeley reader count data using the publication year 2012 from the Web of Science data. Example networks are shown and explained. The reader can use our base maps to visualize other results with the VOSViewer. The proposed overlay maps are able to show the impact of publications in terms of readership data. The advantage of using our base maps is that it is not necessary for the user to produce a network based on all data (e.g., from 1 year), but can collect the Mendeley data for a single institution (or journals, topics) and can match them with our already produced information. Generation of such large-scale networks is still a demanding task despite the available computer power and digital data availability. Therefore, it is very useful to have base maps and create the network with the overlay technique.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23530/full.
Objekt: Mendeley ; Altmetrics
18Huang, S.-C. ; Bias, R.G. ; Schnyer, D.: How are icons processed by the brain? : Neuroimaging measures of four types of visual stimuli used in information systems.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.4, S.702-720.
Abstract: We sought to understand how users interpret meanings of symbols commonly used in information systems, especially how icons are processed by the brain. We investigated Chinese and English speakers' processing of 4 types of visual stimuli: icons, pictures, Chinese characters, and English words. The goal was to examine, via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, the hypothesis that people cognitively process icons as logographic words and to provide neurological evidence related to human-computer interaction (HCI), which has been rare in traditional information system studies. According to the neuroimaging data of 19 participants, we conclude that icons are not cognitively processed as logographical words like Chinese characters, although they both stimulate the semantic system in the brain that is needed for language processing. Instead, more similar to images and pictures, icons are not as efficient as words in conveying meanings, and brains (people) make more effort to process icons than words. We use this study to demonstrate that it is practicable to test information system constructs such as elements of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) with neuroscience data and that, with such data, we can better understand individual or group differences related to system usage and user-computer interactions.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23210/abstract.
19Albertson, D.: Visual information seeking.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 66(2015) no.6, S.1091-1105.
(Advances in information science)
Abstract: The present study reports on the information seeking processes in a visual context, referred to throughout as visual information seeking. This study synthesizes research throughout different, yet complementary, areas, each capable of contributing findings and understanding to visual information seeking. Methods previously applied for examining the visual information seeking process are reviewed, including interactive experiments, surveys, and various qualitative approaches. The methods and resulting findings are presented and structured according to generalized phases of existing information seeking models, which include the needs, actions, and assessments of users. A review of visual information needs focuses on need and thus query formulation; user actions, as reviewed, centers on search and browse behaviors and the observed trends, concluded by a survey of users' assessments of visual information as part of the interactive process. This separate examination, specific to a visual context, is significant; visual information can influence outcomes in an interactive process and presents variations in the types of needs, tasks, considerations, and decisions of users, as compared to information seeking in other contexts.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23244/abstract.