Diese Datenbank enthält über 40.000 Dokumente zu Themen aus den Bereichen Formalerschließung – Inhaltserschließung – Information Retrieval.
© 2015 W. Gödert, TH Köln, Institut für Informationswissenschaft / Powered by litecat, BIS Oldenburg (Stand: 15. Juni 2019)
1Vogl, A.: Wer hat das bessere Bild? : der Wettbewerb um mediale Aufmerksamkeit in der Astronomie.
In: Information - Wissenschaft und Praxis. 69(2018) H.2/3, S.95-114.
Abstract: Big Data in der Astronomie ist die Folge systematischen Sammelns von Informationen, die durch neue Möglichkeiten digitaler Bilderfassung gewonnen werden. Durch aufwendige Bildverarbeitungsprozesse entstehen so imposante astronomische Bilder mit hoher Informationsdichte. Mit der Zeit haben diese Bilder das Feld der Wissenschaftscommunity in zunehmendem Maße verlassen und Einzug in populäre Massenmedien gehalten. Neben ihrer ursprünglich rein epistemischen Funktion wird offenbar, welch hohen Authentizitätsanspruch und Faszinationsgehalt diese bisweilen aufsehenerregenden Bilder bei einem breiten Laienpublikum auslösen können. Zeigen sich in Originalaufnahmen noch komplexe visuelle Informationen wissenschaftlicher Relevanz, so werden diese nicht selten mit dem Argument der "besseren Verständlichkeit" in den PR-Abteilungen der Forschungszentren stark vereinfacht und modifiziert, um den kulturellen Sehgewohnheiten einer wissenschaftsaffinen Öffentlichkeit zu entsprechen. In Zeiten knapper Forschungsbudgets werden wiederholt diese digital aufgeputzten Bilder einem staunenden Laien-Publikum präsentiert, um so die eigene Forschungsarbeit besser legitimieren zu können. Bei der Analyse dieser Bildmedien wird ein überstrapazierter Einsatz von Falschfarbendarstellungen, Kontrastverstärkungen und fragwürdigen Kontextualisierungen offenkundig, der das ungeschulte Auge in die Irre führt. Um medienethischen Anforderungen gerecht zu werden, ist es daher angebracht, in Publikationen diese verborgenen Bildentstehungsprozesse deutlicher als bisher zu kommunizieren und von rein illustrativen und unwissenschaftlichen Darstellungsformen mit fotorealistischem Anmutungscharakter Abstand zu nehmen.
Inhalt: Vgl.: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/iwp-2018-0027.
2Kurtz, M.J. ; Henneken, E.A.: Measuring metrics : a 40-year longitudinal cross-validation of citations, downloads, and peer review in astrophysics.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 68(2017) no.3, S.695-708.
Abstract: Citation measures, and newer altmetric measures such as downloads are now commonly used to inform personnel decisions. How well do or can these measures measure or predict the past, current, or future scholarly performance of an individual? Using data from the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System we analyze the publication, citation, download, and distinction histories of a cohort of 922 individuals who received a U.S. PhD in astronomy in the period 1972-1976. By examining the same and different measures at the same and different times for the same individuals we are able to show the capabilities and limitations of each measure. Because the distributions are lognormal, measurement uncertainties are multiplicative; we show that in order to state with 95% confidence that one person's citations and downloads are significantly higher than another person's, the log difference in the ratio of counts must be at least 0.3dex, which corresponds to a multiplicative factor of 2.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23689/full.
3Daudaravicius, V.: ¬A framework for keyphrase extraction from scientific journals.
Abstract: We present a framework for keyphrase extraction from scientific journals in diverse research fields. While journal articles are often provided with manually assigned keywords, it is not clear how to automatically extract keywords and measure their significance for a set of journal articles. We compare extracted keyphrases from journals in the fields of astrophysics, mathematics, physics, and computer science. We show that the presented statistics-based framework is able to demonstrate differences among journals, and that the extracted keyphrases can be used to represent journal or conference research topics, dynamics, and specificity.
Inhalt: Vortrag, "Semantics, Analytics, Visualisation: Enhancing Scholarly Data Workshop co-located with the 25th International World Wide Web Conference April 11, 2016 - Montreal, Canada", Montreal 2016.
Themenfeld: Automatisches Indexieren
Wissenschaftsfach: Astronomie ; Mathematik ; Physik ; Informatik
4Chang, H.-W. ; Huang, M.-H.: ¬The effects of research resources on international collaboration in the astronomy community.
In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology. 67(2016) no.10, S.2489-2510.
Abstract: This study examines whether an institution's research resources affect its centrality and relationships in international collaboration among 606 astronomical institutions worldwide. The findings support our theoretical hypotheses that an institution's research resources are positively related to its central position in the network. Astronomical institutions with superior resources, such as being equipped with international observational facilities and having substantial research manpower, tend to have more foreign partners (high degree centrality) and play an influential role (high betweenness centrality) in the international collaboration network. An institution becomes more and more active in international collaborations as its research population expands. In terms of the relationship, which is captured by an actor institution's co-authorship preference for each partner in the network, the effect of research resources is not as significant as expected. We found that astronomical institutions are not necessarily preferentially co-authoring with partners that have better research resources. In addition, this study indicates that geographic closeness (or "geographic proximity") largely affects the occurrence of international collaboration. The investigated institutions apparently prefer partners from neighboring countries. This finding gives an indication of the phenomenon of "regional homophily" in the international collaboration network.
Inhalt: Vgl.: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/asi.23592/full.
5Alonso Lifante, M.P. ; Molero Madrid, F.J.: Enhancing OPAC records : evaluating and fitting within cataloguing standards a new proposal of description parameters for historical astronomical resources.
In: Library resources and technical services. 59(2015) no.4, S.140-161.
Abstract: Enhancing content description of specialized resources, particularly astronomical resources, is a matter that is still unresolved in library and information science. In this paper, the authors outline deficiencies in some fields and elements of cataloging standards for description of historical astronomical resources, mainly star atlases and catalogs. Furthermore, they review their recent proposal of astronomical parameters for a better description and propose an approach for accommodating these parameters in the current criteria of MARC 21, the International Standard Bibliographic Description, and Resource Description and Access. Fourteen new parameters are considered, and recommendations are provided to standards developers for the addition of elements to accommodate attributes of celestial cartographic resources. This would improve bibliographic records for such resources in astronomical libraries' OPACs, which will have a beneficial effect on information retrieval.
Inhalt: Vgl.: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/lrts.59n4.140.
6Jamali, H.R. ; Nicholas, D.: Interdisciplinarity and the information-seeking behavior of scientists.
In: Information processing and management. 46(2010) no.2, S.233-243.
Abstract: Adopting an intradisciplinary perspective, this article evaluates the information-seeking behavior of academics from different subfields of physics and astronomy. It investigates the effect of interdisciplinarity (reliance on the literature of other subjects) and the scatter of literature on two aspects of the information-seeking behavior: methods used for keeping up-to-date and for identifying articles. To this end a survey of 114 PhD students and staff at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University College London was carried out. The findings showed that the subfields that are more interdisciplinary or have a more scattered literature are more likely to use general search facilities for finding information. The study also showed that cross-disciplinary use of the literature is not necessarily an indicator of scattered literature. The study reveals intradisciplinary differences among physicists and astronomers in terms of their information-seeking behavior and highlights the risk of overlooking the characteristics of information-seeking behavior of specialized subject communities by focusing on very broad subject categories.
Wissenschaftsfach: Physik ; Astronomie
7Gray, A.J.G. ; Gray, N. ; Hall, C.W. ; Ounis, I.: Finding the right term : retrieving and exploring semantic concepts in astronomical vocabularies.
In: Information processing and management. 46(2010) no.4, S.470-478.
Abstract: Astronomy, like many domains, already has several sets of terminology in general use, referred to as controlled vocabularies. For example, the keywords for tagging journal articles, or the taxonomy of terms used to label image files. These existing vocabularies can be encoded into skos, a W3C proposed recommendation for representing vocabularies on the Semantic Web, so that computer systems can help users to search for and discover resources tagged with vocabulary concepts. However, this requires a search mechanism to go from a user-supplied string to a vocabulary concept. In this paper, we present our experiences in implementing the Vocabulary Explorer, a vocabulary search service based on the Terrier Information Retrieval Platform. We investigate the capabilities of existing document weighting models for identifying the correct vocabulary concept for a query. Due to the highly structured nature of a skos encoded vocabulary, we investigate the effects of term weighting (boosting the score of concepts that match on particular fields of a vocabulary concept), and query expansion. We found that the existing document weighting models provided very high quality results, but these could be improved further with the use of term weighting that makes use of the semantic evidence.
8Chen, C. ; Ibekwe-SanJuan, F. ; Pinho, R. ; Zhang, J.: ¬The impact of the sloan digital sky survey on astronomical research : the role of culture, identity, and international collaboration.
In: Culture and identity in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Tenth International ISKO Conference 5-8 August 2008, Montreal, Canada. Ed. by Clément Arsenault and Joseph T. Tennis. Würzburg : Ergon Verlag, 2008. S.307-312.
(Advances in knowledge organization; vol.11)
Inhalt: We investigate the influence of culture and identity (geographic location) on the constitution of a specific research field. Using as case study the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) project in the Astronomy field, we analyzed texts from bibliographic records of publications along three cultural and geographic axes: US only publications, non-US publications and international collaboration. Using three text mining systems (CiteSpace, TermWatch and PEx), we were able to automatically identify the topics specific to each cultural and geographic region as well as isolate the core research topics common to all geographic zones. The results tended to show that US-only and non-US research in this field shared more commonalities with international collaboration than with one another, thus indicating that the former two (US-only and non-US) research focused on rather distinct topics.
Anmerkung: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/tocs/0497f79b0c0b3ed06/0497f79b0c0b5550a/index.php.
9Jamali, H.R. ; Nicholas, D.: Information-seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers.
In: Aslib proceedings. 60(2008) no.5, S.444-462.
Abstract: Purpose - The study aims to examines two aspects of information seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers including methods applied for keeping up-to-date and methods used for finding articles. The relationship between academic status and research field of users with their information seeking behaviour was investigated. Design/methodology/approach - Data were gathered using a questionnaire survey of PhD students and staff of the Department of Physics and Astronomy at University College London; 114 people (47.1 per cent response rate) participated in the survey. Findings - The study reveals differences among subfields of physics and astronomy in terms of information-seeking behaviour, highlights the need for and the value of looking at narrower subject communities within disciplines for a deeper understanding of the information behaviour of scientists. Originality/value - The study is the first to deeply investigate intradisciplinary dissimilarities of information-seeking behaviour of scientists in a discipline. It is also an up-to-date account of information seeking behaviour of physicists and astronomers.
Themenfeld: Informationsdienstleistungen ; Benutzerstudien
Wissenschaftsfach: Astronomie ; Physik
10Ibekwe-SanJuan, F.: ¬The impact of geographic location on the development of a specialty field : a case study of Sloan Digital Sky Survey in astronomy.
In: Knowledge organization. 35(2008) no.4, S.239-250.
Abstract: We analyze the scientific discourse of researchers in a specialty field in Astronomy by examining the influence that geographic location may have on the development of this field. Using as a case study the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) project, we analyzed texts from bibliographic records along three geographic axes: US-only publications, non-US publications and international collaboration. Each geographic region reflected authors affiliated to research institutions in that region. International collaboration refers to papers published by both US-based and non-US based institutions. Through clustering of domain terms used in titles and abstracts fields of the bibliographic records, we were able to automatically identify the topology of topics peculiar to each geographic region and identify the research topics common to the three geographic zones. The results showed that US-only and non-US research in SDSS shared more commonalities with international collaboration than with one another, thus indicating that the former two focused on rather distinct topics.
Inhalt: Vgl. unter: http://www.ergon-verlag.de/isko_ko/downloads/ko3520084f.pdf.
11Kurtz, M.J. ; Eichhorn, G. ; Accomazzi, A. ; Grant, C. ; Demleitner, M. ; Murray, S.S.: Worldwide use and impact of the NASA Astrophysics Data System Digital Library.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.1, S.36-45.
Abstract: The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS), along with astronomy's journals and data centers (a collaboration dubbed URANIA), has developed a distributed online digital library which has become the dominant means by which astronomers search, access, and read their technical literature. Digital libraries permit the easy accumulation of a new type of bibliometric measure: the number of electronic accesses ("reads") of individual articles. By combining data from the text, citation, and reference databases with data from the ADS readership logs we have been able to create second-order bibliometric operators, a customizable class of collaborative filters that permits substantially improved accuracy in literature queries. Using the ADS usage logs along with membership statistics from the International Astronomical Union and data an the population and gross domestic product (GDP), we have developed an accurate model for worldwide basic research where the number of scientists in a country is proportional to the GDP of that country, and the amount of basic research done by a country is proportional to the number of scientists in that country times that country's per capita GDP. We introduce the concept of utility time to measure the impact of the ADS/ URANIA and the electronic astronomical library an astronomical research. We find that in 2002 it amounted to the equivalent of 736 full-time researchers, or $250 million, or the astronomical research done in France.
12Tenopir, C. ; King, D.W. ; Boyce, P. ; Grayson, M. ; Paulson, K.-L.: Relying an electronic journals : reading patterns of astronomers.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 56(2005) no.8, S.786-802.
Abstract: Surveys of the members of the American Astronomical Society identify how astronomers use journals and what features and formats they prefer. While every work field is distinct, the patterns of use by astronomers may provide a glimpse of what to expect of journal patterns and use by other scientists. Astronomers, like other scientists, continue to invest a large amount of their time in reading articles and place a high level of importance an journal articles. They use a wide variety of formats and means to get access to materials that are essential to their work in teaching, service, and research. They select access means that are convenient-whether those means be print, electronic, or both. The availability of a mature electronic journals system from their primary professional society has surely influenced their early adoption of e-journals.
Themenfeld: Elektronisches Publizieren
13Meadows, A.J.: ¬The citation characteristics of astronomical research literature.
In: Journal of documentation. 60(2004) no.6, S.597-600.
Abstract: The citation characteristics of papers in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (especially for the years 1963-1965) have been examined as a means of studying the usage of astronomical literature in the UK. The decrease of usage with age has been investigated and the decay half-life determined. Particular attention has been paid to the immediacy effect, and to its possible variation in different sub-fields of astronomy. The citations have also been separated according to journal of origin. As a result of this study, a quantitative estimate has been made of the titles and backruns that are required to satisfy a given percentage of the demand for astronomical research literature in this country.
Anmerkung: Vgl. auch unter: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/10.1108/00220410410568106.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Citation indexing
14Brown, C.: ¬The evolution of preprints in the scholarly communication of physicists and astronomers.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science and technology. 52(2001) no.3, S.187-200.
Abstract: In one of two bibliometric papers in this issue Brown looks at formal publication and citation of Eprints as shown by the policies and practices of 37 top tier physics journals, and by citation trends in ISI's SciSearch database and Journal Citation Reports. Citation analysis was carried out if Eprint cites were indicated by editor response, instruction to authors sections, reports in the literature, or actual examination of citation lists. Total contribution to 12 archives and their citation counts in the journals were compiled. Of the 13 editors surveyed that responded, 8 published papers that had appeared in the archive. Two of these required removal from the archive at publication; two of the 13 did not publish papers that have appeared as Eprints. A review journal that solicits its contributions allowed citation of Eprints. Seven allowed citations to Eprints, but were less than enthusiastic.Nearly 36,000 citations were made to the 12 archives. Citations to the 37 journals and their impact factors remain constant over the period of 1991 to 1998. Eprint citations appear to peak about 3 years after appearance as do citations to published papers. Contribution to the archives, and their use as measured by citation, is clearly growing. Citation form and publishing policy varies from journal to journal.
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Citation indexing
Wissenschaftsfach: Physik ; Astronomie
15Brown, C.M.: Information seeking behavior of scientists in the electronic information age : astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists.
In: Journal of the American Society for Information Science. 50(1999) no.10, S.929-943.
Wissenschaftsfach: Astronomie ; Chemie ; Mathematik ; Physik
16Youngen, G.K.: Citation patterns to traditional and electronic preprints in the published literature.
In: College and research libraries. 59(1998) no.5, S.448-456.
Abstract: The number of physics and astronomy preprints (manuscripts intended for publication but circulated for peer comment prior to submission) available electronically has increased dramatically over the past 5 years and Internet accessible preprint Web servers at the Stanford Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratoty (LANL) provide unrestricted access to citations and full text of many of these papers long before they appear in print. Includes data for periodicals ranked by number of citations to preprints and electronic preprints (e-prints). Identifies the growing importance of e-prints in the published literature and addresses areas of concern regarding their future role in scientific communication, including: inclusion of e-prints in abstracting and indexing services; connecting electronic periodicals with e-prints; guidelines for withdrawal and revision of e-prints; and maintaining the integritiy of the e-print servers
Themenfeld: Informetrie ; Elektronisches Publizieren ; Internet
Wissenschaftsfach: Physik ; Astronomie
17Malan, C.: ¬The 500 Dewey-class.
In: Cape librarian. 36(1992) no.6, S.12-13.
Abstract: Examines specific questions arising from the different class numbers in this category. These include: mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, earth sciences, paleontology, life sciences, botanical sciences, zoological sciences, and mammals
Wissenschaftsfach: Mathematik ; Astronomie ; Physik ; Chemie ; Geowissenschaften ; Biologie
18Crovisier, R. ; Intner, S.S.: Classification for astronomy : the QB schedule of the Library of Congress Classification.
In: Cataloging and classification quarterly. 7(1987) no.3, S.23-36.
Abstract: The overall format of the QB schedule still bears the imprint of its origin in late Victorian times and can be puzzling to those acquainted with recent ideas in the field. This article explores some of the factors behind the present appearance of the schedule, current areas of research in astronomy and how they relate to its history, and particular deficiencies in the QBs for dealing with recent research. Before the 1950s, astronomy was a very limited science, concerned mainly with optical observations of the heavens and the analysis of celestial motions and stellar interiors. More than one-fourth of all fundamental astronomical phenomena have been observed for the first time within the past 30 years. The invention of non-optical means of observation and the exploration of space greatly increased the resolving power of known objects within the solar system and gave rise to new topics. Recent research in astronomy greatly increased the scope of topics within the science, while, paradoxically, making astronomy itself a less clearly defined subject. Astronomy's debt to other sciences is seen most clearly in Library of Congress Classification's tendency to scatter astronomical topics throughout the rest of the Q schedule. Suggestions are offered for changes which could make QB a more relevant method of classifying current astronomy materials.